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.ti>u, a(.^ 

■«.*. ■j«a..(vt(. 


SarbarU ColUfff ILiijrarD. 


Ddccndinu of Hearf Bright, jr., who died it Water. 
towD, MuB.,m l6H6, are eoutlcd Co hold tchoJnnhiM In 
Harvard College, eaUbliahed in iS8o under the wSl of 

ol Waltham, Mau., with one half the Income ol thia 
Lenn. Such deacendanta failinif, other pcraona an ' 
elieiUe to the icholanhlps. The -will reqoirea tblt 
thii announcement shall be made in e>er7 book addnl 

Received ^fe'Ttt- |V**t , 







pBnmD Ain> publuhxd yok'thb bocibtt at 


K.I>00C.LXT£./^3 "i'ij. 


;J/ ^ 





I. Ptdigtec of Momey • • . . 1 

n. AfchUedwral Kote$ on Layer Mamey HaU^ Esiex ; and on the 

Parish Church Adjoining, By GrJlBJ^ba Fobsteb Hay- 

m. A LeUer, containing Further Particulan in/urt?ier illustration of 
the Early History of WaUham Abbey, By SiB Henby 
JfiLTiTfly £l.B[« • . . • . • 33 

ly. TT^e Influence of the Cowtdy of Essex on the SettlsTnent and Family 

History of New England, By Ck)LOifEL Joseph Lemuel 

vyHJSo'X'JStt •• •• •• •• •• oi 

y. The Church of 8t. Nicholas, Little Coggeshall, By the Eey. 

W. J. Dampieb . . . . 48 

VI. Ancient WiUs (No. 2). By H. W. KiNO . . . . 63 

yn. The Shaksperes of Essex. By Auqtjstus Ohablbs Veley . . 64 

Pedigree qf the Shdksperes of Strafford on Avon, 

Pedigree qf the Shaksperes of Essex, 

YUL Ancient WiUs (No. 3). By H. W. Knro .,16 

IX. The Strangman Pedigree. By H. W. Ejkq . . . . 96 

X. Boman Sepulchral Eemains at East Ham, read at the Meeting at 

Leytonstone, held February l^h, 1864. By the ItBV. 
E. F. Boyle .. .. ..104 

XI. Comparative Notes on the Boman Sarcophagus and Leaden Coffins 

discovered at East Ham, By H. W. Knro . . 110 

The Strangman Pedigree— Addendum ., . . . . 116 

Xn. A Translation of the First Book of PaJladius on Husbondrie, 
Edited from a MS, of the I6th Century, By Babton 
Lodge, A.M. .. .. 117 

Corrigenda to ditto . . . . . . . . 162 

Glossary to ditto . . . . . . 163 

Xm. Ancient WiUs (No. 4). By H, W. Kiwo . . . . 167 

Xiy. The Tyrea Badge, By H. W. Knro .. .. ., 198 

Xy. Notes on a Monumental Brass Effigy in Qreat Pamdon Church. 

By Geoboe H. Booebs Habbibon, E.S.A. . . • . 204 



I. JnroiU$ipim0 Tayer Maxney Hall . • 

n. QeaetaX Flan — Showing Firat-floor of Buildings 

III. Dormitory . . 

lY. SectionB of ditto 

v. Tenra-cotta Detaila 

YI. Ghimneys, &G. 

Vn. Sections of Tower 

Yin. Pavement from Chapel at Little Goggeshall, Essex 

IX. Boman Sarcophagus and Leaden Cofiins disooYored at East Ham 

X. lithograph — taken from the Original MS. 

XI. Badges of the Tyrrels • • 


. 1 

. 20 

. 22 

. 22 

. 27 

. 28 

. 24 

. 51 

. 104 

. 117 

. 201 



1. Course of Bed Brick or Tile. • • . 

2. Wall Plate 
8. Monumental Brass Effigy, from the Church of Ghreat Pamdon, 

• • 


.. 49 
.. 61 
.. 204 


A^ Becket, Thomas (Archbishop) • • • . • • . • 

A.D6U ■•■« •■•« ■«•• •••• 

^vciftms •••• •••• •••• •«•• 

Albans* (St), admisBion to Fraternity of Abbey 

^\ilmi •••• •••• •••• ■••■ 

^iJLOVo •«•• ■••• •••• •••* 

Jn I ^icsusBy e •■■« •«•• •••• •••• 

A itnome ••*• •••• •••• •••• 

Ai llHB •••• •••■ •••• •••• 

Amphons, urns enclosed iAt»,. .... •••• 

Anchorites, bequests for .... .... .... 

^Ul^lcF .... •••• •••• •••• 

AnjoOy Margaret of (badge) •••• .... 

Apostle Spoons •••• •••• •••• 

Apparel, Inventory of ..•• •••• •••• 

 Bequests of .... •.,. .... 

Appleton, Family • . . . .... .... 

Archdeaconry of Essex, W^Ols in .... •,,« 

/ixcner .... ...• * ^ • » •*.• 

Arden (Shakspere Pedigree) .... .... 

Armour, Bequests of •••• ..«• ...» 

yJOnM .... •••* •••• .... 

Arms, Bequest of •..• .... .... 

Banner of •••• ••.• ••*. 

-^— - in Church Windows and Chantries .... 

i&moiu •*•• •••. «••• •••• 

Anagon, Catlierine of (badge) .... .... 

Protest against Marriage of 

Arsick, Sir B. 

Arthur, J., Will of 

Arundel Church, Terra Cotta monument 

of Lanheme, fEunily 

Assington, Sogers of 

Assumption of B. V. Mary 

Asteley fietmily 

Aihelstan, Son of Tovi 

Atkinson .... •••• •••• •• •• 

AXX6 JljLOO •«•• •••• •••• •••• 

Audley, Xiord •••• •.•• ••■• 

Augustine Canons, Blackmore Priory • • • • • • • . 

•»•• •••• .... 

•••• •••• •■•• 

. • • • 

•••• •••• 

• •■• .... 

•••• ■■•• 

•••• •••• a... 

•••• •••• .... 


• •  • 


• • . • 


• t • • 


. . - . 


. . • . 


• . •• 


« • • • 


• . • • 






• • • . 


• . • . 


• . • a 


.  • • 

179, 185 

• • . • 


• • • • 


 • • • 38j 

, 191, 196 

* . • • 


• • • • 


• • • • 


• • • • 

177, 182 

• • • * 


• . • . 


• • • • 

182, 201 

. • • . 


• • . . 


• •  • 


• . . . 

12, 18 



a  • • 


. • • • 


... a 


• • • • 


• . * a 


. . . . 

184, 186 

• • t • 


• • • • 


• • t • 


• • • • 


• a . • 



Austin Friars Chnrch, London ; Tyrrell family 
Ayeley Church, Old Chair in 
Averell family .... 
Bartholomew, Will of 

Badburham .... 

Badoocke .... .... 

Baddow (Much) Will of Arthur of 
Badge of Mamey .... 

' Tyrrell .... 

 Catherine of Arragon 

^— ^ Bourchier 
Margaret of Anjou 


« . •• 

•  . . 
• . • • 
• . • • 
« • • • 
• . • • 



Baker .... 

Baldwin .... 

Banner of Arms 
Bardolph, K, arms of 
Bardyille .... 

Barham . • . . 

Barker • . • • 

Barking, Abbey 

 Koman materials at 

Barkley, Sir E. .... 

Barnard, Sir J. (Shakspere Pedigree) 
Bamardiston family .... 

Joarnes .... .... 

Baroun (Strangman Pedigree) 
Bcu^olomseus Anglicus, '* De proprietabus 
Bartholomew, St., Black Friars 
Bathon .... . . . • 

Battaille (Strangman Pedigree) 
Battle Abbey.... .... 

Battle Cry « • • • .... 

Baynard . • • • .... 

Bead Roll • . . • .... 

Beads, Bidding of 

Bequest of 


Beaufort, Cardinal (masses ordered) 

Beaupre .... .... 

Becket, Archbishop, Act of Henry II. in honour of 




Bemfleet (North) chasuble .... 

— — - — Bequest to . • . • 

-  Manor .... 

Bendall .... .... 

Bennet .... .... 

Berdfield .... .... 

• . 

• • . . 

• . . • 


. • . • 













201, 202 







169, 174 


97, 102, 116 





10, 83 










97, 103 






88, 89 








Bethnal Green, Roman Coffin 


Bergholt (We«t), Manor of Cook's 



Bidding Beads .... 


Prayer .... 


Biggs .... . . * . 


Bigland .... .... 


Bindon, Vise * .... 


Bishopsgate, Anchorite of .... 


Blackheath, Battte of 


Blackmore, WiU of Smyth of 

... .' . . . # . . 



Blake .... 

t % uv 


Blencoe .... .... 


Bloomfield .... .... 


Blount .... .... 

169, 174 

Blyattaet .... .... 


Bubbingworth, Bit)oke of, Will 


Bode .... 


Bomyng Mille .... 


Bonham, Wife of 


Boreham .... 


Bottle for casting perfumeff . . . 


Borgatt ... 


Bourbon, Sir Jacques of .... 


Bourchier, badge . . . 


Botelcr .... .... 


Bourne .... .... 


Bswen (Knot) . . .... 


Bower Hall, West Mersey .... 


Bowes (Strangman Pedigree; 


Boyle, Rev £. F., Roman Sepulchral Remains at East Ham 


Bradbury .... .... 

.... .... •. 


Bradwell .... . . , , 

.... .... .. 

99, 100 

Brandon, Duke of Suflfolk .... 

.... .... .. 


Brass eflBgj- of Archbishop Uarsnet .... .... 


Brasses ... .... 

..'. .... .. 


Broxted (Great) Chnrch, Vestment 

bequeathed to .... 


Braybrooke (Lord), Badges of 


Breton .... .... 


Brewster .... 



Brick (moulded) use of in Essex 

.. 16,25,26 

Brickhill . , . , .... 


Bridges, Bequest for repairing 

58, 88 

Brikendure, De .... 


Briscoe .... ... 


Brooke ... .... 


of Bobbingworth, WiU of 


Brooks, Chribtopher .... 


Browne .... .... 






Bruyn, Sir W. . . • . • • . • 

Backuigham, Duke of, azrested • • • . 

Buckingham, Borough of ... • .... 

Bulkeley ...• •••• •..« 

Bnmpstead HelioDB .... • • • • 

Burgate .... .... .... 

Bnrghenh fiunily .... .... 

Bnxstead (little), Beqnest to Church .... 

Burton • . . . .... . • . . 

Bush (Shakspere Pedigree) .... 

Buttsbury, Tyrell of .... .... 

Church ••.. ...^. 

Button. .... .... .... 

JDjtjfCU ••.• •••• .••. 


OBmbridge, St. John's CoUege,^ founded .... 

-^— ^— King's College Chapel .... 

Canewdon •••• •••• •*.. 

Canfield, Stone Hall .... .... 

Canterbury, ChrLstchurch .... .... 

Canute, Tovi, Standard bearer of .... 

Canyillo, Thomas de .... .... 

\joTcy •«.. ••*. •••• 

Carxington .... ..•■• .... 

Casting Bottle • • • • • • . . 

Carxowe, Anchorite of ...» • • . . 

Gatenham •••• ••.. .... 

Catherine of Arragon (badge) .... 

* Fkotest against Marriage of .... 

Caumpes, Eccl. de ••.. .... 

Century, 16th, CharacteriiBtics of .... 

 Price of Commodities .... 

Chalk, Use of 





Bequest to 

Chasuble .... 

. • . . 

• • • • 

• • • » 

• . • 

of blue color 

. • • 

• . • • 

• . • • 

• . • • 

• • •• 

Chaucer Family 

Chaulton • • . • • • 

Chelmsford Church, Bequest to 

Friars .. 

Cherington .... • • 

Chester, Colonel J. L., The Influence of the County of Essex on 

Settlement and Family History of New England 
Chignal Church .... * • • • • • • • 

Chigwell, Effigy of Archbishop Harsnet 
Childerditch Church, Boquost to 

• • . • 

• • r» 



























81, 173 




68, 170 





81, 179 



Chingfoid, Manors m .... 

Church, Bobbery of Braaaes . . 

Altar Tomb and Effigies 

Churches of Essex, Patron Saints of 
Cypress-chests . . . . r • • • 

Clare, Convent .... 

Clares (Poor) .... 

v/iai*Ke «•■• ..■• .. 

Clement .... .... . 

Clergy, Opportunities of describing Local Antiquities . . . . 

Clifford, Baron .... * . . 

Clopton .... .... . . 

Cockayne, J .... . . 

Family .... 

• r • 

Coffin, Roman Interments in 

Drawings • . . • 

Coffin, Sir W. de • • rr 

Coggeshall &mily .... 

Sir W. De .... 

Coggeshall (little), St. Nicholas Church. . . 

Pavement, coloured 

Cognizance borne by families 
Colchester, Lead Coffins .... 

Coins .... 

Abbey of St. John 

— — ^ Convents • . . • 


• • . 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• ' • 

• r • 

• » • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• •• 

r* • 


^Archdeaoon, Bequest to 


Collectanea Antiqua, B. Smith 

Colling ... ...• 

Continent, Families invited by English Kings from r. • • 



Copdowe, Gliomas • . . • 

Cope worn at Communion Service 

at Westminster • • . • 

at Chigwell • • . • 

Gomburgh, Avery • . . • 

Comishmen — Battle of Blackheath 
Comwallis, Sir J. • • • • . 

Ck>tton . . • • • • • • 

Ooventry, Joust at . • . • 

Court of Probate, Permission to consult Wills 

^rane «... .... 

Craylbrd, B. . . . . .... 

Cremation of bodies among Bomans 

• • • 

• » • • 
 • . * 

. . • • 
. . . • 

• • • • 

• • • •' 
. . . • 

. . . .* 

• . t • 
. . • • 

• V * • 

• • . • 
. « . . 

• t • •' 

• • • • 
•■• • • 

• • •• 

• • •• 

• • • r 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • 1 1 

• . . • 

• • • • 

... * 

• • . • 

• • • • 
. • . r 
. . • . 

• • • fl 

• • • • 

• »* • 



• . • • 


... 1 



. . . • 






. . • < 




• . . 










. • • 


. • . 


. * • 






111, 112 

• . • 








• . . 


• • . 


* • • 

* 198 

• • . 

112, 114 



r* . 1 


• • • 1 


• •• « 


• •• 1 


t • . 


. • . < 


• r • 


• • • 


• • . 


• • • • 


101, 177 

• • • ( 


• • . 


• . . ( 


• . . < 


• . • 




• . • • 




• • . 


• • . 




. » . 

38, 102 



1 . * 




CroBstng Church .... 

Cricksea MunHion destroyed . . 

Croniwoll, Lord 

i_ro8s <••• <••• 

Cross in Banner of St. George 
Culeworth .... .... 

CS'press, Chests of 


• • • 

Pacre (Knot) . . .... ... .... 

Da^onhftm .... .... .... .... 

Daisy ; Badge of Margaret of Anjou .... .... 

Dallaway on Italian Artists in Enghind .... .... 

Dalton .... .... .... 

Dumpier, W. J , The Church of St. Nicholas, Little Coggoshall 
Daniel, J. .... .... .... .... 

Darcy, Lord .... .... .... 

Family . . .... .... .... 

Robert, Masses ordered by .... .... 

Darell, Lady .... .... .... .... 

Deyenish .... .... ... .... 

j-^a vies .... .... .... .... 

•L^a . IB .... .... .... .... 

i/Hvy .... .... *■.. .... 

j-'ay .... •*•. 

x/ean .... .... 

Delamere, Strangman Pedigree 
Delawar, Badge 
Devereux .... 

Devicesy Heraldic 
Dinney .... 

Doctors' Commons, Wills at ... . 

Dole at Funerals 
Donatus (St.) Castle 
Doreward, Pedigree 
Dormitory in Ancient Houses 
Dounton Church, Bequest to 
Downes • • • • 

Downham .... 

Church, Tomb of Sir H. Tyrell 

Dudley .... 

Dunton, Tyrell Arms 

Church, Tyrell Anns 

Durward, m$ Doreward .... .... 

U^QIT .... .... .... 

£aster Sepulchre .... .... 

East Ham, Roman Sepulchral Remains 

Roman Sarcophagus, &c. .... 

Drawings of Roman Remains .... 

a • • • 

* • . • 
• • • • 

• • * • 
 • . a 

• * • a 

• • . a 

a . . a 

• • • • 

• * a • 

• • • • 

• a •  
a a a • 

. • • • 

• a a • 

• a . a 

• a a • 

• a • 
a . . 

a a . 

a . . a 

• a . a 

• a • • 

a a • • 

• • • • 
a . . • 

a . . • 

• a a 

• a a 

• a • 

a • • 













13, 19 
















172, 184 


97, 102 




91, 176 




81, 202 




104, 110 




East Ham, Brass Plate to Bampston 

Dr. Stukeley, Buried at 

Eastwood CboTch, P. S 

E&ton . « . . % • • • • 

Ecclesiaet ical Vestments .... 

Edward I., Special Commission, and Hundred Rolls, or Rotuli 

Hundredorum • • • * • • • • 

Elizabethan Domestic Architecture, Influence of Italian art on 

KillOw .... •■.. .■■* •«•* 

ESlis, Sir H., Letter on Waltham Abbey .... .... 

£jiy .... •*•* .... «... 

tSinits^y ••.• ..•• .... .... 

drnweUe, De .... .... .... .... 

ESngland (New) Influence of County of Essex on .... 

List of earliest Settlers in .... 

JESngaenin de Portier • • • • 

Epping Manor ..•■ 

Church .... 

Escallop on Homan Coffins .... 
Essex, Use of Moulded Brick in 
Churches, Patron Saints of 

-Forest of .... . 

-Families, Wills of .... , 

-Friars Houses, Bequest to 

-History of .... 

-Influence in settlement of New England of 

Eae, Earl of 

• . • • 

» » 1 1 







6, 13 








Fabian .... 


. . . 


Fairstead Church, Vestments for 

• . . 


Fambridge .... 

. . • 


Fanoourt • . . • 

. . . 


Farr .... 

. . . 


Fanlkboum .... 

. * . 

91, 102 


• . . 

91, 167 

Fauntley, Strangman Pedigree 

• * * 


Ferrers .... 

• • • 


Lord .... 

• • . 

19, 90 

Flnnin .... 

• a . 



• . • 



• • • 



• . • 


Fitz Lewis family 

• . . 


Fitzwalter, Lord 



Flemings, Mansion 

. . . 

77, 181 


Fobbing Church 

• — . . — 

• •• 




Ford ...• -..• •••• •••• 

Foreigners feiyoured by English Kinga after Roman Conquest 
Fortescne .... •••• ...• •••• ^*j 

Fotheringhay • • • •  • • • 

Foulness «••• •••• •••• 

Fowler •••• •••• •«•• 

Fiance, Lee Archives des Monuments Historiques 
•^— ^ Gare of Monuments by QoTemment 

John, King of, Captive 

Franciscan .... . • • • 

Freeborn .... • • • • 

Freeman « • . . •  • • 

French • . . • • • • • 

Fuller . • • • f» 

^^^— ^-^ W 111 •••• .... 

Funeral Doles • • • • • • • « 

Fylioll (Strangman Pedigree) 



102, 167, 169 




• . • • 


(George, St, Cross in Banner of 

Oeoffrey • • • • • • • • 

Oemon, Kalph .... . « • « 

■Avioe .... • . . • 

Geyst, Eccl. de . . • . 

Qeystwaite, Eccl. de .... 

Gibbs • • . • • • • • 

Gtibson .... • • • • 

Gildeford • • .  • • • • 

Qill •*•• •••• 

Qipping, TyreU of • • • • 

Glanvill (Bartholomseus Anglicus] 
Qlossary, from old English MS. 
Godfrey .... 

Goff .... 

Gosfield Hall, Court 
Gothic, Buildings in late 

Influence of Italian art on 

G^rafton .... 
Grays Church .... 
Greene .... 
Greenwich, Franciscan Friara 
Ghierre, cri de • . « 
Guild, Bawreth 


• • . . 

• . *• 


• . •• 

• • •• 

• • •• 

• a •• 

. . . . 

• • • • 

. • • • 


Guydon allowed to Esquires .... 

Gwydo Decanus 

Gyngraff Chtirch, Bequest to 

. . • • 
• • . . 

. . • . 

«. •• 


a • . . 


. . . • 


.  • • 

• • . . 

.• . • 

• . • • 


. . • • 

. . • • 
. • •• 

• • . • 

• • •• 

• a • . 

• . a • 

• • . . 
• • • • 

• . . • 

. . • • 

• • at 












76, 81, 200 





21, 169 
















Hadleigb, Strangman of .... .... ..•• .... 100,101 

Castlo .... ...• ...a «••• 168 

 CJuurcD} X • o» .... ••«• .«•• •••• o8 

riftio .... ••.. .... .•«» •••■ ov 

xlAU •••• ••*. ••*. ••*• ••.• xvo 

Ham (Eafit) (m» East Ham) .... .... .... .... 104 

  — Boman Sepulchral Romains at • . . • .... 104 

Hampdon Family .... %... .... •••• 1 

Hampton Ckrart .... .... • • • • .... 3^ 18, 26, 28 

— — — ModallionB .... .... .... ..•• 26 

Hazich'et, J., Rampston Monument .... .... .... 204 

Hanningfield Church • • • • .... .... .... 81 

Hardjmge .... .••• •••• ..•. .... 101 

Harkey .•*• .... •••. .... .... 101 

^lazleian USS* •••• .•.. ...• ••.. .... H 

Harlston, J. •••• .... •••• ••«. ...• 1 75 

rf HJY>I<1 *... .... .... •.•• .... wv 

Hairington, Knot •..• »... .... ••.. 200 

XUkCXls .... .... .... .••• .•«. 09 

W.jWillof .... .... .... 183 

1: aroily » . • . ••.. ...• .... •... 184 

xiarnson .... ••.. ••.. .... .... oV 

 Rogers, G. H., F.S.A., Notes on Monumental Brass Effigy in Great 
Famdon Church .... .... .... .... 204 

Hannet, (Ardihishop) Cope of, at Chigpnrell Church .... .... 81 

. Brass Effigy .... .... .... 81 

"^* V .... .... ..•• .... .... oV 

Hasteler, T., Will of .... .... .... .... 188 

^— ~~~~~^~^ tl. .... .... .... .... .... iwi 

Hatchments in Churches .... .... .... .... 173 

Havering, Shakspeare of ••*. .... .... .... 71 

Havering-atte-Bower ••.. .... .... .... 168 

xlawaxti .... ••.. .... .... .«.. 1 W) 

xiAWJces •... .«.« .... .... .... o" 

xlawKins .... .... .... .... ..•* 39 

Hawkwell .... •••■ .... .... •*.. 103 

Hawkwood, Sir John • • . • .... .... • * • . 79 


•••• ••.. .... .... 

Haye, De la .... 

' I- 1  JJaHXA •••. .«■• .... .... 

21aynes .... .... ••.. .... ..*• o9 

Hay ward, C. F., Architectural Notes on Layer Mamey .... 16 

Jtlaywood .... .... .*•• .... .... 39 

Hazeleigh, Roman Sarcophagus .... .... 112,113,116 

Hedingham (Castle), Tomb of John De Yere .... .... 31 

Helion, J. .... .••• .... .... .... 169 

Hemnals •••. .... .... ••»• ..*• 91 

Heneage, Ejiot. • • • .... .... .**• ..•• 200 

Henry H., BeconstnictiQn of Waltham Abbey by • . . . .... 34 

jieniy XV. ••.. •••• ..•• ..*• ...• 11 



Henry V. 

•• • • 

I • • • 

• • • • 

• • •« 

HouBe for Kons at laleworth, built by 
^— OarthiiBian FHory at Richmond, endowed by 
Henry VI., ,,., 
Henry VII., H. Mamey 

Convent at Greenwich founded by 

Henry VTIL, H. Mamey .... 

at New Hall .... .... 

Herbert, Lord .... 

Heron, Family. • • . 


— — — Manor . • • • 
 Hall ..•• 

-^— " Chapel.. >■ 
H6rr3rs .... 

Hertford, AU Saints 

Heywde •••« 

Highways, Bequeets for Repairing 

Historical Monuments preseryed by French Government 

Hoc {tee Atte-Hoo) 

Hopkins .... 

Hopton . • • • 

Horkesley (Little), Tomb of Bame Bridget Mamay 

Horn of Unicom ..•• •••• 

Homchurch, Shakspeare of ... • • . • • 

Homdon-on-the-Hill .... * • • • 

Tyrell Family 

. • • • 

 . a • 

. • • . 

« a • • 

. . • • 


 a a a 

Homdon (East) Church, Monuments destroyed 

 Chantnes a. .a •••• 
 Chasuble bequeathed to « . a . 
Work of Tower .... 

Horreth a a . • 

Horsham .... 

Household Badge 
Housel .... 

Howard • • • • 

Howe • . a a 

Hownestone •••• 
Hubbard a • . • 

Hudson . • • . 

Hullbridge .... 
Humphries .... 
Hungerford, Knot 
Hunsdon, Lord. . • . 
Hussey, Lord • • • . 

. . • • 

. . a a 
.. a . 
a • a a 

• • .. 

• • » » 
. a a • 
. • a . 

• a • . 

• a a a 

. a a a 

• • • • 

. a t a 

. . a . 

a • • • 
... a 

Ingatestono Church, P.S. 
Inscriptions on Monuments, Value of 
Interment, Modes of Roman a • . » 

• • a a 

a a a . 



... a 


. I  

.. a . 






11. 79, 168 




















176. 198 



76, 177 







195, 198 




81, 170 










IMiEX. 11 


Italian work •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• **» " 

Influence on late Qothic • • • • • • • • 28, 31 


Jacluon •••• ••■• •••• •••• •••• '^ 

Jeffirey •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• *' 

Jenner •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• 3" 

Jenney .... •••• .... •••• •••• *"^ 

Jenyn .... ••.« ..*• •••• •••• «», 1"1 



Jervifl, Mansion destroyed .... •••• •••• •••• 77 

tfesus College .... ..*• ••*• •••• •••• '^ 

Confrateniity at Prittlewell .... •••• *•*• 1^3 

John of France (prisoner) .... .... •••• ••.• IW 

JonstB, Devicee niied at .... .... •••• •••• ^^^ 


Katherine of Azragon, Protest of Prince of Wales against Maitiage of 12, 19 

- Marriage of ..•« •»•• .••• 1* 

■"" Badge •••• .*•• •••• Lmu 

KeUe •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• wV 

Kemp, Sir T. ••.. .».. .... .••• •••• 98,102 

K- ^t p p0 ••.■ .... ...a •••• •••• *'*' 

Kent Boad (Old) Boman Coffins .*•• •••• •••• H^ 

King •... ..•• •••• •••• •••• «»' 

King, H. W., Ancient Wills ...• .... ....63,75,167 

. Btrangman Pedigree • • • . .... • . • • 96 

Notes on Boman Sarcophagus and Leaden Coffins disooyered 

at Bast Kam .... .... .••• •••. ^ ^" 

— — — Tyrell Badge .... •••• •••» 1^^ 

^^^-^— "^— — — Standard •••• ••.» ..•• ...• ^i 

I  £tching •••. .... •••• ..•• *01 

Kinge, Strangman pedigree .... ...• .••• .... lou 

Kings' Langley •«.. •••• •••• •••• 71 

Knight .... .... ••.. •••• •*.. 178 

Knollis, Sir B. »>.. «... .*•• .... •••# 81 

Knots borne as Household Badges .... •• • • . . • • 200 

Knyvet .••• .... .... .... *••• 103 


liBcy , Badge of ..•« .•*• ..*• •••• 200 

iJBLKn .... .... •*.• .... .••• ow 

•liBmDers ••*. ■••• ..«• •«.. ...• ** 

TrfUfigham •••• •.,. •••• .«•• ••»• 7y 

-  Manor of •••• •••• .... ••.. 75 

Tjuihenie, Amndel of .... •••. •••• *••• 89 

riongley, B. .••• .••• •••• ••.. •••• 167 

 (King's) Priory •••• .... .... .••• 71 

Tiathum .... .... •... •••• ••«• 102 

lAyer, Denvation of <•*. .... «... ..*. * 

XAyor, Bichard •••. .... ••.. .... .••• ^ 

 Lords of ..»• ,-,. ...« t..i 6 



Layer Mamey 

AdvowBon • • . . 

Alms-house .... 

Church .... 

ChantrieB .... 

College .... 

Effigies and Tombs 

Hall, Architectural notes on, by C. F. Hay ward 

Flan, Elevation, Sections, and Details 

ChinmejTB • . • • . . . • 

•• . . 


— — ^— Dormitory (plate ditto) 
' Fireplaces .... 

— Gateway .... 

 NeweU Staircase 

 ■■'■■■■  Booft • • • • 
— — ^— ^— • Tower .... 

 Terra Cotta 
— — — • Windows .... 

 Plaster .... 

 Parapet .... 

^— Free Warren .... 

lAyer Mamey— M0 also Mamey 

LazarSy Houses of 

Laser, Sir 

Lead in Roman Coffins .... .... .... 104 

Leger, De • • • • • • . • 

Legera (Layer).... .... 

Leicester, W., WiU of .... 

Leigh, Monumental destruction at 
Leper Houses .... ••.. 

I^wifl| Davy « . . < .... 

Leyton (Low) Tomb of J. Strype 
Light, Sepulchre .... 

Lightfoot • • . . .... 

Lime in Boman Sarcophagi .... 

Lincoln, Earl of. Battle of Stoke «... ••• • 

Lire, Wood of ; «## Layer 

Locke Lasar House, Southwark •• . • •• . . 

J^^CKWOOfl .... ..•• .•.. ••.• 

Lodge, Bey. Barton ; Translation of Palladius on Husbondrie, edited 
 GloBsaiy*. .... 

London Registry of Wills, Besearohes in. • . • 
Longueyille, Count de ••.. •••. 

Luckyn, G. •,.. .... •... 

Luketune .... ••■. •••• 

Lynn, Strangman of • • • • .... 


. > . 

. • •• 

• t • • 

. • •• 

• • • t 


2, 9, II 



9, 29, 89 


29, 30, 31 






22, 2d 

20, 23 





22, 27, 30 





110, 111, 112 






INDEX. 13 



ICaokwelli £1 • • • . . . . • .... . . . • • . . , 1 75 

MacwiUiam Family .... «... .... .... 57 

Magnalia of C. Mather .... .... .... .... 41 

Maidens, Bequest for Marriage of .... .... .... 195 

Maiden .... .... .... .••. .... 103 

Maldon .... .... •■•• .... «••• 170,172 

Manning, 'WiU of ••.. «... .... .... 68 

Mantell (Knight) .... ••.• .... .... 97,99 

Mareni •*.• .... .... .... ...• 4, «9 

Margaret of Anjou, Badge .... .... .... .... 199 

Margaret, (Tountees of Bichmond .... .... .... 6, 13, 28 

Margaretting Church, Brasses of .... .... .... 189 

Marigni in Normandy .... .... .... .... 4 

"■^'~~~~"" Taimty .... .... .... ..». .... xx,io 

 pedigree .... .... ,,.. .... 13 

■— ^— Sngueran de .... .... • • . • , . , , 13 

Marini, Be, $4$ Mamey 

— — ^— Hugo de .... , , , . • . • • .... 2, 10 

Marinis, Weny de .... .... .... .... 2, 16 

Mamey Family .... .... .... 2, 10, 17, 19, 296 

' X eoigrees .... .... .... .... if^ 

"" Battle Abbey Boll .... .... .... .... 2 

^^-^^—^ itsaoge .... .... .... .... «... Id 

W. de.... .... .... .... 2,3,10^29,79 

' Sir vv . •*.. .... .... •... 1,175 

""■""^■^ oil X*. .... ••.. •... .... •••• « 

Sir H., Honors oonferred on .... .... .... 6,12 

 XxKtu .... •••• a... .... 3, 6, 7, 12, 172 

"  liiie 01. ... .... .... .... •«.. 7, 12, 14 

•»— Arrest of Duke of Buckingham •••• .... .... 14 

Quarrel with Cardinal Wolsey .... •... .... 9,15 

Dame Bridget, Tomb of .... .... ••.• 31 

Monuments, &c., tee Layer Mamey «... .... 29 

Marriage of Maidens, Bequest for .... .... ••.. 195 

JAarsu .... ..** .at. •... .... ov 

Marshall .... i..« «..* .... .••• 39 

Martin ..•• .... .... .... ,,.. 39 

Maiy, B. v., Aflsumpti<m of . • . • .«.. .... .... 187 

Maryni, de ; M« Mamey Pedigree .... ••.. .... 14 

Masses Ofdered by Testament .... .... .... 172 

Mather, Cotton ; Magnalia •••• .... .... .... 41 

Massaohusett Bay, list of Freemen of Colony .... .... 38 

jDcLeacLe .... •••• .... .... .... 39 

Medcalf, James ; Will of •••• .... .... .... 60 

Melreth Church •••. •*•• .... .... 81 

Melton Church .... ••.. .••• •••• 81 

jDQLennes, JLa .... .... .... .... .... 1 79 

Mersea, West •*•• #•«• •••• «..# •••• 169 

14 INDEX. 


Milan, Barnabas, Duke of 

* . • • 

... a 

• • a» 


Mildmay, T. « . . « 

• . . • 

. . « . 

a a . • 


Mildred, St. Church 

• . . . 

a • a • 



Mills .... 


a a . a 

a a •• 


MinoresBOB .... 

• • • • 

a a a a 

a a a a 


Minories, Roman Saroophagns 


• a a • 

a a • • 


Minot • • • • 

• • t • 

. . . • 

a a a • 


Montacute, Gross found at 

• • . • 

• a a • 

•• a« 



• • •  

a • a • 

a • a a 


Montague . . . • 

• • . a 

a a a • 

a a a a 


Montgomery Funily 

t  . • 

a a a a 

a a a a 


Sir T Will cf 

* tt  • 

a . . . 

81. 168 

Month's mind . * . • 


V V V  

a a • • 

a . a a 
aa a a 

6 0, lU 

Montjoy, tm Mountjoy 

. • • » 

. . . • 

a a a • 

12, 169, 

174, 177 

Monuments, (Historical), Care of French Oovemment for 

a a a a 


• • . • 

• • . » 

• • • * 

a a a a 



• • •• 

. a • • 

» • » » 

a a a a 


^ A  ^ 


Moraat, Learning and Industry of 

a a a # 
a a a a 

9 9 9 9 

a 8 a • 

• a V a 
a a « a 


• • t m 

• * a a 

a • . a 


Morbeque, Sir Denys 

a a a a 

a a a a 

a a a a 


More ...» 

a a a a 

• • a a 

a a a a 


Morrell • • . • 

a . a a 

a a a a 

a a a • 


Morris • • • • 

a a a • 

aa •• 

a a a a 


Morse . • • • 

• » • • 

a a a* 

• • a a 


Morton, Oardinal 

aa a a 

• • • • 

a • a a 


Mott • • •  

a a • a 

• • • a 

a a • a 


Motto . • • • 

• a a a 

a a a a 

... a 


Monnljoy, Lord 

a a a • 

• • a a 

12, 169, 

174, 177 

Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, Badge 

• a  • 

a a a a 

• a a a 


Moyer Charity 

• • •• 

a • a • 

a • a • 

• • a . 


Mucking Church, P.S. 

• • • • 

a a a a 

a a a a 

a* • • 


Muckleton Church 

• • •• 

• • •• 

a a a a 

a a ■• 


Mumbi, De .... 

• .  • 

a a a • 

a a a • 

. * a a 


Mnnday, Vincent 

• • • • 

• a a a 


• • a a 

• •99 

a a •• 

. 178 

Nanton .... 

• • « • 

a a a a 

a a a a 


Kash (Shakspere Pedigree) 

• • •• 

a a a • 

a a a a 

* a a a 


• • • • 

• • •• 


. * a a 


Nelson •••• 

• • • • 

• • a« 

• • •• 

• ••• 


NettlesweU • • • • 

• • •• 

4 a a • 

a a a« 

a a a a 


Neville, badge •••• 

• •  • 

• • a a 

a a a • 

a a a a 


New Hall, Licence to fortify 

• a a a 

•  a • 

a a a a 


Hmnr Ylil at 

• • • • 

« a a a 

• a a a 

• a aa 


Newbome, Sir B. 

• • . • 

• a a a 

• • a a 

a a a • 


Newburgh, Sir B 

• • • • 

• •as 

a a a a 

aa •• 


Newman • • • • 

• • • • 

a • a • 

a a . a 

a • a a 


Nicholas, St., Church, Little Coggoshall 

a a a • 

a a . . 

a • . . 


Norbury, Sir Roger 

« . • • 

a a . a 

a a a . 

a • • a 





l^ormaaSy Wealth and Aaoendancy of 
Aoirya ■••• •••• 

Northumberland, Earl of .... 

Noilcy (White), Bequest to Church 
Kotyngluan, Will of .... 



. • . . 

Ockendon (South) Rectory 


(North) PointB of 

Church, Tablets of Pointz Family 

Old Kent Boad, Roman Coffins 
OHTer, Doreward Pedigree .... 
Oimondy Eazl of 
Orsett Church, Chantry 

^Fiiknsh ; Lands bequeathed to 

Osmund, St., Rite of 
Ottendon • • • • 


I . . • 


• • • * 

• • •• 

• • . • 

• • • • 
• . . • 
 . . • 
. . . • 

• • •• 

• • • • 


Pftffe •••• a... ••' 

Pafflesham, D> •••• ..•• .. 

Falladius de Rebus Rusticis ; Translation in MS., Edited by Rev. B. 

Glossary, ditto 

jtcumeK •••• •••• ••! 

Parmenter •••. •••. •• 

Plamdon (Great) Church 

• • •• 

Monumental Brass Effigy (plate) 

Partridge • • . , . . . . 

Parvis, Ijord • • • • • • . • 

Passefend •••• •••• 

Peaohie, J., dark. Bequest to 
Peerage, usages at Creation of 

Pelerin, William de •• .. 

Pelham, John de .... 

— ^— ^— Badge of .... 

Percy, T. •••• •»•• 

Standard .... 

Peregprinus ••■• •••• 



Petre, Sir W. 

• a •• 

>• •• 

• • •• 

• • • • 

• • •• 

• • • • 

• • •• 

• • •• 

• • • • 

• • •• 

-Badge or Cognizance 

•• •• 

PevereU •••• 

^Badge ••.. 

Philip, Son of John, Eing of France 
Phillips .... 

Pilborowe • • • • 
Pilgrim Fathen 

• • •• 

• • •• 

• • •• 

«. •! 

• • •• 

• • •• 

• ••• 

• • •• 


• • • • 


. . * • 

179, 180 

. . • « 


 . • . 


. . * • 



• t . • 


. . • • 


• • at 


* • . . 


• t • . 


• . . • 


. . • • 


. • * a 




... a 


a . a a 


a. •• 


• • ta 


... a 




• » •• 


• a a t 


aa a a 


.• aa 


aa aa 


aa aa 


• a aa 


aa aa 


a a a a 


• • aa 


• • a a 


aa aa 


a . . . 


a. aa 


• • •• 


• • • • 


a a a a 


a a aa 


• a aa 

177, 169 

a a aa 


aa • a 


aa aa 


aa aa 


aa aa 


a a • a 


• •at 




Pilgrimage, Vicarious .... 

Plague in London .... 

Plumberow, Manor of .... 

Poictiers, Battle of .... 

Points, Ann, Will of .... 

Tablets of Family, N. Ockondon 

Ponthieu, Earl of .... 

Poor, Bequests for . . . • 

Portague • • • • • • • • 

Porter .... • . • • 

Shakspere Pedigree .... 

Portier, Engueran de «... 

Po3naing8, Lord .... 

Prayer (Bidding) .... 
Prices of Commodities, 16th Century 

Prittlewell, Church .... 

^Thomas Cocke, of 

SirJ. Tyrell 

-Confraternity of Jesus 
-Market .... 

-Hairis Family .... 
-Hasteler .... 

Pnrchas .««• ...■ 

Puritans, Settlement in Nev England 
Pykenham .... .... 

Pykering .... .... 

Pyiichon ••■• ..a. 

jr yno .... .... 

Quineye (Shakspere Pedigree) 

• • • • 

Bafiaele .... 

Baiment, Bequest of .... 

Rainham .... .... 

—— Church, P.S. .... 

Bainsford •••• .... 

Bamsden Belhus, Boman Sarcophagus 

Bamston ••.. .... 

Bawlins •••. •••• 

Bawreth Church, • • • • 

Brass • • • • 
Vestments bequeathed 
Guild • . . . 


Hasteler of 
Shakespeare of 
• • • • 

. • • • 
•• •• 



• • • 

• •• 


• • 

















192, 194 














69, 178, 182 




112, 116 




100, 101 




Kaynsford .... .... .... 

Eeligious Houses, AdTnission to Fraternity of 
KeetorerSy Church Monuments damaged by 

fiichmond - .... . . • • 

Margaret, Countess of .... 

Carthusian Priory .... 

Richneese .... .... .... 

■iHiey ..•■ ...a »••• 

Ripon (Joan), Will of .... .... 

Rissewrche .... .... .... 

Bivenhall Church, Vestment for .... 

  Manor . , , . .... 

AM vers ...• .... .... 

Roads, Bequests for mending «« .. 

Roberts . , . . .... .... 

Robinson .... • . > • . • . • 

Aocnesuor, xw. .... •«.. .••. 

John ,,., .... 

Robert .... .... 

Rock, Daniel, D.D., the Church of our Fathers, &c. 

Rogers .... •«.. .«.. 

JKOII, A. m .... ••.. .... 

Rolls Chapel, Tomb .... .... 

Hundred.... .... .... 

Romford Church, P.S. . « . . .... 

Epitaph of A. Comburgh .... 

Shakspeare of .... .... 

Roman materials' at Barking ««.. 
entrenchment, Uphall .... 

 remains .... . . . • 

interment in Lead Coffins .... 

modes of Interment 

Rome, St. Peter's 
Scala cceli 

Roos, Lord de 
Rosary bequeathed 
Rotuli Hundredorum 
Rowley, Roger of 


Runwell, Will of Sulyard, of 


Rycfaardson .... 


Sadler • * . • • • • • 

Saints (patron) of Essex Churches 
Salmon fiunily .... • • • • 

Salisbury Catiiedral, Rite for 

•« • t 

• • .  
« • • • 


• • * t 

• t • • 




189, 196 

3, 12 

6, 13, 28 









58, 88, 172 

39, 101 









104, no 












• ■•• 

• • •• 




 XiOro •«•• •••• 

Santley •••• •■•• 

Sarcophagi (Roman) .... 

— - - at Eaat Ham .... 

Say, Lofd ...• ••.« 

Soalaooeli .... •... 

Scholars, Bequest for .... 

BOObt •■•• ••>. 

ScroUes, liord • . . • • . . • 

Sepulchre (Easter) .... 

Light .... 

Sei^^iix, Knt. .... .... 

Shackespere, T., Will of .... 

Shackspear, Susan, Will of .... 

 Spelling of the Surname 
Shakespearof Bawreth .... 
Shakespeare of Romford .... 
————— Joseph .... 

Thomas, Will .... 

Shakspeares of Ebsoz 


Shaksperes of Stratford-on-Avon, Pedigree of 

Sbtt^ ...a ••.• .•.• 

cina^v .... ••■• .... 

Sheen, Fathers of «... .... 

Shenfield Church, P. S. .... ..•• 

' Monuments bnried at .... 

Shepreth Church .... .... 

Sherman ..,. •••• .... 

Shopland • ••.. .... .... 

Sibley, Isaac •••. .... .... 

Sion, Sisters of. ••• ••.. .••• 

Skermy, Bodeeia • • • • • • . . 

omiui •••• ..•. .••• 

' C. Roach, Collectanea Antiqua .... 

Sooithfleld, Priory of Augustines and Black Friars 
Smyth, Will of . . . . 

  Family. ... • . 

Smythe, Strangman pedigree 
Sople Church .... 

South Church, Easter Sepulchre .... 

Land at ... .  . 

Southcott .... 

Southminster, Harris of, Will .... 

Averill of . . 

Sparhavk .... • . 

Sparver v. Bparvour, Canopy • • • • 


.... • . 


....  . 


.... . . 


.... . . 


. . • . • . 


....  . 


• a . • . . 


• •  • . . 


... * • . 


. . . • . . 


• . . . . . 


• . • . . . 


. . « . . . 


.... . . 


.... . . 


. . • • . . 


.... . . 


• • . . . . 


.... . . 


. . a a *  


• • . . . . 


.... . • 


.... . • 


a . . • . . 


.... . . 


.... a . 


a . • . . • 


• . . • . . 

.. 71,81,170 

.... . . 


.... . . 


• . • . . . 


.... . . 


• . . a a . 


a . . . a . 


a . . • « . 

.. 71,81,170 

.... . . 


.... a . 

39, 100 

. a . . . . 


a a • . . . 


a « • . . . 


.... • . 


• .  . . . 


. a . • * • 


a . a a . , 


a . . a a . 


a . . a . . 


• . a a at 


a a . a a • 


.... • . 


•••• « t 






Spencer . . , « . . . • 

• • • 

• •• 

• a ••• 


Spice • . • . • • • . 

• • • • 

• •• 

• • • • 

168, 160 

Spoons (Apostle) .... 

• • • < 

• • • 

a aaa 

170, 185 

Stafford Church .... 

. .  • 

• • • 

a aaa 


 Knot •• •••• 

• • • < 

• • • 

a » 9 » 


Stamhridge . . . • .... 

• • • • 

•  • 

• . • . 


Stampi H .... 

• •  1 

•  • 

a aaa 


Standard, description of .... 

• . . « 

• • • 

• • • • 


Standards of Knights and Nobility in 


• • • 

• act 


Stanford .... .... 

• • • < 

• • • 

a aaa 


Stanley .... .... 

•  • • 

• • • 

• aaa 


Stanstead, Manor .... 

. . . < 

. • • 

a • • • 


Stanway .... .... 

• • • < 

• • • 

• aaa 


Starke, Shakspere pedigree. . . . 

• • • 1 

• •  

• aaa 


Stations of the Cross • • . • 

• • • < 

t • • • 

• aaa 


Stebbing .... • • . . 

• • • « 

• • • 

• • t » 


Obeele •••• •••• 

• • • 1 

• • • 

• • » • 


Steeple . • . • • . , . 

• • • • 

• • • 

a a • a 


Steyens . . . • .... 

• • • < 

» • • • 

a * • • 


Stock Chnrch .... 

• • • 1 

t . . . 

• • • » 


Stoke, Battle of 

• • • < 

» • • • 

• aaa 


Stokesb .... 

• « • < 

• • • • 

a aaa 


Stone .... . . • • 

•  • « 

 • • 

a aaa 


Stone Cists, Foneral Urns in 

• • • 

• • • • 

a aaa 


Coffins., •• .... 

1 • • 

•  • 

a aaa 

111, 112 

Strange .... .... 

• t • 1 

• • • 

a aaa 


Strangman Pedigree, by H. W. King 

• • • 

•  • • 

a aaa 


• • • 4 

> • • • 

• aaa 


Stratford-le-Bow, Nunnery 

• • • 

• • • • 

• aaa 


• • • 

 • • • 

a aaa 


Sudbory, Convents of .... 

• • • 

• • • • 

• aaa 


Sadley, Baron .... 

• • • 

• • • a 

a »• a 


Suffolk, Brandon, Duke of ... . 

• • • 

• •• a 

a •• • 


Sulyard, Eustace, Will of .... 

•  • I 

a* • 

• aaa 



• • • 4 

» • • • 

a aaa 



• • • < 

• a • 

a aaa 

V ajk 

• 180 

flir "W 

• • • < 

i a a  

a aaa 


oiT vy . .... 

Sunday-beads .... 

• • • « 

a • • 

a aaa 


Swan. .... .... 

• • • I 

• a • 

a aaa 


Swift .... . , , , 

«• • I 

a • • 

a aaa 


Symonds .... .... 

• • • 1 

• • • 

a aaa 


Symonson, Miles, Will . . . 

• • • t 

• • • 

a •• * 


Sympeon, T. .... 

• • • < 

a a » 

• • • • 


Sy wardstone . . .... 

• • •« 


« a a 

a » • * 


Taboi •••• •••• 

• • • 1 

• a a 

• aaa 


Takeley .... .... 

• • • • 

a • a 

a ... 



• • • t 

a • • 

a *» » 


Taafidd, J., Monumental Brass 

« • a 

• • • • 

• aaa 





Tankerville, Earl of 

• • » • 


Tapers, Bequest for 

• •  • 


Tay, Lord of Layer 

• • • • 


Taylor .... 

• • • • 


Terling Church, Vestment for 


Terra Cotta .... 

26, 2& 



Tey, Great .... 


Teye, de .... 


Thomas .... 


Thomas a'Becket, Vow of Hon. U. in 

honour of .... 


Thompson .... 

• • • • 



• • • • 


Thornton .... 

« « •■ • 


Thorundue • . • . 

« « • • 


Thresher • . . . 

% • • * 



• • * • 


Thunderaley .... 

m m 9 % 

8d, 196 

Thurrock Grays, Church, 




. • • . 


Tile Cists, Interment in 

• . . . 


TirreU, Sir J., w Tyrell 

• • . • 


Tomb of Mamey 

.  . • 


Castle Hedingham 

• * . • 


Bolls Chapel 

» * . . 


— of Wolsey 



Tottonhall, Prebend of 

• • • . 


Tournaments, Devices adopted at 


Tovi, founder of Religious House at Waltham .... 


Athelstan, Son of 

• • . • 

a... a... 


Tower .... 

•  « . 

• . • . • . •  


Tower Hill, New Abbey 

... * 

.>•* .... 


Chapel in Abbey of S. Mary 

.... ••.. 

168, 169 

Towne .... 

• •«. .... 


Townshend .,•• 

•»•• .a*. 


Tremnailes .... 

• . . • ' . V . 


Trental, Bequest for 

..«• .... 


Turner .... 

• r.. ...a 


Tumour .... 

.... •••• 


Twysell .... 

• •8. ...a 


Tyrell Family 

.... r... 

.... 76,93,176 

Inaccuracies in Morant' 

9 Account ... a 

..,. 79,177,179 

Monuments destroyed 

.•.. m t » » 


Wills of 

a • •• 

*.«• ..•• 



.... 8,11.174 


• • • • 

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.... •.*• 
 *•• ...a 


Hir VJ" Will 


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Sir R 

... a 

.... ■••• 

.... vV 
a... 92 


• • • t 

.«.. .... 

•••• ••»■ 

# # 9 # lF«f 





Tyrell, Lady Beatrice, WOl 

-^ Sir Robert, WiU of.. .. 

^— John, Will of .... 
Sir John .... 

- Sir H. , , , . 


— ^— ^— Dir tl..« •••• 

■' Lady Anne, Will .... 

Badge, by H. W. King 

of Gipping, Etching of Badge, Standard and Arms 

 Motto •••• ..«• «••• 

Unicom, Horn of .... 

TJphall, Boman Entrenchment 
Upholsterers' Company, Arms 
Upminster ... .... 

Urn Burial, Roman .... 

Urswick, D. . . . . .... 

Urswyck, Sir P*. .... 

Effigies, Dagenham 

Tandover (Strangman Pedigree) 
V ajflft * .... .... 

Yeley, A. C, The Shakspeares of Essex 
Venablee .... .... 

Yere, John de. Earl of Oxford 

Monument at Castle Hedingham 

Vestment, Ecdesiastical .... 

Bequest of .... 

Via Cmcis .... .... 

Vincent, Windsor Herald .... 

Virgin Mary, Assumption of 

fV ade .... .... 

Wake, Manors • • .... 

^^-^— Knot ..•• •••• 

Wakering, Little . • . • 

Sir Thomas .... 

WaldegraTe, Dame EHizabeth 
Waldo, De .... .... 

vV aiKer .... .... 

Walsingham .... .... 

Waltham, Religious House Founded by Tovi 
• Cross transferred from Montacute 

" Visit of Harold..,. •... 

Church rs-buHt and endowed by Harold 

Charter and endowment of Edward the Confessor 



• f f • 



87, 177 

92, 179 







202, 208 

179, 19» 















169, 172 




















Waltham Abbey Church, Letter of Sir H 
history .... , . 

Boconstructed and endowed by 


(Little) Church 

Walton .... 

War cry 


Warden's Hall 

Warner .... 

Wardship, practises relating to 

Warle Church 

Warley .... 

Little, Tyrell family . . 

Church, Bequest to . . 

Warr, De la, Badge 


Waynflete, Bishop Wint .... 

Wearing Apparel, inventory of 

Bequest of 

Webb .... .... 

Wedington .... .... 

Weedon, Sir Booth de .... 

Wentworth, Lord .... 

Family .... 

w es b .... ... 

Westminster Abbey, Copes 

Chapel, Hen. VII. 

Style of .... 

EUIb, in illuBtration of 
Henry 11. 

. . • • 
. • • • 

« • • • 

• « • • 
• • . * 

• • . • 

• • • • 

. . • • 

. . I . 
• . • • 

. • • a 

• • • • 

• • • . 



Whitehall Gateway 
Whiting .... 
Willingale Doe 

WiUoughby, Sir W 

Wills (Ancient), by H. W. King 
 Doctors Conmions 

— of Essex Families 

Chapel of St. George 
Wingfield, J. 


Wiseman . . . . 

Witham Church, Vestment for 

Withersfield, in New England 

• • •  

• • • • 
. • • • 

• • t • 

• • • • 





00, 178 




.. 76,92,98 






. . 69, 173, 182 





















. . 68, 64, 167 



34, 38 




. . 101, 102, 167 





Witsand, Baldwin de .... 
Wivenhoe • • . • • . . • 

— ^— — Church, Bequest to 
Wolfiey^ Cardinal, .... 

B attle of Spurs .... 

B lackmore Priory. . . , 
^^^^■^""^""■^jraiacflo . • * • 
^Tomb .... 

. • •• 

WonnMth, Ingatt att 
"Wood .... . • • • 

Easter Sepulchre of .... 

Tombs and Effigies in 

Woodknif e .... .... 

Woodstock, John of, Badge 
"Wormelaya .... .... 

Wrangle^ Manerium de .... 

Wright • . • • .... 

Wudeford .... .... 


WybOTne • • . • .... 


Wyvenhoe, «m Wivenhoe .... 

Tngoe .... 

Yong .... 

Yarkshire, Rebellion in 

• « « > 

• • . • 
• . • . 

• • • . 

• • • . 

•  . . 

• • . • 
• . . • 

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97, 103 






f |e €sm %xt\mb^ial ^0aetj. 

pediquee of marnet. 

1, The English Pcdigret. 

Bekbt's pedigree is on the whole the best and olearest. 
Newconrt's answers its purpose, which is to show who 
presented to the Layer Mamey Beotory. In the Harleian 
MSS. (British Museum, 1432 and 1541) are two frag- 
mentary portions of Marney pedigree, which, though in- 
terestiug in themselves, afford Uttle additional light. Copies 
of all four are annexed, (Appendix A.) 

The apparent discrepancy between the pedigrees of 
Newoourt and Berry may easily be reconciled. Sir 
William Mamey, Sheriff of Essex, had two sons, Thomas 
and John. Thomas had no heirs male, and therefore the 
said Sir William was ultimately succeeded by John. John 
was the father of Henry, first Lord Marney. Take this 
clue and all comes out clear. There is also a Mamey 
pedigree given by Lipscombe (" Buckinghamshire," i. 
295), to show the alliance with the families of Burghersh, 
Chaucer, Hampden, &c. 

But, besides what can strictly be called genealogy, one 
finds in old M8S., and in old books too, incidental notices 
of the Mamey race, which, being scattered here and there, 
it seemed very desirable to bring together. I therefore 
annex them arranged chronologically, or, at any rate, so far 
as possible, in order. (B.) 

Dugdale says in his ^'Baronage," ii. 301, " The first 
mention I find of the family is in 2 E iii." But you will see 
that there is much earlier mention of the Mameys. The 

VOL. m., PABT I. A 


earliest I have found is that of Hugo de Marini, or Marney, 
who had the Prebend of Tottenhall, in the Church of St. 
Paul's, London, and was Dean of that Church from about 
1160 to 1181. This brings us back to Hen. II. William 
de Marney, also, held a Knight's fee under Henry de 
Essex, in 1166. 

Under Bich. I. we find Werry de Marinis .excused by a 
writ fix>m paying scutage. 

William de Mareny had to pay a fine of twenty marks 
to King Hen. III. for having married a lady who was the 
King's ward. 

William de Maryni, Knight, was one of the sureties to 
the same King for the debts, if any, of Baldwin de Witsand, 

Agnes, widow of William, pays half a mark to the King. 

Another (?) William de Marny is presented anno 2 Ed. I. 
for that, to the damage of his neighbours, he had appro- 
priated to his own use two acres of the King's highway in 
Leyr Marney. 

William de Marny, by payment of x"*" obtained license 
for granting to a laic a tenure in Leirmamy, with the 
advowson of the Church there. This was an. 4 Ed. III. 

Sir Bobert de Marney, at a later period, was Patron of 
South Ockendon Bectory. This was only for seven years ; 
yet during that short period there were no less than four 
vacancies, and he four times exercised the right of presen- 
tation, namely, in 1391, in 1393, in 1397, and in 1398. 
("Newcourt,"ii. 447-8.) 

Under Hen. V. we find traces of what appears to be a 
Norman branch of the Marini family (Marigny) in France. 

A portion of one MS., in a very crabbed hand, from 
which I extract a few notices of the Mameys, is headed in 
the margin, " Evidences of Layer Marney and Britton." 
It seems to have been a rough abstract of various old deeds 
and conveyances, made by some learned lawyer about 
temp. Hen. VII. or Hen. VIII., probably for his own use, 
for, badly as they wrote in those days, he could hardly 
have made it for any one's besides. 

It appears from Burke's " Boll of Battle Abbey " (pp. 5, 
10, and 12) that the name of Marny stands amongst those 
who came over with William the Conqueror, in three of 
the published rolls, viz., Holinshed's, Duchesne's, and one 


of Leiand's ; but I find nothing in ^^ Domesday Book " to 
show that any Marney received a grant of lands^ either 
in Layer Mamey or elsewhere in England, at the time of 
the general distribution made by the Conqueror. Within a 
century of that period, however, as abeady mentioned, we 
find Muilman, Morant, and Banks in his ^^ Dormant and Ex- 
tinct Baronage," uniting their testimony that W. de Marney 
held a Ejiight's fee under Henry de Essex (1166); and 
from that time forth we find various notices of the Marneys 
and their holdings up to Hen. YIII. The prosperity of 
the Mamey family culminated in this last reign, when Sir 
Henry Mamey, already K.G. and a Privy Councillor, was 
created Baron Mamey (1523) ; but he did not outlive the 
year, and his son and heir, John Lord Marney, dying 
without male issue in 1625, the whole of the splendid 
Mamey property, not only in Essex, but in other counties, 
reverted to the Crown, the family estate excepted. 

I copy three old MS. records of Henry Lord Mamey's 
creation when he was made a Peer. One fixes the creation 
at " Eichemonde," another at " Hampton Courte." This 
may be reconciled ; for, the two places being only about 
four miles distant, it is very possible that the essential 
part of the ceremony may have been performed at one, 
and the normal concomitants, such as heraldic proclamation, 
feasting, dancing, and largess, at the other. The second 
MS. memorandum, though short, contains an important 

clause, *^S' H. Mamey create Lord Mamey .for hym 

Sg hys heyre tnales.^^ To Lord John there were no " heyre 
males," and the peerage became extinct (C). According 
to " Muilman" (D) the "noble family of Mamey " enjoyed 
"the capital manor of Layer Mamey" for about three 
centuries and a half (p. 39) ; perhaps we might say for 
366 years, or nearly. 

As " Domesday Book " records no Marney as a holder, 
either in capite or in dominio, of English acres under the 
Conqueror, how and when did this knightly house first 
become established in our soil ? 

It is well known that our first Kings after the Conquest, 
in order to strengthen their position, invited over their 
continental friends, whom they received and encouraged as 
upholders of their power. (Turner, "Hist, of Eng.," iv. 161, 
211, 425, 437.) It is very possible that the founders of 


the English house of Mamey came over in that character, 
and were enriched, like others, by grants of land. The 
great proprietors, conscious of insecurity in their new 
possessions, adopted the same policy as their Kings. 
*' After the death of Waltheof," says Lingard, " every earl, 
and every powerful vassal of the crown, was a Norman. 
Each of these, to guard against the disaffection of the 
natives, naturally surrounded himself with foreigners, who 
alone were the objects of his favour and patronage ; and 
thus almost all, who aspired to the rank of gentlemen, all 
who possessed either wealth or authority, were Normans." 
(Lingard, i., 468.) If, as seems probable, the Marneys 
were of Norman origin, they may in this manner have 
acquired their earliest holdings. After the first donations 
under William the Conqueror, new grants were continually 
made to new comers. 

2. The Norman Pedigree. 

But who were the Norman progenitors of the Marneys ? 
Of course, with our actual amount of information, all that 
can be offered upon this question must be taken as con- 
jectural; but, after some search in French genealogies, I 
am on the whole disposed to give preference to the Norman 
family of Marigni. Annexed (E) is the pedigree of the 
Norman Marignis, principally deduced from the " Dictionaire 
Gen6alogique." Mamey is spelt in old English documents 
Marini, Mareni, Maregni, &c. ; and it is observable that 
in one instance, as if wishing to be correct, an old writer, 
already referred to, has struck out with hii pen the 
more modem name " Mamey " and substituted " Mareni^^^ 
thus : — 

Bobtus de Mamoy Mareni 

Add. MS., 5937, fo. 104 over. 

just as in anouher place he had struck out Oreene and 
substituted the still older spelling Grene. 

Marigny, a town of Normandy, afforded a title to the 
Norman family of Marigni. It will be seen, by the 
pedigree sent herewith, that Engueran de Portier married 
Maude, widow of Richard, who was '* Seigneur de Lbgbr." 
Now, neither in Kxpilly, nor in Valesius, nor in the great 
Dictionary of Martiniere, nor in any other French authority, 


can I find any such name of a French place as Leger, giving 
title, or not giving title to a French family ; and your 
Layer, amongst other modes of spelling, is written in old 
documents Leoeba (Legera Mamey)« 

Add. MS., 5937, fo. 104 over. 

On these facts, may we not be permitted to found a con- 
jecture — of course, only a conjecture ? Richard, Seigneur 
de Leger^ whose widow Engueran le Portier married, had 
been already in England, and there, as a Norman, by 
grants from the Norman race then dominant, had acquired 
lands at Legera^ in Essex, and to tkU cause owed his title 
as " Seigneur de LegerP The son of the second marriage. 
Seigneur de Leger, in his turn, in virtue of the Essex 
property^ took also from his Norman lordship the title of 
^^ Seigneur de Marigni ; " and thus began the connexion 
between the names of Layer and of Marney. 

After the marriage of Boger de Tay with Edith de la 
Haye, the names of the three Lords of Layer were Tay, 
Breton, and Mamey. I have transcribed an old MS. 
memorandum in which all these three names appear 
together : — 

Confinnatio fact. HeDiico Stamp & Margt. ux. eius, &c. test" Johe 
Marnye, milit. Robt. de Teye, Johe firetona. Armigs anno 3 Edw. 4^. 

*' Confirmation made to Henry Stamp and Margaret his wife. Wit- 
nesses, John Mamey ^ K^; Robert de Taye; John Breton^ Esq*. 3 Ed. IV." 

Derivation of Layer. — Morant proposes certain deriva- 
tions of Layer, or rather cites them with an appearance of 
distrust (i. 405). I would suggest that the old spelling of 
Layer, e.g. Legra and Legera, points apparently to the 
ancient Teutonic word Lager, which was either a place of 
human resort, such as the retreats of the old Germans in 
their forests, or ^^ cubile ferarum," including, no doubt, the 
hart and wild boar, as well as the otter, fox, badger, and 
wolf, and so affording a hunting ground. We are not, 
however, compelled to take this latter meaning of Lager, 
to the exclusion of the former. Kelham, in his ^^ Domesday 
Book illustrated," points out the true reason why, in the 
original division of the counties into hundreds, some 
hundreds are so much less in extent than others: — ^The 


division was not made by extent, but by population. 
Winstree, then, being a very small hundred, so small that 
it is sometimes called a half-hundred by mistake, may be 
presumed to have been, when constituted, proportionately 
populous; and the term Lager, as applied to the district 
now comprising the three Layers, may have been due to 
population, just as probably as to game. 

Henry ^ the First Lord Mamey. 

Lord Henry Mamey, numerous and splendid as were the 
honours which he acquired, started in life as plain Henry 
Mamey^ Esquire^ and belonged to a class described by 
Henry VIII. as " scant well borne gentlemen, of no great 
lands." He inherited the paternal property ; but this 
probably in the King's eyes was " scant," compared with 
the large holdings of some noblemen in those days, and 
with the noble domains and broad acres afterwards con- 
ferred on Henry Marney by the King himself, on the Duke 
of Buckingham's forfeiture. (P.) 

Henry Mamey stands recorded amongst " English wor- 
thies," and amongst the " noted Sherife " of Essex ; but 
his first entrance on the path of Court advancement appears 
to have been when he assumed some office in the house- 
hold of Margaret, Countess of Bichmond, mother of 
Henry VII- That he discharged with credit the duties of 
this office is apparent from the fact that the Countess 
appointed him one of her executors (6); and the early 
partiality with which he was viewed by Prince Henry, 
afterwards Henry VIIL, is evinced by the youth's request 
to his father, Henry VII., that Henry Marney might be 
made a Privy Councillor. The appointment was repeated 
by Henry VIII. himself when he succeeded to the throne ; 
and, both before and after, the favourite was employed by 
his patron on various confidential services (H). The fol- 
lowing is a list of honours and appointments conferred on 
Henry Mamey : — 

1. Previous to the accession of Henry VIII. : — 

Sheriff of Essex. 

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

Officer of the Coantess of Richmond's household. 

Priyy ConnoiUor to Henry VII. 


2. After the accession of Henry VIII. : — 

Privy Councillor to Henry YIII. (a distinct appointment). 

Knight of the Garter. 

Lord Privy Seal. 

Captain of the Body Guard. 

Baron, by title of Lord Mamey. 

Henry Mamey served frequently as a soldier in the 
civil contests under Henry VII. Under Henry VIII. he 
served repeatedly in France, especially in the campaign 
including the ^^ Battle of Spurs/' in which the Song was 
present in person (I). 

He seems to have had a glorious quarrel with Cardinal 
"Wolsey (K). This was before he was made a Baron. One 
would like to know how he contrived to survive the 
Cardinal's wrath in those ticklish times, and to win the 
peerage in spite of hostile influences. 

When, after his creation, he was about to start for his 
last campaign in France, he appears to have felt a pre- 
sentiment that he had not long to live. He returned, 
however, in safety to England, but died in London within 
the twelvemonth at his own house (L). 

In Lloyd's "State Worthies," ed. 1766, vol. i., p. 159, 
appears the following character of Sir Henry Marney. 
The author is disposed to be eulogistic, but I think the 
sketch will be found interesting in connexion with our 
present subject : — 


Observations on the Life of Sir Henry Mamy, 

" Sir Henry Mamy was one of young Henry's first council, who loved 
his person well, and his prosperity better ; and impartially advised him 
for his good, and modestly contested with him against his harm ; that 
council that was hand as well as head, and could perform as well as 
advise; this was the searching judgement that discovered Buonviso 
the Lucchess his letters to the French Bang, betraying our designs as 
soon as thought on, and instructing him for prevention, before our King 
waa ready for the attempt. Industry and thrift over-rules princes : 
this personage had no time to transcribe intelligence, but what he bor- 
rowed from his sleep ; nor money to buy it, but what he saved out of 
his allowance : yet he understood moer than any one prince of Europe, 
and was more consulted than any one statesman. His judgment was much 
valued, his integrity more; ever offering what was solidly safe, rather 
than what was superficially plausible : as one who was a stranger to 
the wisdome of the latter age (as Sir Francis Bacon describes it), which 
is rather fine deliveries and shifts from inconveniences, than solid and 
grounded courses for advantage. His foresight was large, and his spirit 



larger : he considered all circumstaDces that occurred to him ; judged 
what he considered, and spoke what he judged — with that resolution 
as to his opinion, that argued he understood the matter in question, with 
that modesty as to his superiours, that shewed he understood himself. 
He would say that he that could not with the cameleon change colour 
with the aire he lived in, must with the cameleon live only upon aire." 

(A fuller account of Henry Lord Mamey may be seen 
in ^^ Bemarks and Characters/' p. 23.) 



Portions from MSS. 

From Harl. HB., No. 1432, fo. 81. 

Hbmbt Mabmbt married Tboma8inb, da. 

to John AruodeU 
of Langhome. 

(This, In Berrr'a 
"EM4f«." p. 73, Is 
Lanheme,Go. Corn- 

Eatherine John Lord ^_. Christian, da. 
11X. Tho. "MaiDey °*of 8^ Robert 
fionham Newborne, Et. 

From Harl. MS., No. 1541, fo. 9. 
Sir William Alice, dr. Sir Robert 


of Sir 


S' W" Marney 
Bonn & heiro 



John Mamey, Knight 
of Lower (sio) Mamey) 

Elizebeth d. ft 
ooheire of the 
Lord Scrollei 

(A blank) 

Ann, d. of S' John 
Mamey nz. 8' Tho. 



Pedigree from Newecurt^ ii., 377. 

WiUiaffl de Mamey waa Lord of L. 
and Patrol 

Mamey and Patron of the Eeotory and 
p. (4. 

To ihifly Wm. aacoeeded [not atated if 
•on] and waa patron of the Ghaatry in 
1336, 11 Ed. iii 

[Dngdale aays, another William anc- 

ceecled. Sheriff of Eases and Herts, S 

Henry It. 1401.] 


Bohert de Mamey, Ht., styled also noMKi, 
waa patron 1865, and presented also, in 
1398, 22 Rio. u, 

[This Bohert, aooording to Newconrt, 
waa fiither of the last-named Wm.] 

William [the Sheriff aa aforesaid]. 



Sir Thomas, Ac., Mamey, Et 

Margaret, dr. & heir. 

Her undo, John Mamey, Esq., presented 
in 1442. 

Henry Mamey, Esq., his son & heir; and 
presented 1488. [This, Baron Mamey.] 

John Lord Mamey. 

Pedigree fi^m Berry ^ Eeeex^ p. 73. 
Sir Wniiam Mamey, Knight 

John Mamey =■ ATioe, d. of Balph Gemon. 

Sir William Mamey, of Layer 
Mamey, Go. Essex, temp. Ed. iii. 

Eatherine, d. k coheir of 

Sir Bohert Mamey, Knt. =» Alice, danr. of Bich' Layer, 
J of Soffoik. 


Sir Wm. Mamey, of Layer Mamey. ^ Elizabeth, d. and coheir of Sir Bich^ 
Ass<> High Sheriff for Essex and Seigiaux, Kt. 

Herts, 1402, oh. 2 H. y. 


Sir John Mamey, of Layer Mamey, Et. = Joaoi d. of John Throgmorton, of Go. 



Sir Henr3r Mamey, Privy Councillor to 
Hen. yii. ft viii., E.G., created Lord 
Maraey 14 Hen. riii. Ob. 24 May, 
1623, bur«> at Layer Marney. 

Thomazin, d. of Sir John Arandel, of 
Lanhoroe, Go* Gomwali. 

Lord John Mamey, aon and heir [of Lord =» *Catherine, d. apd heir of Sir Boger 

Henry] died 27 Apr., 1525. 
Catherine, only d. of Lord Henry, ft sister 
of Lord John, married Thomas Bonham, 


Gatherine =» Lord Poyninga 



Elizabeth = Thomas Lord 
Howard, Vise' 

* CoDMmlng this lady, wlfs of LorA Jnlin Mnrney, Loland appears to make a miatake, marryinf 
ker to Lord Henrr. ** The laste of that name [Newborow. in Borry Newburgh] whcg douvbtcr nnd 
Heyre whs mari«d to Syr Heory Marney, dyid in Kateaz or Sonthfolk, and ther waa byried." Itia. 





Hwi. II, Aeeeuion 1154. 

Hugo de Marini, or Mamy, bad the prebend of Totenball, in tbe 
Cburob of St. Paul's, Loudon, and was Dean of that Churcb from about 
1160 to 1181. Newcourt, i. 34,213. Wright ('« Essex ") u. 726, note. 
Le Neve. 

William de Mamey, about 1166, held a knight's fee under Henry of 
Essex. Morant, i. 406. " The Mamey fieimily held the chief of them 
[the lands of Layer Mamey] as early as the reign of King Henry ii , 
under Henry de Essex." ''Muilman," (''Essex") y. 413. See also 
Banks, C Dorm, and Ext. Baronage "} iii. 509. 

Xich. I. 1189. 

Worry de Marinis excused by a writ of Rich. L, 1194« from paying 
scutage. Morant, i. 406 ; and Salmon, 447, 2. 

John. 1199. 

''We see de Marinis possessed of the Grand Manor, before the 
Interdict." Sahnon, 447, 1. 

Hen. III. 1216. 

" Essex." I WiUielmus de Mareny finem fecit cum [Rege J per yiginti 
} marcas pro eo quod duxit in uxorem sine hcentia Regis 
Agnem quse fuit uxor Thom» de Ganvillo, ques fiiil de donatione Regis. 
Et mandatum est Vicecomiti Essex et Hertf. quod preedictum Willielmum 
occasione preedicta in nuUo occasionet [charge] yel molestet, et de terra 
ipsorum Willielmi et Agnis et catallis eorum qu® occasione prsodicta 
in manum Regis capit ei plenam seisinam habere faciat. T. R. [Terminus 
Regis] apud Ottindon. xxij. die. Jul." ** Roberts, '* Excerpta e Rotulis 
Finium," i. 309. (The above, 20 Hen. iii. a.d. 1236.) 

** Essex " ) Agnes qusB fuit uxor Willielmi de Mariny dat Regi dimidium 
J marc® pro uno breri ad terminum. Et mandatum est Vice- 
comiti EssexisB quod capiat secnritatem. t'erminis Regis apud Westm. xj. 
die. Maii." Roberts, iL 77 (34 Hen. iii., a.d. 1250.) 

*' Essex." ^ Will' de Marigny et Agnes uxor ejus dant Regi duas 
) marcas pro una ass* no. dis. cap. coram Henr de Bathon. 
Et mand est Vic Essex, &c." lb. ii. 221. (40 Hen. iu., ▲.d. 1256.) 

** Executores Baldewini de Witsand ' fecerunt nobis securitatem per 
Ricardum de Culeworth et WiUielmum de Maryni milites de com. Essex 
de debitis R reddendis si que dictus Bald. R debebat die quo obiit." 
lb. ii. 401. (A.D. 1263, 47 Hen. iii.) 

JEd. I. 1272. 

** Dimid. Hundr* m de Wensetr ' 
** De p' prestur [Perprestura, an encroachment or trespass]. ** Diout 
qd Wills de Mamy temp guerre fee' quamd p' prestur* in regali yia in 
Till de Leyr Mamy ad quantitatem ij"' acr* ad dampnu vicinoz nesciut 
q° war'." " Rotuli Hundredorum," i, 157. 


(It is to be observed that Bdw. L, retarning from the Holy Land, found 
great abases, from encroachments on the King's rights, oppression of the 
people by nobility, gentry, sheriff, &o. Therefore the King, anno 
regni ii, Oct. 11, appointed a Special Commission ; whenoe resulted the 
** Hundred Rolls," or *' Botuli Hundredorum," from which the above is 
an extract. See '* Rot. Hund.,'' i, 9—11.) 

Anno 35 Edw. i. "Rob"- de Mamey." Addit. MS. 5937, British 
Museum, (the same which contains the '* Evidences of Layer Mamey) fo. 
105. '* Test, apud Messing anno 35 Edw. pmi. Thomas Baynard, Robtus 
de Mamey, Ric. de Teye.*' 

Ed. II. 1307. 

** 8 Edw. ii. apud Messing W^ de Mamey.'' lb. 

** In 12 Ed. ii, William de Mamey, who founded the College here»** 
Salmon, 447.2. 

Ed, III. 1827. 

Witness at Layer Breton, 2 Ed. iiL '* W^ de Mamy." Addit. MS. 
5937, as before. 

** Will de Mamy finem fecit p decem libr' p lie' dandi laic' feed' in 
Leirmamy, et advocoem [advowson] ecclie ejusdem ville ad manum 
mortuam.** ** Rot. Grig." iL p. 46, col. 2. (4 Ed. iii.) 

Fini mention found by Dugdale. ** The first mention I find of the 
family, is in 9 Ed. 3. William de Mamy, about that time obtaining a 
charter for Free-Warren, in all his demesn lands at Leyre-Mamy, in 
Com. Essex." ''Baronage," ii. 301. 

Anno 9 Ed. iii. " Rex confirmavit Robert de Mamy oonsanguineo et 
hseredi Willi de Mamy in feodo parcum suum de Le3rre infra metas forests 
de Essex' concess' Willo per Henricum tertium." '* Calenduium Rotu- 
lorum Patentinm," p. 122, col. 2. 

Hen. IV. 1399. 

24 (?) Hen. iv. «< Johes Mamey Miles." Ad. MS. 5937, fo. 105. 
[There must be some mistake, as Henry iv. did not reign so many as 
24 years. Qy. 14 Henry iv.J 

Hen. V. 1418. 

Traces of the foreign family of Marigny in Normandy. Hen. v. in 
1417 grants safe conduct to Fluri Marrigny, Gillet de Marigny, and 
others *Mn ducatu R nermann a psens existentes." Hardy, '^Rotuli 
NormannicB," i. 178, 

Hen. VL 1422. 
28 Henry vi. John Marney, Ejiight Ad. MS. 5937, fo. 105 over. 

Ed. IV. 1461. 

Sir Thomas Tyrell, who died 1476, married Emma, daur of John 
Mamey, of Layer Mamey, co. Essex, Esq. See Berry's ''County 
Genealogies," Essex, p. 58. (In the genealogy from Harl. MS., 1541» 
given above, it is Ann, d. of S' John Mamey.) 

3 Ed. iv.y " John Mamey, miles." Ad. MS. as before 


Hsn. VII , 1485. 

^'HenricuB Wallise prineeps" protests against his marriage with 
*^Elatharina Hispanianun Regis filia." June 27, 1505. Witnesses of 
the protest :— 

** GHles Daubnej, C. Somerset 
Thomas Rowthale. 
NichoUis West. 
Henry Mamy." 

Bomet, <' Hist, of the Reformation/' Ed. 1629, voL L, pt 2, pp. 17, IS. 

Hen. VIII. 1509. 

Some particulars of the lar^ property held by Sir Henry Mamey, and 
the large grants made to lum by King Henry viii., may be seen in 
Lipsoombe's " Buckinghamshire," i. 457, iy. 72, ii. 558, i. 152, 

The Order in Council which I found at the British Museum in manu- 
script (Add. MSS. 6214, fo. 3) is '* for making of burgesses of Reding,*^ 
and bears date 26 Oct 2nd year of K. Henry yiii. It has the autograph 
siimatures of 
* T. Surrey, 

Rie. Wynton, C. Somerset, 

Harry Mamy, 

T. Englefild. 

<< Rio. Wynton " is said in an annexed note by a more recent writer to 
be " Fox." 


(1) *^ Sir Henrye Mamey made barren Mamey. 12 Ap. 1523, Anno 
xiiij. Hen. viii." Add. MSS. 6113, fo. 127. 

(2) ** S' Henry Mamey create Lorde Mamey at Hampton Gourte the 
xiiij th yere of his Reign [Hen. viiL's] 9 Aplis/or hym ^ nUheyre males J* 
lb. fo. 192 oven 

(Obs. The MS. from which this was copied appears to have been 
eTidendy written in the reiffn of Hen. riii. For the Ust of creations from 
which it is taken is headed '* The names of the noble men created in the 
tyme of o' Souverain lorde King Henry the viij*^, the Kings Eoyall 
ma*^ that now ysj') 

(8) " Lord Mamey. 

*' The xij day of Aprill in the yere of our Lord A.m. y^ xxiij. in the 
xiiij. yere of Einge Henrye theight was S' Henrye Mamey created barren 
Mamey at the King's place at Richemonde, being ledde by the Lord Rooe 
and the Lord Fitzwater, and the Lorde Montyoye bering the robe having 
ij. barres of lectues. Don in order as before in other ys more at large 
declarid. And thofficers who were there hadd there fees. 

Mr. Garter, Kinge at Armes 

lb. fo. 127. 



'' The capita] Manor here is that of Layer-Maraey, so denominated 
from the noble family of Marney, who enjoyed it from the reign of 
King Henry ii. to that of King Henry viii." •' Muilman," v. 414. 


Marigny of Normandy. 

Pedigree, chiefly taken from the ** Dictionaire Q^n^alogiqne/' vol. ill. 

Portier de Marigni, 

Richard, Seigneur s=3 Mahaud =3 Engueran le Portier, (2nd 

husband of Maude,) viyait 

DE Leoer, first (Maude) 
husband of Maude 

en 1150 

Engueran ii. du nom, Seigneur de Mabioki, qui 
prit le nom de sa mere, et vivoit en 1240. 


First Wife == Philippe de Marigni = Second Wife 

Engueran de Marigni iii. du Two Ecclesiastics. 

nom, made Count de Longue- 

yille in 1301. Brought to 

the gallows by the Count de 

Valois, and his innocence 

afterwards established. 


In answer to the complaint of " the Rebylles in Torkeshire " that 
K. Henry yiii. had not so many ** noble Counsaillours '' as at the begin- 
ning of his reign, the King writes, *' Who were then Counsaillors I well 
remember, and yet of the Temporaltie I note none but 2, worthie calling 

noble Others, as the Lorde Mamey, and Darcye, but scant weu 

borne gentlemen ; and yet of no grete landes, till they were promoted by 
Us, and so made Knightes, and Lordes." '* State Papers," Henry yiii., 
vol. i., p. 607. 


Among the <' Noted Sheriff " of Essex is mentioned Henry Mamey, 
Esq. '* Henry Mamy, Ar. was ('tis supposed) servant, afterwards 
executor to the King's mother, Marg. Countess of Richmond. He was 
Knighted, made Chanc. of the Dutchy," &c. *' Eng. Worthies "* (called 
also ** Anglorum Speculum ^^ p. 199. 

In the will of << Margarete Countes of Richmond and Derby, moder to 
the most excellent Prince King Henry the VII.", Henry Marney is 
expressly styled *' Chauncellar of the Duchie of Lancaster," Nichols, 
" Collection of Wills," p. 856. 



Henry tu., Oct., 1501. At the reception of Katherine [of Arragon], 
wben she was about to become wife of Artbur, Prince of Wales, [son of 
H. vii.,] Sir Henry Marney was one of tbose appointed to be in attend- 
ance near tbe Tower Gate, ^* witb my Lorde of Yorke, the King's second 
son," to receive the said Princess on her arrival, when " she shall be set 
on land." " Miscel. State Papers," 1501 to 1726. Vol. i., pp. 5, 6. 

**Sir Henry Marney. ...was the King's [H. the Eighth's] first 
favonrite, and was chosen a Privy Counsellor in the late reign at his 
request." He is " distinguished in history " " as one of the most mag- 
nificent and gallant courtiers of the time." Lodge, "Illustrations," 
vol. i., p. IS (note by the author). 

*' John had issue Henry ; who, being a person of g^at wisdom, gravity ; 
and of singular fidelity to that prudent Prince King Henry the 7th, was 
made choice of for one of his Privy-Council, in the first year of his 

reign And upon the death of King Henry the seventh, being 

chosen one of the rrivy-Council to King Henry the 8th, was shortly 
after install'd Knight of the most noble order of the Garter. From 
which Eling he had such high esteem, as that he was made Captain of 
his Guard ; and in 13 Hen. 8 procured a grant in special tail, of the 
Mannours of Little Brickhill," &c., *' as also of the Burrough of Bucking- 
ham, then in the Crown by reason of the Duke's forfeiture. And in 14 
Hen. 8 (4 Feb.) was made Keeper of the Privy-Seal : as also upon the 
ninth April following, advanced to the dignity of a Baron of this Realm, 
by the name of Lord Mamy." Dugdale, *' BiEironage." Tome ii., p. 801. 

N.B. The writ of Lord H- Mamey's creation may be seen at length 
in Rymer's " Feedera," 1523, feb. 26. 

According to Miss Strickland (" Lives of Queens \ Lord Mamev was 
sent with the Duke of Norfolk to reduce the household of the Prmcess 
Mary (afterwards Queen M.), vol. iii., p. 332. 

" As he [the Duke of Buckingham] descended the Thames, and drew 
near the city, his barge was hailed and boarded by Sir Henry Marney, 
captain of the body-guard, and a company of yeomen of the guard, who 
attached him as a ti^tor in the King^s name." *' Pict. Hist, of £ng.," 
V. ii., p. 344. (Some particulars of this arrest, by " Sir Henry Marney,'* 
may also be seen in Grafton's '* Chronicle," pp. 1044-5. In page 1045 
the name is spelt MamayJ 


Henry Marney ^* in 2 Hen. 7 fought stoutly for him against John 
Earl of Lincoln, and his adherents, in the Battel of Stoke, near Newark. 
He was also in the Battel at Black-Hethe, in 12 H. 7 against the Lord 

Audley and the Cornish-men, then in Rebellion." "After which 

[his creation by H. viii.] he accompanied Charles Brandon, Duke of 
Suffolk, then General of the English forces sent into France ; landing 
with him at Calais." Dugdale *' Baronage." Tome ii., p. 301. (It was 
just before starting on this last military service that Lord H. Marney 
made his will, desiring to be buried at Layer Marney, if he died m 

In the can^aign of 1513, headed by Hen. 8 in person, and including 
the victoiT called the " Battle of the Spurs,'' the paper entitled the 
"Order of the Army" gives successiyely "The Vauntgarde," "The 


Myddwarde," and '* The Rerewarde." At the head of the ** Rerewarde" 
stands the name of '* Sir Henry Mamey ." In the ** Myddwarde " marched 
theEing^s Majesty, and in the '' Vauntgarde " " Mr. Almoner " (Woleey !) 
Lodge, vol i., p. 2. 

N.B. The '' Battle of the Spurt " is said to be so called on account 
of the extraordinary rapidity with which the chivalry of France galloped 
away, when they had lost the field. However that may be, the fight 
took place not far firom the village of Spours, 

Supposed to be two years after (1515), a paper entitled '^Ordennce 
and Artilery, delyved by S' Sampson Norton, by vertue of the King's 
warrunts." Amongst other issues, '* To S' Henry Mney, knyght, by i. 
warrunt, Bowes iiii**xiiii." (t.«. 94). 

** Henry Mamey " is named among those who joined Hen. vii. near 
*' Notingham." This appears to be recorded as a mihtary service. 
Hardyng, ** Chronicle," p. 555. 


1516. " Thomas Alen to the Earl of Shrewsbury." (Alen signs him- 
self •' Yo' pst, Tho' Alen." •* Her [at court] is gret snerling among 
dvse of them, yn so moche my Lorde Cardynall sayd unto S' Henry 
Mamy that the same S' Henry had done more displeasure unto the 
Eyng's Gce» by the reason of his cruelnesse agenst the gret estates of this 
r^me, then any man lyving." Lodge i. 18. 

The same to the same, 1517. " My Lord, as far as I can her, y' Lord- 
ship is moche beholdeyn to my Lord Cardinall for his loving words, and 
that mvellously now a late dales, sens the vareans was betwix his Gee 
and S' Henry Mny." lb. , p. 23. 


According to irfewcourt. Lord H. Mamey died '^ at his house in S. 
Swithin*s, London, May 24, 1523, 15 Hen. viii." ii. 378. 

[The ** badge" of Mamey. •* Market. A wing erect and erased 
Ai^ent." "Collect. Topog. et Geneal." iii. 68.] "Erased" means 
jagged at the bottom, as if forcibly torn off. 



F4U0W amd Sbnoraiy Secretary to the Soyal Ineiitute of British Arehiteete. 

The preceding account of the Mamey family, and the 
references to the founders of these buildings, are so 
copious, that little is left for me to add on this point. 
Architecture, however, is so intimately connected with 
History, ana requires for its proper study a sufficient 
knowledge of the events of the times and the actions of 
the individuals coeval with it, that nothing can be out of 
place in an Architectural description which throws light 
on the influences at work, or the individual characters 
which helped to mould the especial forms under con- 

For be it remembered, all architectural forms have 
an origin — either in the exigencies of ordinary existence, 
viz., the necessity for shelter, light, and air; — the pecu- 
liarities of materials; the prevalence of taste, good or 
bad, as we choose to call it now; the influences of 
religion ; the desire for magniflcence or simplicity ; the 
caprices of fashion, &c., and sometimes merely the fancies 
of individuals. Often, in the dim distance of centuries, 
we are at a loss to trace the reason for this or that form 
of structure ; but as often we And that some peculiarity 
of construction or style of ornamentation is to be ex- 
plained by, or itself illustrates, some local custom or form 
of expression. 

There was as much reason among the ancient Babel 
builders for the use of sun-baked clay for bricks, and 
" slime " for mortar, as there was for the use of moulded 
bricks in a country like Essex^ where stone is not found, 


and for the use of chalk, where stone-lime is not easily 
procured, for mortar. 

And there is the same exercise of common sense by us 
now when we use our own granites and marbles in build- 
ing, as was shown by our mediaeval forefathers, and by the 
Egyptians and Greeks, when they erected their noble 
edifices in porphyry, granite, marble, or other materials 
afforded by the locality. 

Bearing this in mind, the reader will excuse my ap- 
parently wandering notes, and pardon me if, instead of 
immediately speaking of the buildings to which I par- 
ticularly desire to draw attention, I mention other buildings 
or other circumstances which may illustrate them. 

The history of Layer Marney Hall, as it now exists, 
is the history of a quarter of a century — from a.d. 1500 
to 1625 exactly — for what has happened since may be 
summed up in very few words: simple neglect and 
natural decay. 

To commence at the year 1500, when Henry VII. was 
king. We find that Sir Henry de Marney was in great 
&vour at Court, being made one of the Privy C!ounciL 
Probably he migrated to Calais in this year with the 
king, to escape the plague which was raging over here. 

As a courtier. Sir Henry probably saw a great deal of 
those law tricks which were then practised in the exalted 
regions of hiffh life, and by which so many fine estates 
were acquired and fortunes made ; but we do not find 
that he himself was guilty of anything mean or low. On 
the other hand, he had the opportunity of meeting on 
equal terms with the greatest men of the time. 

And let us recollect this was a noble age of energy 
and mental action— -a period of renaissance for intellect, 
whether applied to literature or the arts ; a time for 
the new birth of religious as well as secular learning; 
an age when kings disdained not to study hard, and 
were proud of publishing learned books. It was an age of 
greatness, and there occur to one's mind such names as 
Wolsey and Leo X., great and learned men; Erasmus, 
Luther, lights to brighten up any time ; Columbus and 
Amerigo, names not forgotten even now ; Bramante, Eaffa- 
eUe, Michael Angelo, never to be thought of without 



It was probably for this service, as w.ell as others, that 
in the following year Sir Henry Meirney received his title 
of nobility. 

Beverting to the architectural subject, the general group 
of the buildings will be seen from, the plan forming one 
of the illustrations to this paper, to consist, at present^ of 
a gateway facing south, some buildings to the west of the 
Gateway or " Tower," and an immense range of stable and 
other farm buildings with dormitories and other apart- 
ments over them now not quite easy to understand, on 
the eastern sida 

To these must be added the Church, the KE. angle 
of which is indicated on the plan, and which, being of a 
similar material and style of architecture, must be noticed 
as forming part of the general group. 

That some of these buildings were intended to be 
considerably extended is shown by the " toothings " left 
in the brickwork on the north and east walls, and by 
certain foundations, and a sort of terrace or level parallel 
with the existing buildings in about the position shown 
by the dotted lines. These latter indications, it is but 
right to add, may be the foundations of some older house 
in which the family resided while the gateway and other 
parts of the new mansion was being erected. 

That the whole edifice never was completed, is proved 
distinctly by the toothings above referred to, which are 
simply the ordinary way of building walls which are 
intended to be connected with other walls, and can have 
no other object or meaning. Hence, all that is said in the 
county histories about the destruction of the place, must 
refer to some older buildings, probably the original Manor 

The site seems well chosen, facing the south, on the 
brow of a small eminence partly artificial, commanding 
a view over what was probably, 300 years ago, marsh 
land, stretching away towards the sea, but which now 
shows as pleasant green fields, said to be remarkably 
fertile^ The range of farm buildings formed a shelter 
from the east, while on the west of the gateway stretched 
the only wing of the residential buildings ever completed, 
for a distance of about 60 feet. 

The gateway seems to have been intended to be central. 


or nearly so, with the court-yard inside ; and opposite to 
it, on the north, was prohahly intended to be placed the 
hall, and chapel [if any], and larger apartments communi- 
cating with it. This court-yard, as suggested by the 
dotted lines on the plan, was probably about 100 feet 
square. Britton, Vol. I., speaks of this central court as 
measuring 104 feet 6 inches by 76 feet 4 inches; but 
why, I cannot understand, unless indications existed then 
which do not at this present time appear. 

Judging from the plan of the part erected, a corridor, 
with windows towards the court, would have afforded 
access to the series of apartments which were to have had 
windows in the outer walls. This was a common way of 
arranging the rooms at this period, and it shows, amongst 
other thmgs, the importance attached to the quadrangle, 
that here are some of the finest windows and doorways. 

In the numerous examples of gateways and court- 
yards erected about this time, which will occur to the 
recollection of every one, may be observed the magnificence 
which such an arragement gives to very simple buildings. 
How much more splendid, then, woidd have been the 
effect had such a noble gateway as this led into a court 
not inferior in character, especially when filled with the 
splendour of 16th century costume horses and equipages. 

But this arrangement had another intention also, viz., 
security; although very little provision appears to have 
been made in this case, as in many others, for protection 
from without, this being an indication of the settled con- 
dition of this part of the country at this time.* 

The northern range of the out-buildings, which form in 
themselves three sides of a court as spacious as the one 
just described, was intended to be connected with the 
gateway; but the southern range, probably, terminated 
in a &ae archway and gable, though it now shows only 

Eortions of the arch in a mutilated form. This latter 
uilding, about 160 feet long, has a number of remarkably 
fine buttresses on the south side, where the ground falls. 
From the examination of the trusses of the roof, the 
upper floor seems to have been divided into five apart- 

• Xing Henry VXI^granted a license to fortify New Hall, in Essex, with walla and 
towera; but Qomeld Hall, in the same rei^, was boilt "in a measure to erade the 
laws, and has a large quadrangular court m the centre, and was as strong and well 
seoiired as many baronial castles." 


ments, which, though now much altered, and used merely 
as lofto for hay and straw, still show the fine open timher 
roof, and windows looking into the yard. The arrange- 
ment of the lower floor is not so evident, but, probably, 
a little forther observation would show the arrangement 
and object of many parts now obscure. It seems probable, 
however, that this was occupied as stabling necessary for 
such an establishment. The opposite, or northern, range 
of buildings, as will be seen by reference to the plan, is 
but 126 feet long, though of a similar character exactly, 
except that at the end nearest the gateway, a very 
picturesque residence is formed by projecting windows 
and fire places, and which is now in daily use almost 
unaltered. By an examination of the roofs, it is seen 
that the remainder of the upper part of this building 
was formed into two large apartments, with windows in 
both back and front walls — ^not opposite to each other, 
but alternating — and all glazed. At the end wall, towards 
the east, is a large fire place and chimney, forming, with a 
stepped gable, a fine termination to the roof, although a 
doorway in the wall shows a communication with apart- 
ments beyond. A view of this interesting example of an 
ancient dormitory, from Mr. Parker's ^^ Domestic Archi- 
tecture," is given in the accompanying plate, and there 
seems no doubt that this was the sleeping place of a large 
number of the retainers of liord Mamey.* The floor below 
was occupied, probably as at present, by cattle, sheep, &c. 

The third side of this farm yard was probably occupied, 
or intended to be, by a bam, but the existing one gives 
no idea of the grandeur which such an object would have 
assumed had it been built in a manner consistent with the 
other buildings. 

Our sections and views will show Qome of the details ; 
but we may explain, that all the windows and door-frames 
on the ground floor are built of hard purbeck stone. The 
windows had iron gratings and shutters, hung to the 
jambs by iron hooks, still remaining; the girders and 
joists of the floor were of the most massive description, 

* <' There is reason to belieye that in the larger Houses and castles there was com- 
inonly a chamber at the top of the house, near the roof, which served for a dormitory, 
▼erv much after the same fatthion as in the monasteries, or the long room at Eton 
College. There is a room of this kind, called the dormitoxy, at jLajer Mameji 
EBsex.*'— '^Domestio Arohiteotoxe/' Vol III., part 1, p. 8. 





of oak or chesnut. The upper windows were built of 
moulded brick, of two lights under a moulded drip ; the 
roof is of a design and character similar to our best church 
roofs, haying arch principals and wind braces, &c« The 
walls generally, and in fact all the works, show a sub- 
stantiality perifectly marvellous, when we recollect the 
pinched and miserable style of most modem work, but only 
Lsistent with what w J done everywhere at the perioi 
we are speaking of. 

What a magnificent model farm yard might be here, 
were modern science employed to add to these noble 
edifices, the great agricultural improvements of our day, 
with sufficient taste and feeling not to destroy or deform 
one particle of the ancient work. 

The general exterior aspect of the buildings, as at 
present existing, is shown in the frontispiece; and the 
interior arrangements will be best understood by a refer- 
ence to the plan and illustrations. 

It will there be seen that the gateway consisted of a 
large obtasely-pointed or four-centred archway, closed 
by double folding gates, and flanked on either side by a 
projecting semi-octagonal tower, about 70 feet high, 
divided into 8 stories, and that these towers are again 
flanked, each by a semi-octagonal turret, one story less 
in height than the towers. Over the central gateway is 
a large muUioned window, of 6 lights, divided half way 
up by a transverse bar ; and on the story above this, again, 
is a similar window, crowned by a parapet, at a level con- 
siderably lower than the flanking towers. 

The range of buildings forming the western wing 
seem now very small, in comparison with the gateway, 
and have thus given such prominence to it that the com- 
mon name for the Hall is Layer Marney " Tower," a word 
hardly applicable in this instance. 

On each side of the entrance archway, the apartments 
which occupy the octagonal towers are lighted by windows 
in the external faces, forming a sort of bow window to 
each ; these rooms are piled above each other, as has been 
said, for 8 stories. The upper one is accessible only 
from the staircase turret at the back, by crossing the roofs, 
and forms a sort of watch tower, from which very ex- 
tensive views, stretching out far sea, can be obtained. 


In one of the angles towards the inner court-yard a 
commodious octagonal staircase of oak, winding round a 
central newell, affords access to these rooms, and the larger 
apartments now to be mentioned, and also, though at a 
different level, to the western wing, which is now the 
residential part of these premises. This staircase itself is 
worthy of notice. The first apartment over the entrance 
archway, occupying the space from back to front, the whole 
width of the turrets, and the height of two of the side 
apartments, is worthy of great attention, as well as - the 
one above it, exactly similar in size and proportion. Un- 
fortunately (though this is convenient enough for our 
present purpose), both can now be seen at once ; in fact, 
all is visible from floor to roof, owing to the decay of the 
floors and beams; which latter, however, still remain, 
propped up, sufficiently to show the once massive cha- 
racter of everything connected with the place. The wide 
open fire-place, with carved stone chimney-piece, still 
remains, ready to glow with the cheerful blaze once 
more; and even the oak linings of the window jambs 
partially, exist, to attest the completeness of the work, 
and agree exactly with the panelled oak ceilings we shall 
have presently to mention. The windows themselves are 
very large, and of five lights, with "floriated" heads, but 
are of such a peculiar character that wo shall have to 
speak of them separately. 

These large apartments were probably intended to be 
used with those of the adjoining wing, while the rest of 
the mansion was being erected, but it is very likely they 
were never occupied, and that the old Manor House 
(which most likely stood on ground at the N.W. angle 
of the supposed court, as shown by the dotted lines of 
the plan), was still his residence at the death of the last 
Lord Marney. 

As to the western wing, a survey of the cellars and 
other substructures enables me to imagine the general 
arrangement of the apartments, and this is confirmed by 
a glance at the ceilings of the upper SLoot. 

Various alterations from time to time have obliterated 
many of the traces of the old work on the ground floor, 
but it seems to have consisted of two large apartments 
and one smaller one at the end [see dotted lines in plan], 


and though I cannot observe any other than the octagonal 
staircase before referred to, there was probably another, 
or intended to be, for the use of these apartments during 
the completion of the rest of the edifice. 

One of these, in which the fire-place is shown on the 
plan, was probably used as a kitchen. The other had a 
fire-place in the corner, next the angle turret 

The corridor was lighted by windows looking into the 
court. The first floor rooms have very fine panelled oak 
ceilings, and are lighted, each by one window of 4 lights 
and one of 2 lights, seeming to indicate a sort of screen 
placed between them and across the room, perhaps to 
conceal the bed, &c. 

It would be useless to speculate further upon the exact 
domestic arrangements which were to be provided for by 
this plan, particularly as there are many existing examples 
of similar edifices of this period. 

I must now hasten to describe the architectural cha- 
racter of the exterior, which is generally of that late and 
debased form of Gothic called Tudor, but mixed in a 
remarkable manner with certain details of a new and 
previously unknown style, though prevailing at that time 
in Italy, and wrought in a material, called by the Italian 
name of Terra-cotta, which, however, is only very superior 
pottery work. All the details, however, are subordinated 
to the prevailing fashion of the English work, and even 
the parts executed in terra-cotta are moulded specially to 
give the general outline of the Gothic work, while they 
carry details of an opposite character. 

The material for all the Gothic portion of the edifice 
(except the stone jambs to the farm buildings, which, it 
should be observed, bear no traces of this new-bom Italian 
feeling), is moulded red brick so common in the Eastern 
Counties, and so worthily used in many noble buildings 
within a very few miles of Layer Marney, with which the 
usual ornamental work in black brick is used, forming 
diaper patterns over the surface. But, in addition to this, 
in certain parts, a very fine plaster has been used, in a 
manner showing the debased and false notions coming 
into vogue ; for it is used to cover the brickwork, and is 
evidentiy intended to represent the stone jambs which 


would be naturally used in a country where stone was 
more common. However, it has long since been peeling 
off and looking exactly the sham it is, while the honest 
brickwork and terra-cotta only improve in colour day by^ 
day, though rather the worse for wear. I am bound to add, 
however, this plaster was admirably executed, and better 
than is usually done in these latter days, when terraces of 
Boman temples have been produced by the mile in stucco 
grandeur, and are now standing in stucco misery. The 
terra-cotto work is confined to the windows and the 
crowning points of the parapets. These will be seen, by 
the illustration,* to be very carefully and elaborately 
modelled, and with such an Italian spirit pervading them, 
that I am inclined to assert that they must either have 
been brought from Italy, or moulded by an eminent Italian 
artist working in England at the time. 

Bespecting this point I am glad to be able to give some 
notes, handed to me by my friend Mr. Digby Wyatt, to 
whom my acknowledgments are due. 

Dallaway, in his " Notes to Walpole," says : — 

'^Girolamo da Trevizi and Holbein introduced both terra-cotta or 
moulded brickwork for rich ornaments and medallions or bas reliefs fixed 
against the walls, plaster work laid over the brick wall and some- 
times painted as at Norwich, and square bricks of two colours highly 
glazed and placed in diagonal lines as at Layer Mamej." 

Among other Italians in this country whose taste exercised a poweribl 
influence upon Architecture, and the application of Sculpture and 
Paintinff to Architecture were, John of Padua, Torrigiano, Qirolamo da. 
Treyizi,T Tolo dell'Annunciata, a painter, fiennedetto da Royezzano a 
▼ery able Florentine sculptor who was associated with Holbein, 
Zucchero the painter, Luca Penni. Of these Luca Penni, painter, 
Tolo deirAnnunziata, painter, and Trevisano, architect and engineer, 
all pupils, or of the school of Raffaelle, were attached to the Couit of 
Henry VIII., and at work before Holbein came here. 

Antonio Cavallari was employed as a gilder by Cardinal Wolsey, and 
he and Benedetto da Rovezzano worked on the tomb Wolsey commenced 
for himself during his lifetime. It is possible that the Hampton Court 
medallions, as well as those in the same style at St. Donates Castle, 
Glamorganshire, and in Holbein's Whitehall Gateway, were modelled 
by Benedetto. [The former are said, however, to have been sent to 
Wolsey by Leo X.] Layer Mamey terra-cotta ornaments were very 
likeljr executed under the influence of Girolamo da Trevizi, the King^a 
architect, with whom Sir Henry Mamey, the founder of the housci 

* These are also givea in Mr. Parker's " BomoBtic Architecture." 
t Often called Treyizani. 


Scitlf ttP Pbthpbi. 


must, as Captain of the Ghiard to Henry VIII., have come into ocoa- 
eional contact. 

Torrigiano and Benedetto da RoTeszano exercised the greatest influ* 
ence on scnlptnre. 

I am inclmed to believe that the beautiful tomb, in coloured terra- 
cotta, of Dr. Young in the Roll's Chapel, usuallj attributed (first bj 
Vertue and Walpole) to Torrigiano, is by Benedetto instead, the latter 
being an ei^erienoed, the former an inexperienced, worker in terra- 

With regard to the windows, it will be seen that the 
mallions assume the form of diminutive square oolumns, 
with capitals of Italian design, and the form of the arch 
head is suggested by scrolls and dolphins intertwining. 
The surface of the mullions, both on the exterior and 
interior, are covered with the arabasque ornaments com- 
mon both in sculpture and ornamental painting of the 
time in Italy. 

The terra-cotta work of the parapet will be seen to 
commence immediately above the trefoil arches, which 
belong to the Gothic portion of the design, and consists 
of a guilloche band, surmounted by a band of egg-and- 
tongue ornament, carrying the dolphin design, which is 
really very artistically wrought. The letters M O, joined 
by a knot, are marked on the crowning tablet, sup- 
ported by the dolphins on each side, and may be con- 
jectured to be the initials of one of the Mameys and 
his wife. 

Over the great first-floor window of the gateway is the 
space intended to be occupied, no doubt, by the arms of 
Lord Mamey, but I believe, from the appearance of the 
brickwork, that it was never placed there. 

It is somewhat curious that the side turret, adjoining 
the western wing, should have been built only half, as 
on plan, and merely as an ornamental feature, for the sake 
of symmetry, though the one on the opposite side is 
complete. A portion of a parapet on the western wing 
shoiUd be observed as showing the manner in which it 
was probably intended to finish these buildings, and which 
would, of course, have greatly added to their dignity, if 
carried out The doorway and lower windows are quite 

The chimneys also throughout, especially those of the 
gateway, are beautiful specicnens^ and show what piotu- 


resqne objects such features become in the bands of an 
artistic builder. So worthy of note are they, that they 
have been engraved in Mr. Parker's "Domestic Archi- 
tecture," from which the illustrations in the accompanying 
plate are taken. There are also, on the same plate, some 
panel patterns of unusual design, which form part of the 
lining of the domestic part of the house. The diaper orna- 
ment, before mentioned, of black headers over the whole 
surface of the wall, is also worth noticing. 

In closing my remarks, I may add, with a view of 
suggesting comparison with other works of a similar date, 
that in the " Glossary of Architecture," (Companion VoL 
III.) will be found, in chronological order, many of 
the most noted of our English buildings in progress 
during the mediaeval period, and if the dates from 1600 
to 1550 are looked through, a very good idea may be 
formed, in most observant minds, of the character of 
work to which this building belongs. We shall be re- 
minded that Henry YII.'s Chapel at Westminster Abbey 
was being built ; that St. John's College, Cambridge, was 
founded by Lady Margaret, the Countess of Eichmond, 
whose executor was Lord Henry Marney ; Bang's College 
Chapel finished; that Christ's Church, Oxford; St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor; Hampton Court Palace, and 
others, too numerous to mention, were in course of erection, 
all in the later Gothic style ; and, though some more 
debased than others, yet showing no trace of transition 
in style. Then let us turn to Italy, where the first stone 
of St. Peter's was being laid at Bome (in the same year, 
1506, that the " Great Harry," the first ship of the Eoyal 
Navy of England, was launched), where the genius of 
Eafiaelle and Michael Angelo was exerting incalculable 
influence over the arts. Endless intrigues were being 
carried on between this country and Italy by Wolsey and 
the Court, while, also, the taste for magnificence in 
building was being developed, and a new fashioned style 
being introduced by foreign artists. Let us recollect, 
further, the influence which this foreign element had in 
moulding our later Gothic into a peculiar style, destined 
to become so characteristic of the domestic buildings of 
this country, under the name of Elizabethan. BecaJling 



all these facts, we shall see at once the interest attaching 
to this very early, if not the very earliest, indication of 
Italian influence, exhibited in the walls of a mansion built 
by one of the courtiers of King Henry VIII., just before 
the year 1525. 

For in this latter year John Lord Mamey died, haying 
succeeded his father, Lord Henry, in 1524, who had been 
but the year before raised to the peerage. It seems 
remarkable that in this year, 1524, when Lord Henry 
died. King Henry YIII. was celebrating the feast of St. 
George at New Hall in Essex, not very far off. Who 
shall say but that he might have visited Layer Marney 
also, had not the noble owner been cut off from further 
entertainments or intrigues? No Marney lived to take 
part in the events which were then casting their shadows 
forward — events which have never been surpassed, for 
their importance to the world. But our story is done, 
nothing further but common-place decay is written on 
Layer Mamey's walls. Whether history will deign to add 
another chapter — whether any of its ancient grandeur 
will ever come back — whether a railway will run straight 
through the gateway, or call for its entire destruction^ 
remains to another generation to see. That its present 
owner will deal tenderly with it must be the wish of all^ 
be they Archeeologists or not, in the technical sense of 
the word. 

A few words with regard to the Church and the Tombs. 

It may be conjectured that a Church or Chapel was 
founded as soon as the Norman family of Mareni was 
established on this spot now called Layer Mamey; but 
we know that leave to ^^ empark his wood of Lire within 
the precinths of the Forest of Essex,'' was given to 
William de Mamey in the year 1264, by Henry III., and 
that in the time of Edward IL, 1330, some one of the 
same name, if not the same person, founded, in the Churchy 
a college for a warder and two chaplains and two chantries. 
Therefore, there must have existed an Early English or 
Decorated building. 

Incidentally, I may mention, that in 1377 Sir Sobert de 


Mamey was the owner of Warden's Hall, in the parish 
of WiUingdale Doe; and in 1391 the same Sir Eobert 
held the gift of South Ockenden. So that in the four- 
teenth century the name assumed an importaot position 
in the county, and, therefore, its ecclesiastical arrange- 
ments at home were not likely to be neglected. 

In 1402 Sir William de Mamey was High Sheriff of 
Essex and Hertfordshire; and in his will, dated 1414, 
he appointed his body to be buried in ** Chore ecclesiae 
de Mamey." 

The tomb erected, in pursuance of this order, a very 
fine example of the best period of Perpendicular work in 
alabaster, now exists in the chancel of the Church, with its 
base partially below the present floor — which is excavated 
a little to show it, and surrounded by some clumsy wooden 
rails. The base is ornamented on each side with 4 rich 
traceried panels, and a similar one at each end, bearing 
heraldic shields. The figure itself is of white marble, 
clothed in armour, cap d pie^ the head resting on a helmet, 
and the feet upon a lion (the Mamey crest), the hands are 

From a cursory observation of the building, I may say 
that of the Church, in which this tomb was originally 
erected, nothing now remains (at least visible to the eye), 
though probably many, if not all, the main walls are 
ancient, and the general plan unaltered. It consists of 
nave, chancel, with north aisle attached to, or in con- 
tinuation 6f, a Chauntry Chapel, which, perhaps, at one 
time, formed a sort of north aisle to the nave, though now 
divided from it; tower at the west end, porch on the 
south side, and an entry on the north through the chancel 
aisle. All the details of the building are of a character 
similar to those already described in the domestic build- 
ings, the arches being four-centred, and formed of 
moulded bricks. 

But in the archway between the Church and its north 
aisle is a tomb in terra-cotta, exactly similar in style and 
general design to the details of the windows and parapets 
before described, though even more elaborate. A re- 
cumbent effigy of Henry, the first Lord Marney (who 
died, let us recollect, in 1523), dressed in robes of the 


garter, lies under a canopy, supported by small oma* 
mental columns, with capitals, arohitrayes, &o,, after 
Italian design. 

This tomb was probably erected by the son, John Lord 
Mamey, whose own tomb was the next year to be required, 
and which was by will ordered to be placed in the Chauntry 
Chapel, with an altar at the east end, and a brass for each 
of his wives. This monument to Lord John, is similar 
to that of Sir William in the chancel, in most respects, 
and bears an effigy in black marble. It seems probable, 
therefore, that the terra-cotta canopy tomb was erected 
by Lord John out of deference to his taste, or according 
to his express wishes, and was probably executed by the 
Italian workmen in the neighbourhood, whom Lord Henry 
had employed upon the mansion, or was ordered from the 
same artists in Italy who supplied the terra-cotta windows 
and parapets. One would suppose, also, that Lord John's 
tastes differed considerably from those of his father, and 
that he preferred the good old Gothic School to the new 
fengled notions of these Italianists, against whom he 
probably, like many others in England, began to have a 
well-founded prejudice. 

Be that as it may, these tombs are very remarkable in 
their juxtaposition, and are almost as picturesque as a 
similar group in the chancel of Arundel Church, Sussex, 
some of which are of terra-cotta, and of similar design 
to these we are noticing. 

The tomb of John de Yere, Earl of Oxford, in the 
chancel of Castle Hedingham Church, is a few years later 
than this (1639), and shows the form of altar tomb still 
prevailing, though no effigy is placed upon it. 

In fact this Italianism did not ^^ go down '' at first, to 
use a common phrase, but afterwards revolutionised the 
whole of architecture, till now, in the present day, we 
have to fight vigorously for the lost ground of medieeval 

I may add, in conclusion, that in the Church of Little 
Horkesley is a brass to ^^ Dame Brygete Mamay,'' being 
her figure, with that of her two husbands, one on each 
side ; John Lord Mamay is on the right, in full armour, 
with a tabard of arms, but without a helmet, his feet 


rest upon a lion. The following is the inscription over 
all: — 

** Here under lyethe Dame Brygete Mamay late the wyffe of John 
Lorde Mamay and Sometyme wyffe to Mr. Thomas Ffyndorne Esquyer 
and decessyd the zzxth day of September in the yere of our Lord Qod 

This is copied from an engraving published in a Quar- 
terly Paper by John Weale, 1845, but there seems some 
error in copying this name. It is probably Swynboume. 



C|e €m% |^rt|a^0l00ial ^0detg. 


LeUerJrom Sin Henbt Ellis^ K.H., F.R.S., to the Eev. Edw. h. 

CuTTSj (Son. See. to the Ee^ex Arehcelogical Society^) 

containing particulars in further iUustration of 

the early history of WaUham Abbey. 

Dejlu Snty 

Thb interest which the Essex Archeeological Society 
has ah*eady taken, in the Second Volume of their ^' Trans- 
actions/' in illustration of the early History of Waltham 
Abbey, induces me to forward to you, for their notice, 
copies of two Memorials of Becord of that Abbey's his- 
tory, which have not hitherto been published. 

Tovi, the standard bearer to King Canute, is acknow- 
ledged to have been the first founder here of a religious 
House for two secular Priests, a Cross, with the figure of 
Our Saviour upon it, which had been found at Montacute 
and transferred here, gave its name and sanctity to the 
foundation. Harold, in one account, is stated to have been 
entirely relieved from a stroke of palsy by a visit to this 
Cross; and that in consequence of it he re-built the 
Church, increased the number of its secular Canons to 
twelve, and furnished it with an ample endowment. 

From other authorities, as I have stated, in the last 
edition of Sir William Dugdale's " Monasticon," Harold's 
selection of the place was owing to the circumstance of 
its having been bestowed upon him by King Edward the 

VOL. ni., PART n. E 


Confessor, into whose possession it had come, Athelstan, 
the son of Tovi, having squandered* away the estate. 

Certain it is, from King Edward the Confessor's Con- 
firmation Charter, that Harold endowed his new foundation 
with no fewer than seventeen manors, the boundaries of 
nine of them being distinctly stated. 

Of the first of the two Memorials of record which j 
beg to introduce to the Society's notice, it comes from a 
volume of Dr. Matthew Hutton's Collections, preserved 
among the Harleian Manuscripts in the' British Museum, 
Ko. 6,978, entitled ^^ Excerpta ex variis Begistris ; " and 
the immediate article I am transcribing entered as 

*' Qasedam ex I. ii. Walt. Covntr. 


** 1177. Statim poet festam sancti Hilarii Rex celebravit magnum 
Conoilium apud Northampton cum Episoopis, Comitibus et Baronibus 
snia. In hoc Concilio Gwydo Decanus de Waltham resignavit in mana 
domini Regis Deeanatum snum Ecclesitt SanctsB Crucis de Waltham, 
quern Rex magno desiderio habere desideravit. Voverai entm Deo el 
heaUB ThonuB Cant, marfyri quod in ejus martyris konore Abbatia 
qumdam Canonicorum reyuiarium mdificare^ in remissumem peccatorum 
mortfin, et ab Hugone Oardinali et Apostolicee Bedis Legato impetraverat 
quod in prodicta Ecolesia de Waltham, remotis inde Canoniois secularibus, 
canonioos regulares statuere lioeret. 

"In eodem Conoilio in octabis Sancti Hilarii yenit Rex usque 
Windesours et inde misit Ricardum Cant. Archiepiscopum, et Gau- 
fridum Eliensem, et Qilb. Lond. Episcopos usque ad Waltham, ubi 
prflBdictns Decanus simpliciter et absolute resignavit in manu ipsius 
Archiepiscopi et Episcoporum illorum Deeanatum suum de Waltham et 
ipsi ibidem prseciperunt, ex parte Regis, Canonicis sflDCularibus qui ibi 
erant venire ad Regem ad recipiendum. Excambium de prcebendis suis, ct 
pr»dioti Episcopi in scripto poni omnes redditus et eorum valcntiam 
EcdesisD de Waltham et Regi scriptum illud miserunt." 

The circumstance of Xing Henry the Second having 
been induced to lavish so much wealth as he appears to 
have done upon the reconstruction of Waltham Abbey, 
has not heretofore been considered as what it appears 
really to have been; namely, the fulfilment of a vow 
after the murder of Archbishop Becket. The Abbey was 
already amply endowed. The Church, it seems more than 
probable, was entirely rebuilt by Henry II. 

The following was the return of the clear Amount of the 


Eevenue of the Abbey of Waltham m 1266, as recorded 
in the Waltham Chartulary M.S.^ HarL 391, foL 23 :— 

*'Anno Domini M.CC.lx. sexto. Dominns Papa ooncesnt IXnmno* 
Regi Decimam omniam Froventioin Ecclesiasticorum tocias Angliad^ 
ezeeptis paueia Domibiis religiosis, et bonorum temporalium deoimam 
ReKgioeomm, qu» qnidem Deoima exigebantur seoundum yeram 
estimationem, et non secundum antiquam. Abbas itaque et Prior et 
quidam de Fratribns istam Taxationem suboriptam fecerunt de Maneriis 
et Ecclesiis nostris juxta verum valorem, deductis expensis neoessariift 
scOieet sine quibus fructus ooUigi non poterunt neo haberi." 

In Dioc. London, 
De Manerio de Waltham jei& 13 4 
De Ecclesia de Waltham 33 6 8 
De Sywardestone. 13 

De Nafiinge 48s., quia de eodem manerio solyuntur £20, ad firmam 
Domine Regis., De ecolesia £6 13s. 4d. 

De Eppinge £14, q. de eodem £20, ad firmam domini Regis oonv- 

De Eocles ejusdem £10. 

De Stanstede £11 9s. 

De Netleswelle £10 Os. lid. 

De Passefend £13 158. 2d. 

De fiorham 20s. 

De Stanweye 24s. 4d. 

De Redditu in Lond, £13. 

De Takeleye £5. 

De Stanforde £8. 

De Thorundue £9 188. 

DeWalda £11 15s. lid. 

De Upminstre £7 I7s. 

DeLuketune £11 28. 

DeWudeford £5 14s. lid. 

De Wormelaya £4 16s. 8d. 
Summa £210 17s. 8d. S^ Decimoe £21 Is. lOd. 

In Dioe. Sar. 

De Heywde £10 

Redditus in Oildeford 4s. 

De Ecclesia de Windesou'es £26 

Summa £36 4s. S'' Decimoe 74s. 5d. 

In Dioc, Winton, 
De Catenham £5. Decimoe lOs. 

In Dtoo. Lincoln. 

De Manerio de Melaho £10. 
De Brikendure £16 De Ecclesia omnium Sanctorum de Hertford 
£6 138. 4d. 


De Alricheseve £8. De Eodesia ejoBdem £12. 
De manerio de Wrengle £12. 
De Ecclesia ejnsdem £18. 
De Mumbi £5. 
De Emwelle £1. 

Sumina £88 13s. 4d. 

Somma DeoimcD £8 18b. 4d. 

In Dioe. NorwiJL 

De Eeolesia de Geyet £6. 
De Ecclesia de Geystwait £10. 
De medietate Eecleeie Skenny £11. 
In Blseewrohe lOs. 
De reddita in Stokesb. 20t. 
Somma £27 lOs. 
Deoims 66b. 

In Dioc. Bimu* 

De Eeclefiia de Badburbam £10. 
De manerio ejofldem £1 10b. — 
De Caumpes et de Horretb £10 18b. 4d. 
De Ecolesia de OaumpeB £5. 
Somma £27 38, 3d. 

Summaioialu £395 7s. lid. 
S' Deeimm totaUi £29 10«. 

To the Bey. Edwabd L. Cxtits^ 

Son. Secretary to th^ JEssea Arehceologicat Society. 




Oo/rr w j^miiimg Mtmbtr of the Nno Sitffkmd HUtorU* Om w ikg i dtd S o d t ti ft md Somrmp 

Mmnbtr ofih$ Em$% Arch^BoloffictU Soeutp, 

The founders of a great nation, whatever its history 
and ultimate fate, are justly entitled to remembrance, and 
the respectfiil consideration of posterity. Nations are not 
created by accident, nor do tiiey afterwards grow alto- 
gether at random, lil^e prolific weeds ; but, while subject, 
of course, to the usual . operation of natural laws, they 
take their character, and shape their destinies, according 
to the wisdom and foresight, or folly and recklessness, of 
certain individuals, who, singly or combined, presided at 
their birth and nurtured their in&nt existence. As the 
influence of the mother, for good or evil, upon the fiiture 
career of the child to which ^e has ^ven being, so, to a 
greater or less extent, upon the organic nature of a nation^ 
is the effect of the character and conduct of those to whom 
it owes its position on the pages of the world's great 

Among all the nations of the earth, there is none that 
appeals so directly and unresistingly to the consideration of 
the people of Great Britain as the one which sprang 
originally from their own loins. Whatever may have been 
the temporary alienations and dissensions that have since 
occurred between them, it is impossible for either of them 
ever to forget their relative characters of parent and off- 
spring. The child may have been, at times, rebellious and 
self-willed, and the parent, perhaps, too rigid and over- 
bearing ; but that tender domestic relation has continued to 
exist for nearly two centuries and a half, and is recognized 


at this day, on this island and on that continent, by every 
man and woman of both nations whose feelings and senti- 
ments are entitled to any regard. It is possible that the 
more modem transatlantic generations have come to regard 
the relationship as of a still more venerable character, and 
to speak of their great ancestress as one or two degrees 
farther removed in consanguinity ; but this should rather 
be construed as a respectM and a£Eectionate compliment, 
than otherwise — for who does not know and venerate all 
that is embodied in the character of a good old English 
grandmother ? 

That the original founders of New England — ^that germ 
of the great nation which subsequently spread itsdf so 
rapidly over the half of a continent — were generally of 
English birth and descent, is a fact I need not stop to 
discuss. My present object is to show, especially, that, in 
the foundation and early history of the colonies, the single 
county of Essex, and, to be still more particular, this 
precise portion of that county in about the centre of which 
we are to-day assembled, had more to do, and exerted more 
influence, than all the rest of England combined ; and, 
consequently, that it is to this identical neighbourhood, 
strictly speaking, rather than to the entire kingdom, that 
the origin of I^ew England, and through it the American 
nation, must be traced by the carefal antiquary. 

From a list of the earliest settlers in New England, 
being those who were technically made freemen of the 
Colony of Massachusetts Bay between the years 1631 and 
1641, comprising about 500 names, generally of heads 
of fiEtmilies, and representing the reed strength of the 
Colony, I have selected, almost at random, the follow- 

Abell, Adams, Allen, Angier, Ames, Appleton, Archer, 
Arnold, Atkinson, Barker, Barnes, Bell, Bendall, Bennett, 
Biggs, Blake, Bloomfield, Bourne, Bradbury, Brewster, 
Bridge, Briscoe, Brooke, Browne, Bulkeley, Burton, 
Button, Carrington, Chamberlain, Chapman, Clarke, Cog- 
geshall, Coldham, Cole, Coleman, Collins, Cooke, Cooper, 
Cotton, Crane, Cross, Curtis, Dalton, Davenish, Davies, 
Davis, Davy, Day, Dean, Dinney, Dudley, Dyer, Eaton, 
Elliott, Ely, Emery, Farr, Firmin, Fiske, Fitch, Ford, 
Fowler, Rreebom, Freeman, French, Fuller, Gardner, 


Gibbs, Gibson, Gill, Godfrey, Goff, Grafton, Greene, Hale, 
Hall, Harlakenden, Harris, Harrison, Hart, Hawkes, 
Hawkins, Haynes, Haywood, Howe, Hubbard, Hudson, 
Humphreys, Jackson, Jeffrey, Jenner, Johnson, Kempe, 
Ejng, Lake, Lambert, Langley, Lightfoot, Lookwood, 
Marshall, Marsh, Martin, Meade, Minot, More, Morris, 
Morse, Mott, Mills, Nelson, Newman, Nutt, Page, Palmer, 
Parker, Parkes, Parmenter, Partridge, Peacook, Perry, 
Peters, Phillips, Porter, Purchas, Pynchon, Pyne, Bains- 
ford, Sawlins, Baymond, Boberts, Bobinson, Bogers, Bowe, 
Buggies, Bussell, Sadler, Saltonstall, Bandford, Sands, 
Scott, Sharp, Shaw, Sherman, Smith, Southcott, Sparhawk, 
Spencer, Stanley, Stebbins, Steele, Stevens, Stone, Strange, 
Swan, Swift, Symonds, Tabor, Talcott, Taylor, Thomas, 
Thompson, Tower, Towne, Townsend, Turner, Tuthill, 
Wade, Walker, Walton, Ward, Warner, Warren, Watson, 
Webb, West, Weston, Wilcox, Willis, Wheeler, White, 
Whiting, Wood, and Wright. 

These are not only all ancient Essex surnames, but were 
borne by men whose origin, in most instances, has been 
traced directly to that county ; and this selection, it will be 
seen, comprises considerably more than one-third of those 
contained in the list mentioned. A little care would, 
doubtless, enable me to add from fifty to one hundred more 
to the number, but the predominance is already sufficiently 
great for my present purpose. 

These were the men who, nearly two centuries and a 
half ago, actuated by yarious sentiments, bade farewell to 
their Mends and the scenes of their infancy and manhood, 
and left these smiling plains and valleys, to encounter, with 
fheir wives and little ones, first, a perilous sea- voyage of 
several thousand miles, and then an equally perilous 
struggle for existence on a strange and inhospitable shore, 
under an unnatural climate, and among the human savages 
by whom the western world was then peopled. These were 
the men to whom what was afterwards a great Bepublic 
owed its first existence — brave English men, who took 
their very lives in their hands, and faced with dauntless 
courage all the certain dangers and uncertain terrors of 
the enterprise to which they had committed themselves — 
aye, and brave English women too, whose sublime 
devotion has never since been paralleled, and to which 
ample justice has never yet been done. 


I am very much afraid that, if you look for most of these 
names in that wonderfdl collection of family histories so 
admirably perpetuated at the College of Arms, the obliging 
and usually successful Heralds "will be utterly unable to 
gratify your curiosity. They are not, strictly speaking, 
heraldic names. While a few of the lesser gentry may 
have been amoug their numbers, the pioneers of New Eng- 
land generally had other uses for their shields than simply 
to exhibit a blazonry of arms. The men who, clad in 
homespun garments, as they sat in their rough pews in 
their humble places of worship, kept one hand upon their 
Bibles or Psalm-books and the other upon the triggers of 
their muskets, were not, it must be frankly confessed, 
usually of what is known as gentle blood. We must look 
elsewhere for the records of their ancestry, and the search 
is not a difficult one. The moss-grown tombstones in every 
neighbouring church-yard, and the mildewed pages of your 
venerable Parish Begisters, reveal these names at eveiy step 
and on every leaf, and it is almost exclusively to these that 
fhe American genealogist can appeal with any hope of 

One reason why due credit has not hitherto been given 
to the county of Essex for its paramount influence on the 
early history of New England arises from the fact that 
many of the original settlers have been assigned to other 
portions of England, while properly belonging to that 
county. As an illustration : two men named Bogers, who 
emigrated in one of the earliest ships, from their personal 
character, scholastic attainments, and position as eminent 
divines, probably had more to do with moulding both the 
social and political character of the colony than, at least, 
any other two men in it. One went directly from Kowley, in 
Yorkshire, and the other from Assington, in SujSblk, where 
they had been respectively preaching for some years, and 
they are therefore usually spoken of as belonging to those 
counties. But the former was born at Wethersfield, in Essex, 
where his father — the Bev. Bichard Bogers — preached for 
41 years, and where he died and was buried; while the latter 
was the son of Bev. John Bogers, ^^ the famous preacher 
of Dedham," in Essex, the inscription under whose bust, 
still in good preservation in the chancel, records that he 
had ministered in that church for the space of SI years. 


These were, therefore, really both Essex men, and their 
personal importance and influence on the early fortunes of 
New England may be discovered by a reference to quaint 
old Cotton Mather, who carefully embalmed their memory 
in his ^^Magnalia." I might adduce numerous other 
instances of a similar character, and, indeed, my inyestiga- 
tions into this subject already enable me to affirm un- 
hesitatingly that, of the early New England settlers, the 
origin of considerably more than one-half can be traced 
directly or indirectly to the county of Essex. 

Another proof of my original proposition is to be found 
in the fact that, so predominant were the Essex men in the 
early days of the colony, the settlements, as they were 
organized one after another, received nam'es, the majority 
of which had their prototypes in the neighbourhoods they 
had quitted, and their attachment to which they thus 
manifested. I need mention only the names of Billerica, 
Braintree, Chelmsford, Colchester, Dedham, Eastham, 
Hadley, Harwich, Haverhill, Maiden, Newport, Spring- 
field, Topsfield, Waltham, and Wethersfield. These names 
were given to the very earliest settlements established by 
the colonists, and are retained to this day, while the mere 
hamlets which they at first represented have now swelled 
into important towns and even cities. I may also add that 
these names have been reduplicated, and now represent 
towns and cities in almost every State in the Union, as the 
descendants of the pilgrim fathers in their tnrn sought new 
homes in other portions of the country. One, in particular, 
seems to have been a universal favourite, for I find, in the 
latest ^^ United States' Gazetter/' the name of Springfield 
repeated no less than forty-eight times. Another sig* 
nificant fact, worthy of notice in this connection, and 
which tells its own tale distinctly, without the necessity for 
any comment, is that the original Wethersfield in New 
England, like its prototype in ancient Essex, has, from its 
earliest existence, maintained a pre-eminent reputation for 
the character and inexhaustible supply of its onions^ and 
controls, to this day, the American market, so far as that 
pungent but very useful vegetable is concerned; the 
" ropes " of which, in unlimited quantities, bearing the 
Wethersfield brand, are annually exported to every quarter 
of the world. 


Again, still oonflnnatory of my proposition was the action 
of the colonists, as late as the year 1643, when it became 
necessary, for the purpose of more convenient government, 
to subdivide the colony into counties. The order of the 
General Court — ^the Colonial Ministry and Parliament com- 
bined — dated at Boston on the 10th of May, reads as 
follows : — 

''The whole plantation within this jarisdiction (t.^. the Colony of 
Massaohusetts Bay) is divided into four shires, to wit-^Sssexy Mid- 
dlesex, Suffolk, and Norfolk/' 

True to their instincts, even in this apparently trifling 
formality, the Essex men of New England would persist, 
not only in perpetuating the name of their ancient county, 
but also in placing it first and foremost in the new calendar. 

It is a mistc^en notion, although the one usually 
received, that the early New England settlers were all, or 
even generally, men properly classed under the denomina- 
tion of Puritans; and the stereotyped declaration in all 
secular and religious American histories, that the continent 
was first settled exclusively by a band of men fleeing from 
severe and unrighteous persecution, and enforced to seek a 
new home where they might enjoy unmolested their jfree- 
dom of conscience, etc., etc., is one that involves both an 
absurdity and a falsehood, and ought at once to be ex- 
punged from the record. That many^ perhaps most, of 
the early emigrants were non-conformists, to a greater or 
less extent, is doubtless true, and that some df them desired 
** a larger liberty of speech *' than was just then permitted 
them in England may also be admitted ; but, beyond this, 
there is no foundation in actual truth for the frightful 
picture so persistently presented to the mind of the young 
American student, whether he stands in his pinafore at the 
knee of his village schoolmistress, or pores over the 
ponderous volumes of American history at the University. 
At the risk of being charged with heterodoxy and a want 
of patriotism, I venture the assertion, after protracted 
researches into the family history of the earlier settlers, 
that not one half of their number left England on account 
of religious persecution, or were men and women who 
could justly be termed puritanic in their notions. Indeed, 
from the voluminous criminal records of the colony in its 


earlier days, detailed with painful minuteness by the 
official historiographers of the time, and the long catalogue 
of peccadilloes and more serious offences which they reveal \ 
as of constant occurrence, it may be safely doubted whether 
a goodly number of the so-called ^^ pilgrim fathers " (and i 
pilgrim mothers too) possessed any religion at all. i 

The simple fact is that the colony was composed — as all 
colonies ever since have been — of a heterogeneous admix- 
ture of very good people, and very bad ; with still another, 
and, perhaps, larger class than either of the others, that 
may be described as neither the one nor the other, but 
simply indifferent. That the good eventually predominated 
over the bad is, I think, a matter of history ; and it is 
greatly to the credit of the early rulers of the colonies 
that they were able, from such rude and antagonistio 
materials, to lay the foundation of a nation that has proved 
80 respectable as it has. 

Speaking particularly of the early emigrants from Essex, 
it is unquestionably true that a large portion of them were 
actuated by a desire for more religious latitude than they then 
enjoyed at home ; but there was still another, and I think 
equally large class, for whose motives I entertain a respect 
quito as sincere, and for whose character a reverence quite 
as profound. These were men^ in the humbler walks of 
life, whose circumstances were moderate, whose families 
were large, and who foresaw, in remaining at home, only a 
perpetual struggle for bare existence, without the prospect 
or hope of elevating their offspring above the level of their 
own ineffective lives. To such men as these, the New 
World opened a vista of positive enchantment. The farmer, 
tilling laboriously land not his own, and certain only of 
the conventional six feet of soil where his worn-out bones 
would at last be laid, believed that there, after a little 
season of toil and hardship, and perhaps even of extreme 
suffering, he would be able to stand under the shelter of 
his own vine and fig-tree, call broad acres of wood and 
meadow his own, and then, having distributed his pos- 
sessions, and seen his sons and daughters comfortably 
settled in life, lay down calmly, satisfied that he had 
fulfilled his duties as a parent and a citizen. In the same 
manner, and from the same motives, were the Western 
States subsequently settled by the descendants of the 


fearly colonists, imbued with the spirit and following in 
the footsteps of their Essex fathers. 

Of such men as these, the New England colonies pos- 
sessed many; and from among this class, in nine cases 
out of ten, sprang the future great men of the nation. 
It is an indisputable fact that very few of those who have 
become eminent as statesmen or scholars, or who have won 
for themselves reputations in any of the professions or pur- 
suits of life, can trace their origin to any comparatively 
higher position in the social scale^ I have an illustration 
exactly in point, which I uso the mor6 readily as it also 
illustrates my other propositions : — 

Of the ancestry of two of the American Presidents — 
father and son in succession (and the son and grandson of 
I whom now represents the country in whose history they 
bore so conspicuous a part' at the Court of St. James), 
there is no record whatever. It has been only known 
with certainty that the first of the name emigrated to New 
j England early in the days of the colony, taking with him 
a numerous progeny, and that he died and was buried 
there. Who was his father, or from what portion of 
England he came (though tradition fixed him in Devon- 
shire), or what was his occupation, social condition, or 
I personal circumstances, have hitherto been impenetrable 
\ mysteries, in spite of urgent and anxious eflForts to solve 
^ them. The Herald's College, the various county histories, 
and all the genealogical repositories of the land contain 
no reference to his particular family, thus leading to the 
inevitable conclusion that his origin was very humble. 
From recent investigations that I have been making, I 
have at last arrived at the moral certainty that, before 
quitting England, he followed the occupation of a maltster, 
in a small way, in a parish within ten miles of where we 
are now standing. 

In numerous other instances I have pursued similar re- 
searches with similar results. Bepeatedly, as in the case 
just mentioned, when long tradition has established the 
ancestors of a New England family in other counties of 
' England, a careful investigation has dissipated the illusion, 
and they have been traced to some quiet nook or corner of 
Essex. It is not without good grounds, therefore, that 
I have attributed to this county a greatly predominant 


influence in the foundation and history of New England, 
and hence of the American nation, for there is no portion 
of the vast country to which the people of that section 
have not penetrated, or which they have not, more or less, 
imbued with their character and spirit. 

One word as to the people of New England themselves. 
The conventional portrait, which represents an ungainly 
personage, lean in his limbs and lank in his visage, with 
long straight hair, and an eye twinkling under the double 
influences of greed of gain and an intense desire to out- 
wit his neighbour in every bargain, and who invariably 
utters his words with a nasal intonation, is not that of the 
genuine and historic New Englander — who does not wear 
this appearance, does not bear this character, and does not 
talk through his nose, but uses the ordinary vocal organs 
like an Englishman or any other sensible human being — but 
rather one of that spurious sort, the result of indiscriminate 
and protracted admixture with almost every other species 
of the human race, from the native Indian to the native 
Ethiopian, including the denizens of every clime, from 
the North Pole to the South, and from the first to the 
last degree of longitude. The natural history of modern 
America is chiefly that of hybrida There is no country 
under the sun that has not contributed its quota to its mag- 
nificent census. The blood of Saxon and Teuton has long 
oeased to fiow there in separate channels. English, Scotch 
and Irish, French, Dutch and Spanish, Italian, Greek and 
Turkish, Swiss, Austrian and Eussian, in their elementary 
constituents, have been gathered into a common crucible, 
and the extraordinary result of this still more unnatural 
combination has been the " Universal Yankee " — a sort of 
ethnological monster — a being who seems to find no stains 
in the rigid classification of animal existences. 

From this class, I confess — and I also freely admit 
that it is a large one — there is naturally to be expected 
Kttle regard for, or attachment to, the Mother Country, 
its people, or its institutions. Suppose, for a moment, the 
presence of a representative of this class in our midst to- 
day. One of his grandfathers grew to manhood among 
the Scottish mountains, while the other was reared among 
the dikes of Holland. One of them married a ci-devant 
French countess, and the frau of, the other once wore the 


coronet of a princess in sunny Italy. This accounts fully 
for his quadruple character. The yari-coloured streams 
will not mingle freely, but flow side by side, in jealous 
antagonism, like the waters of the Arve and the Ilhone* 
He retains, although in a modified form, the peculiarities 
of each of his four ancestors, and, as there is no singleness 
in his composition, so there is none in his character. He 
has no antecedents to control his sympathies, no historical 
associations to cherish, no antiquities to revere. He can- 
not look back into the past records of any one people, and 
say that they are also his by inheritance. His very being 
is divided — he belongs nowhere. (I trust that my 
mythical countryman wiU excuse the personality : of course 
it is not his fault.) 

On the other hand — (and I pray that the apparent 
egotism may be pardoned, for the sake of the practical 
illustration) — I claim a pure descent. Bone, blood, flesh, 
and muscle — all is English. Born, though I was, through 
the accidents of time, among the rugged hills of grim New 
England, the four sources of my natal streams were in 
honest Essex, smiling Kent, busy Qloucester, and sunny 
Devonshire. For aught I know, one set of my earlier sires 
flourished in the court of Eong Lear himself, and the other 
displayed their prowess in field and tournament side by 
side with the gallant Courteneys. One thing I do know : 
I cannot open a page of English history, where deeds of 
valour and acts of grace for centuries back are recorded, 
without finding among the names of the actors those of 
some of my great ancestors. I cannot go into a village 
churchyard, or tread the dim aisles of a venerable cathedral 
— at least within the limits of those four shires — without 
reading, on either side, the solemn testimony that I am 
wandering among the dust of those long-departed ones, of 
whom I am so unimportant a descendant. If my heart 
swells, it is with honest pride that even in these sad 
memorials I have a personal interest. These are 
monuments, not of strangers, but of my own family. 
What though my paternal roof-tree stands three thousand 
miles away ? The vast expanse of sea shrinks to a mere 
rivulet, over which I leap with a single stride, claiming a 
lawful right and receiving a cordial welcome to a place in 
the lofty halls and at the spacious firesides where those of 


my own blood have made merry for at least half a decade 
of centuries. 

This, then, is the difference between my supposititious 
countryman and me to-day : he is paying a formal visit to 
a distant relation ; while I have come hme to my mother I 

I speak not for myself alone. There are, I am happy to 
say, thousands of my countrymen— of full, half, and even 
quturter English blood — who would echo every sentiment I 
have uttered ; and who, although they may never make, as 
I have done, a holy pilgrimage to these hallowed shrines, 
cherish an intense and reverential affection for the ancient 
land and its people, which has and will for ever set at 
defiance all the art and wiles of designing statesmen and 
crooked politicians who may seek to weaken or destroy it 
There is a world of meaning in the old maxim, that ^^ blood 
is thicker than water," and therein, we may safely conclude, 
lies the whole secret. 




In the "Transactions" of the Society, published in 
1858, some account is given of the little ancient Church 
in Coggeshall Parva, to which Morant gives the name 
of S. Nicholas, and which he takes to have been the 
Parish Church. 

It is proposed to take up the subject of this very 
interesting little Church at the point at which it was 
left in that account, and to pursue it to the present time. 

The Church was there described in its chief details, 
but some few discoveries have since been made which 
will prove of considerable service, because they are suffi- 
cient to make possible the restoration of the Church, in 
most, if not all, of the minutest particulars, to its original 
and chaste beauty. 

It is a cause of thankfulness that, through the kindness 
of the late owner, Jonathan Bullock, Esq., of Faulkboume 
Hall, the little Church, after three hundred years of 
desecration, has come back into Ecclesiastical hands, with 
a view to its restoration, while yet sufficient traces remain, 
faint and feeble as in some instances they may be, to show 
what it was three hundred years ago. And it should be 
mentioned, that with the most thoughtful consideration 
" the acre " of land on which the Church stood, as shown 
in a map of the estate, dated 1658, has been conveyed 
with the Church to the Vicar of the parish. There is a 
probability, but nothing has been discovered to prove, that 
this acre so defined was actually the ancient Church yard. 

The first work was to fence in the land ; the next to 
remove the bay or waggon entrance, which has been made 
onjjthe south side of the Church, and to clear away the 
bam floor and accumulations of earth and rubbish from 


The remoyal of the earth brought to light the brick 
base of the font, opposite the doorway, and close against 
the north wall, with the standing place for the priest on 
the west side. 

A portion of the south wall of the Church, including 
the doorway up to the western jamb, and half one of the 
windows, had been broken down to make the farm bay 
and a convenient entrance for waggons and carts. The 
foundation of this part of the Church was found and 
carefully followed, and the exact position of the bases of 
the doorway was discovered. A portion of one of the 
capitals of the doorway was still in the wall on the west 
side, and a piece of one of the jambs, together with 
the whole of one of the brick piers on which the stone 
doorway rested. This remains. On it were found the 
position of two small shafts, all helping to show the 
character as well as the place of the original doorway. 
The walls, which are three feet thick, rest on a bed of 
concrete, coming up nearly to the surface, and about 
twelve inches thicker than the walls, making a good foot 
outwards. On this concrete between the jambs of the 
doorway, and running some way underneath on both 
sides, and of the whole thickness of the wall, was a 
course of red brick or tile, represented in the accom. 
panying woodcut (A), and 
which has not been disturbed. 

The altar slab was not 
foimd, nor any portion of 
the altar. The undisturbed 
soil of the floor beneath the 
east window is some inches 
above the rest, where the altar would stand on its dai's. 
West of this, and right across the Church, is a line of 
brickwork, apparently the place of the altar step. The 
credence of stone is nearly perfect. The double piscina 
next to it is almost entirely destroyed, and the sedilia, 
three in number, immediately adjoining the piscina, are 
in a very mutilated state. 

In the centre seat some of the original plastering 
remains, with a part of a nimbus in the head of the arch, 
of the colour of red ocre. The head of this seat is some- 
what depressed as compared with the seat on either side 
of it. G 


In the north wall was found the place of the ambre 
with the sharp bed of masonry in which the oak slabs at 
top and bottom lay, and had perished quite away. About 
two-thirds of the way from east to west on the floor, and 
near the entrance, are a few string-course bricks, set up 
edgeways, running east and west and north to south at 
right angles; for what purpose it does not at present 

Amongst the fragments of stone and tiling intermixed 
with the earth were some small portions of little Purbeck 
marble shafts, and enough of broken tiling to make out 
the somewhat remarkable pattern of the pavement, which 
is shown in the opposite PJate. The colours are blacky 
yellow or huf^ and unmistakable green. Other pieces of 
tiling were found, some of them having Lombardic letters, 
yellow on a red ground. Some of these were in all pro- 
bability thrown out from the Abbey, and found their way 
here in the character of rubbish, when the hand of the 
spoiler made havoc of sacred things, and when a barn 
floor in the Church was wanted for the convenience of 
the farmer. 

Many small pieces of coloured glass were found, pro- 
bably from the east window : and some bits of quarries 
in brown outline painting ; and one piece which is taken 
to give the curve of the medallions which probably occu- 
pied the three eastern lights. 

Two or three very small pieces of brass work, on which 
were stamped the fleurs de lisy were found just outside the 
doorway, more resembling the ornaments of an office book 
than anything else, as if in the frenzy of an unholy zeal 
it had been tossed out of the sacred place. 

A piece of Purbeck marble has been found, which looks 
like part of the bowl of the font or of the stoup. 

The string-course, which was of emerald green, glazed, 
was much destroyed, but its position, all round, traceable ; 
and the sharp bed of the string between the doorway and 
the window west of it was found, together with the brick- 
work where it stopped, to go horizontally over the door- 

The whole of the exterior flint and tile work, up to the 
brick dressings, appears to have been plastered; and the 




"whole of the interior, the white plastering, within being 
relieved and warmed by plain lines of chocolate or red- 
ocre paint, after the manner of mock masonry, with dottble 
lines round the windows, both on the face of the walls and 
on the splay. 

An elegant scroll pattern, in the same colour, decorated 
the spandrels of the east window. A fac smile of this 
decoration, taken many years ago on the spot, by Mr. 
Alfred Sprague, and kindly sent to the Vicar of the parish 
to be of use in the restoration, was produced. 

The easternmost portion of the present roof is ancient, 
a small portion of the wall plate remains at the north-east 
corner, and is represented on^the accompanying wood-cut 
(C), the rolls of which were green^ the 
interval white. 

It is intended in time to restore this 

interesting little Church to its proper state, with the most 
scrupulous care. The doorway has been accomplished, 
and some of the window lights have been restored — bricks 
of the true character having been made for the purpose. 

On the 25th of June last year, in clearing away the 
earth in front of the altar, the workmen found indications 
of a grave in the centre, lying east and west. Bits of 
broken tiles, intermixed with the soil, making it plain 
that the grave had once been disturbed, it was thought 
desirable that the earth should be carefully removed to 
ascertain exactly what had been done and what remained. 
Fragments of stone and bricks, large tiles and of patterned 
glazed tiles, and a small piece of lead, were all that could 
be found, save the stone sides of the coffin and the bottom 
stone, with its drain holes, and a large hole in the bottom 
stone towards the head at the west end. The rifler had 
done his work thoroughly, lest treasure should be lost for 
want of searching — nothing left, not one poor bone in 
the last resting place of God's servant ! 

There appear to be two graves, at least, by the side of 
that just mentioned. These have not been opened. The 
few bones that were found in the soil near the grave that 
was examined were carefully collected, and as they were 
in all likelihood part of the remains which once reposed 
in the stone coffin, and had been sacrilegiously scattered 


when the grave was spoiled, they were reverently replaced 
on the lower coffin stone and covered by the Yicar, in the 
presence of the workmen and some other parishioners and 
friends who happened to be on the spot. There was no 
trace of name or data 

One age destroys, another restores ; one oasts ont with 
sacrilegious hands even the bones of the dead ; another in 
charity replaces them; and what was once said for the 
whole corpse, in hope, may now again, in hope, be said of 
the smallest portion of it — requiescat in pace I 



(No. 2.) 
By H. W. King. 

At the second general meeting of the Essex Archaeological 
Society held at the Shire Hall, Chelmsford, in April, 1852, 
I read a brief memoir of certain wills executed by 
inhabitants of the County in the 15th and 16th centuries. 

I endeavoured on that occasion to impress upon the 
Society a true idea of the very great historical value of 
these documents and the inventories which, sometimes 
accompany them, and I expressed a hope that the various 
literary and archaeological associations would exercise an 
influence which would induce the legislature to remove' the 
vexatious and restrictive regulations by which those 
records were fenced in, and ^ord inexpensive means of 
consulting them for Hterary purposes.* 

I^early twelve years have elapsed since I addressed the 
Society on this subject, but it was not until recently that 
these long desiderated concessions to the claims of historical 
literature and archaeology have been granted. Under the 
old jurisdiction at Doctors' Commons not the slightest 
feeling in favour of literature and historical enquiry was 
evinced ; every appeal made to the authorities by the 
learned Societies and the most distinguished literary 
persons, for some relaxation of their stringent, absurd and 
exclusive regulations, was utterly disregarded. Notwith- 
standing Lord Langdale had modified and reduced the fees 
for consultation of the public Becords, and, in 1851, Sir 
John Bomilly had remitted them altogether to historical 
students, the authorities at Doctors' Commons continued* 

On the institution of the Court of Probate, under the 

* Journal of Essex Arch. Soc. vol. i. p. 149. 


enlightened administration of the late learned Judge, Sir 
Cresswell Cresswell, the application was again renewed, hy 
the Camden Society, aided by the Society of Antiquaries 
and many eminent literary persons. His Lordship " at 
once admitted the principle that documents which had none 
but literary uses, ought to be accessible to literary men,^^ 
and, as soon as the necessary arrangements could be made, 
liberally acceded to the appeal.* 

As an historical enquirer at Doctors' Commons under the 
old system, till driven from the walls in hopeless despair 
by the contemplation of the ruinous cost of endeavouring 
to prosecute really useful investigations, I can but 
inadequately express my own sense of the value of the 
privilege conferred, and unite my testimony in the general 
acknowledgment of the courteous, liberal and ready aid 
aflforded by the gentleman who presides over the Depart- 
ment for Literary Enquiry. 

Grateful, therefore, for these privileges, I hasten to lay 
before the 'members of the Essex Archaeological Society 
some of the first fruits of my researches in the London 

The Eegisters of Wills extend throughout the long 
period of 500 years, from 1383 to the present time, and 
comprise nearly 2,000 ponderous volumes. They contain 
a large number of wills of members of the chief families 
in Essex, and of others connected with the county by 
landed property, from the earliest dates, as well as those of 
yeomen, opulent traders and others. Many of them are of 
great historical and archoBological interest, and perhaps 
there are but few of the earlier centuries which do 
not possess much interest relatively. The wills proved 
within the archdeaconries of Essex and Colchester, and 
formerly preserved at Chelmsford, have not yet been 
rendered accessible in London, but will, I believe, 
eventually [be open for consultation for literary purposes, 
when the necessary arrangements are perfected. These 
will offer a much wider field for research, and, as it may be 
presumed they comprise a greater number of the testaments 

 For the history of the past and present (jf Doctors' Commons, bo &r as literature 
18 concerned with it, see introduction to a recent volume published hy the Camden 
Society, 1863, "Wills from Doctors* Commons." Permission is given to consult 
Wills down to the year 1700. 


of the clergy, yeomanry and townsfolk, aflford a closer 
insight' into the domestic manners and social condition of 
the middle classes. 

I have selected for my second communication on ancient 

The Will of John Smyth, Esq.; of Blaczmore, 

chiefly on account of the interesting inventory it presents 
of the apparel, furniture, and in short, of the whole 
domestic and military equipment of a country gentleman 
in the reign of Hen. VIII., as contained in several 
schedules, which being of the nature of codicils, were 
appended to and proved with the will. 

John Smyth, of Blackmore, was the second son of 
Thomas Smyth, of Eivenhall, of an ancient family, who, 
according to Morant, derived themselves from Sir Michael 
Carrington, Standard-bearer to King Eich. I. in the Holy 
Wars, one of whose descendants, John Carrington, Esq., in 
the 16th century, changed his surname to Smyth. The 
family appear to have largely augmented their posses- 
sions out of the plunder of abbey lands. The Smyths of 
Cressing held the estate there of the Knights Hospitallers ; 
Clement Smyth, brother of the testator, acquired monastic 
property in Coggeshall. John Smyth was one of the 
auditors of King Hen. YIII., and to him that monarch 
granted the manor and site of the Priory of Blackmore in 
1540. He had given it at the first suppression to Cardinal 
Wolsey for part of the endowment of his new college at 
Oxford, but on the CardinaPs attainder it had reverted to 
the Crown.* The priory had been laid waste, and the 
Canons Eegular of S. Augustine had been driven house- 
less and homeless into the world. Within the brief space 
of two years after the suppression the great Cardinal was 
beggared, disgraced and dead, and almost as rapidly the 
stroke of death fell upon the next grantee, who thus 
commences his will : 

In the NA.HB OF QoD, Amen. — ^The tenth day of the moneth of 
May, the yere of ower lorde god a thousande fyve hundrethe. fourtye 
and thre, and in the xxxv yere of the raigne of o' 8oyeraigne lorde 
Henry theight, by the grace of god, King of England, France and 

* Vide Morant*8 Hist. Essex, sub Blackmore, Kivenhall and Cressing. 


Irelande, Defend' of the faythe, and in earthe supreme hedd of the 
Charche of Bnf^land and Irelaad, I John Smyth, of blakemore in the 
county of Essex, Esquyer, being of hole mynde and in good and perfytt 
remembrance, laude and prayse be unto god, make and ordeyn this my 
present testament as touching the disposicyon of all my moveable goods, 
cattalles and debts, in maner and forme following, that ys to saye, ffirst 
and principally I oomende my soule to AUmighty Jhesu my maker and 
redemer, to whome and by the merits of whose blessed passion is my 
hole trust of clere remission and forgivenes of my synnes, and my body 
to be buryed in christen sepulture in suche place as it shall please god 
to proyyde and ordcyne for me. 

I have given the preamble literally chiefly as a specimen 
of the change of the formulary shortly after the Eeforma- 
tion. Avoiding now the tedious phraseology and repetitions 
of the law, I shall give but a brief abstract of the contents 
of the will, which is very long, in modern orthography 
except in those passages which appear to possess any 
peculiar interest. The testator proceeds : — 

Give to the Churchwardens and parishioners of Blackmore for the 
reparation of their church 20s. To Dorothy my wife her apparel and 
jewels. I will that all my plate, my chain of gold and household stuff 
be divided into two moieties, one to be given to my wife, Dorothy 
Smyth, to her own use, the other to my Executors for the performance 
of my will, and to that intent one moiety of the plate and gold chain to 
be sold. My com and cattle in the County of Essex, as in the counties 
of Berks and Gloucester, to be disposed in like manner. ' I will that all 
the standers and implements of household which are now remayuing at 
my mansion called Smythes hall, in Blakemore in Essex, as it doth at 
Lechlade in the County of Glouc',a8 it doth appear in a scedle hereunto 
annexed, shall there conty Dually remayn.' 'I give to my sister Katheryne 
Smyth her free d welly nge in my house, yt is to say one chamber where 
Sylvester and his wif now inhabyteth, by the yatehouse of the churche- 
yarde of Blakmore, and allso the lytell house next the stables for life 
. . . . and for her fewell to breon at ye sayd house yerely ten carte 
lods of wood as long ns she will there inhabyte • . . and one 

annuitye yerely of fourty shillings sterlinge ' To Dorothy, 

my wife, my lease in Chcrney in the Co. of Berks, and the lease of the 
Parsonage of Lachlade, and the Priory there in the County of Gloucester, 
and the two several leases I hold of the Dean and Chapter of S^ Paul's, 
London, of the messuages or tenements in Sermon -lane, London. To 
William Smyth and Gyles Smyth, my sons, the profits and rents reserved 
of the farms of Shuldham and Canehyn in Norfolk, now in the occupa- 
tion of my brother Leonard. Remainder to my daughters Frances and 
Dorothy Smyth when 21 or married. To my said two sons the leases of 
my houses in Barbican, London, held of the Dean and Chapter of S. 
Paul's. To my •Executors the letting of the lands called Estlees and 
Widneymead for seven years, for the performance of my will ; and at the 
expiration, the leases shall go to my son William, he paying to his 
brother GUcB 31" 8"* over and above the King's rent. Kemainder to 


Giles ; if he die, ' then I wjW that one of my doughtexs which shall 
chance not to be marryed unto the heyre of Henry Maokwyllyam shall 
have the said lease to her and her assignes.' To Wyllyam Dyx my 
son in law, and to Luce my daughter, the lease of my farm in Bemflete, 
and the term that I have in the farm called Rushnashe belonging to the 
Chantry of* — in the cathedral church of S. Paul, London, f 

The preceding abstract will be found to contain quite 
new matter respecting the property and tenures of the 
testator, and the extract which follows is a curious illustra* 
tion of the practice of the period in relation to wardships, 
I therefore print it literatim : 

* My executours to reoeve all the rentes and profytts of my maner of 
Bathon in the Qo. of Essex, which I hold of the King's Majestye, duryng 
the minority of the heyres of Henry Mackwyllyam £squyer,t deceased, 
and they to yeld account therof as aforesayd, towards fyndinge my 
sayd two doughters Frances and Dorothie. I give and bequethe to 
the sayd Fraunces my doughter the maryage of the heyre of the sayd 
Henry Mackwyllyam, and so from heyre to heyre of the sayd Henry 
Macwyllyam ; and if it shall fortune the sayd Fraunces to die before 
marryage be lawfully celebrated betweene her and any of the sayd heyres, 
or that the sayd heyre do refuse to marry with the sayd Fraunces at suche 
time as myn executours or any of them or their assignes shall tender the 
sayd marryage, that then as nowe and now as then, I wyll that my sayd 
doughter Dorothie be offered in marryage to the sayd heyre, and yf he 
refuse the marryage of both, then I wyll that myn executours or their 
assignes shall seU the sayd heyre for the most prouffit and advantage 
that they can, and the money comynge of the sayd sale shalbe payd to 
my sayd doughter ffirances at the tyme of her maryage, or when she 
shall com to the age of xxj yeres complete, and thone of my sayd 
doughters to be thothers heyre thereof, yf eyther of them decease before 
her sayd mar^'age.*! 

The testatator next directs that a bill indented be exe- 
cuted between his wife and his executors that the stuff 
and standerts of household shall remain in Smyth's Hall 
during her life, and after her decease, as by schedule 
annexed, and continues : — 

' I wyll and bequeathe unto Thomas my sonne all my hameys, wepens 
and artyllary as yt is in my armery or galery a Smytbes hauU in 

* Hiatus in Be^tro, bat the Chantrv referred to was that founded 2 July 1239 
by Martin de Pateshall, Dean of that Uhurch. Kushnaahe or Ridmesse is in Canvey 

t It wHl be noticed that the testator's property consisted almost exclnsively of 
church lands and church leases. From his position as auditor he was probably a man 
to be conciliated by such £EivourB. 

{•For an account of the Mackwilliam &mily see Moncnt.sub Stamboume, 
Weever's Fun. Hon. p. 668 Ed. 1631, where for Stanbridge Church read Stamboume. 

f I do not find whether this project of the testator succeeded ; at all events the 
heir of Henry Mackwilliam did not wed either of John Smyth's daughters. 



blabkmor, and that myn exeoatoars shall savely deliver yt unto him 
according as it doth appere in an inventory thereof.' 

The following directions are then given respecting the 
education of his children and the wards ^^ which he had 
bought for the advancement of his daughters." 

' I wyll that my ihre sonnes Thomas, Wyllyam and Gyles, and also 
the hejrres of Henry Mackwyllyam, whom I have bought for the 
advancement of my doughters, shalbe brought up honestly and 
diligently at scole tyll they and every of them shall have convenyent 
learnyng in the latin tonge, and after that, by the discrecion of myn 
executours, to lerne the laws of this realme, or wy th some audi tores, or in 
some other office towards the lawe, whereby they may be better hable to 
live honestly according to the lawes of God ; and also I wyll that my 
two doughters Frauncs and Dorothe shalbe brought upp vertuously and 
honestly in lemyng, till they shalbe maryed, and that my exeoutours 
ahall provide honest and convenyent husbands for them, or one of them 
which shall not be maryed unto theyre of Henry Mackwyllyam, 
Esquyer, when she shalbe hable to be maryed, and to departe and pay 
unto her for her advancement for her maryage according unto this my 
wyll to all entents and purposes as my very trust ys in them so to doo.' 

The testator then directs that 100 marks be paid to his 
daughter Dorothy when 21 or married: but if she die in 
her minority unmarried, he says, 

* Then I wyll that myn executours shall dispose the sayd sum of one 
hundrethe marks in makynge of highwayes, and other dedes of charyty. 
by their discreoyon, whiche make most meritorious for my soule and all 
cristen soules.' 

Next to benefactions to the Church and alms to the poor, 
nothing appears to have been regarded as more meritorious 
than bequests for amending roads and repairing bridges. 
Such bequests are of frequent occurrence in medieeval 
wills, and the practice continued long after the Eeformation. 
The testator bequeaths part of the residue of his estate to 
that purpose as in the ensuing passage: — 

' I wyll that all my household servants have honest lyvery of black 
clothe ayent my buryall. . • Residue ... to and among my 
childern, amendynge of high wayes noyous and other good dedes of 
oharyty after the discrecyon and mynds of my executours and overseers/ 
Appoints Clement Smyth, Leonard Smyth and Wyllyam Stamford 
Executors, Kauf Worsley, gent. Richard Pykering, merchant and Citizen 
of London overseers. The witnesses are John Stamford, attorney of the 
Court of the King's General Surveyors, Sir Richard Johnson, Priest and 
John Pykeryng. 

By far the most interesting portion of John Smyth's will 


are the schedules annexed. Each is headed hy a formal 
declaration that it is to be deemed of the same force and 
effect as if comprised within the body of the will and is 
signed by the testator. 


I give unto Dorathee my wif my gowne of tawney damaske furryd 
with marterns, a gowne of blake damaske faryd with blak saten, and a 
dublett of tawny Telvet. Item I give to my brother Clement a gowne 
of black chamlett* faryd with marterns. Item, to Thomas Edmay, 
Qentylman, my gowne of black cafEa,f furryd with black cony ; and my 
best dublett of black saten, quylted. Item, to my syster, my brother 
Clement's wyf, one newe payre of marterns skynnes. Item, to my 
broth' Leonard a gowne of black worstede, faryd with jenetts ;% a newe 
jerkyn of black velvett and a dublett of black saten, quylted. Item, to 
my Sonne Dixe a gowne of black russett faryd with foynes ; and a jerkyn 
of black damaske faryd with foynes. § Item, to Thomas Hayes a gowne 
of black clothe furyd with budge ;|[ and a jacket of black caffa edged with 
cony. Item, to lliomas Twysell, Esquyer, my turkes^ that is new sett. 
Item, to Mr. Worsley, of the robes, my gelding for myn owne sadell, . 
called DanyelL Item to Mr. Pykeryng, Brewer, my jackett of russett 
yelvett. Item to my cosin Lentall a jacket of blak velyet. Item to 
Syr Edmond Pethy'm, Knight, my diamont that I had of my wyff. 
Item to Thomas Smyth, one of the servers of the King's Chamber, a 
dublett of tawney saten. Item to Thomas Smyth my wives kynnesman 
a new jerkyn of tawney saten. Item, to Margaret, my wifes mayd, a 
gowne of black cloth faryd with dammaske. Item to Mary the mayd of 
the kytchyn a gowne of black clothe faryd with saten. Item to 
Margaret Baker a single gowne of black clothe which was faryd with 
velvet. Item, to James Wylson a cloke of black clothe wyth twoo welts 
of velvett, a blak capp, and my hatt of saten. Item, to old Father 
Lawrence my marble cloke.** Item to Davy my servant a dublett of 
black saten, a capp of clothe and a payre of upper stocks of hose of 
black clothe. Item, to Wyllyam, horsekeeper, a velvett capp and my 
wynter bootes. Item, to Robert Parkyns my olde night gowne of blewe 
worsted furryd with lambe. Item to my sonne Thomas my gylt 
woodknyf with a scaberdetf and gyrdell of velvett. Item to Robert, 
Scolemaster, a new payre of black hoses made for my self. Item, to Syr 
Robert, my Chapleyne, an honest sleveles cote to be made newe by my 
executours. Item, to Wyllyam Cock, my servaunte, my grene cote. 
Item to R(^r Lee, my bayly, my Jerkyn of lether and capp of velvet. 

• Camlet Faryd t.*. furred— fare i.e. fur. Halliwell's "Arch. Diet." Ohvioualy 
alflo garmslied or enriched as in the previous aentezLce, quaai, ' made fair.* 
t A rich stuff, probably taffata. 
A species of &r. 

Foins, fiir made of Polecats skins. 

Budge, Lambskin with the wool dressed outwards, usually worn on the edges oi 
gowns and capes, as B. A. hoods are trimmed. Also the fur from the shank of a kind 
of kid. 

V Turkes, turquoise. 

*• Perhaps variegated or watered resembling veined marble P^ 
ft The woodknife was an important appendage to the equipment of a country 
gentleman. It was usually richly ornamented ana the blade damasked with gold. 


Item to Nicholas, my brewer, Wyllyam Crowe, Rychard Hockley and 
John Ffytchot, to every of them a dublett of black fuatyan redy to be 
made by my executours. John Smythe. 

Schedule II. 

A scedule of all such stufP and standerts of household ... for to 
remayne contynually in the mansion house of me, the sayd John Smyth, 
called Smythes hall in Blackmore, &c., &o. 

Ik the hall, fi^st a fayre joyned table with two trestelles joyned. 
Item, a thyck syde table wyth yoyned trestelles, fyxed in the grownde. 
Item, foure joyned formes. In the faklous. Item a yoyned table 
wyth yoyned ti-esthelles. Item, a yoyned table, chayrewyse, a yoyned 
cupboarde of wainscott. Item, a long forme yoyned. Item, a long 
settyll yoyned. In the B.uttebt. Item, two long seates to sett beare 
or ale upon. Item, a fayre almery* with foure dores for breade. In 
THE Pantebt. Item a breadbyn. In the great chahbee. Item, 
a long framed table of deale bourde. Item, a square fflaunders table 
upon tryndelles.f Item a joyned table of weanscott, chayre wyse. 
Item, two cupboards with one stepp for potts. Item, two yoyned 
formes. In the Chaff ell Chambbb. Item a long setle yoyned. 
In the Chaffell. Item, one aultcr of yoyners worke. Item, a table 
wyth two leaves of the passion, gilt.^ Item, a long setle of waynsoott. 
Item a bell hanging over the chappell§ In the second chambeb in 
THE OALEBT OYEB THE KTTCHTN. Item, B loug scttyll yoyncd of 
waynscott. In the Chambeb oyeb the Noubshebt. Item a long 
settle yoyned. In the hott house. Item, a lytic sesteryjl of leade, 
wyth a cock of latyn. Item, a lytic cawdery^ of copper, wyth a cock. 
In the Bakehouse. Item, twooe fayre moulding bourdes wyth iii 
trestles. Item, a knedyng troughe in the boultyng house. Item, a 
bulting byn. Item, a barre of yron along the cbymney wyth twoorakks 
for potts upon the same. Item, in the Ketch yn. Item, two fayre 
dressing bourdes of woode. Item, a greate barre of yron along the chymney 
wyth thre raks and two holes for potts on the same. Item, a cawdery and 
a pott hanging on a furneys in the boylyng howse. Item, a fiayre bourde 
wyth two trestelles. In the l&.bdeb howse. Item, a powdering tubbe** 
wyth a cover. Item, a great long capons coope, in the kytchyn yard, 
covered with boordes. In the Daibt house. Item, a ffurneys of 
copper to well whey in. Item, a chese lathe or presse for chese. Item, 
thre chese breades. Item, a cheme for butter. In the bbewhousb. 
Item, a chestern to water in malt, lyned wyth leade. Item, a furneys of 
copper to brewe in. Item, a mashe safe. Item, a fayre worte pan of 
copper. Item, a great yeldyng fate. Item, a wourte fate. Item, a 
cooling fate. Item, a clensyng tubbe. Item, two settylles to sette beare 
on. zxij good kilderkyns. Item, a payre of slynges. In the myll 

• Almery, a locker or cupboard, 
t Trynclelles — wheels or castors. 

- t Perhaps a triptych immediately over the altar on the two leaves of which the 
Passion of our Lord was depicted. 

{ Query, is not this the bell which was in the possession of the late John Disney, 
Esq., President E. A. Soc. P 

II Cistern. 

f Cauldron. 

* * A tub used for salting meat. 


HoxrsE. Item, a horse mjU for two horses, wjth ston js. Item, and all 
other things thereunto belonging. Item, Matts layd upon the flowers 
of ten. chambers. Item, all manner of sjUyngs and porta) les of 
waynscott with dores, wyndowes and locks. Item, all manner of 
bourded bedsteds in divers chambers amounting in nomber of ix. 
Item, the dock wyth bell unhanged.* 

The various items contained in the third schedule are 
divided chiefly amongst the testator's children, but a few 
are given to other relations. As there is a constant repeti- 
tion of the same names after every item, with the proportion 
which each legatee is to receive, I simply enumerate the 
articles contained in the inventory. 

Schedule III. 

Hangyngs of arras,f ffyrst iij lytle peoes of hangings to hange over 
chymnes. Say. Item, y pec's of hanging lying unoccupyed. Item, 
hangings of saye for iv chambers. Curteyns for beddes and wyndowes. 
^rst of saye xxi pec's. Cupborde clothes of Domix:^ tapystre and 
other. (41 pieces). Coverletts, divers sorts, olde and newe, xri; 
TerdouT§ lyned v ; and mantyll frees iiij. Counterpoynts. Arras, 
two. Tapestry olde and newe xy. Yet counterpoynts ;|| of sylke 
and Bawdekyn,^ two. Item, of yelyet, one. Qujlts, Item, of yellow 
sylke one. Celours and testers** of yelvet, payned wyth tynsell, one. 
[ten others enumerated,] Borders. Of saye one ; yerdour one. Item, 
of bockeram and canyas stayned, iiij. Item, of new stayned canyas, ii 
pec's. Beddes of ffethers, xx. Yet beddes, of downe, thre. Mattresses 
of fyne lynyn quylted, y ; and course canyas, yiii. Bolsters, fethers, 
XX, downe one, and fflocks iij. Blanketts of woollen and lynsey 
wolseye, xxi ; and of fipustyan y. 

Chafpell STUFF.ff Copcs and yestments}} thre. Aulter front8,§§ 
foure. Corporace case,|||| one; and dyyers peces of sylk necessary ifbr 
eusshyons, y. Thomas Smyth as moche as wyll serye hys chappell, the 
resydue to be soldo by myn executours to the performance of my wyll. 

* Syllyngs, ornaments ; more fireqnently used for waiuBcotted ceilings. 

t Arras, a superior kiiid of tapestiy so named from Arras the capital Artoifl, which 
was celebrated 6>r its manufacture. 

i Domix, a coarse description of damask used for carpets and curtains ; originally 
made at Toumay; oaMed in Flemish Domick. 

§ Yerdour, tapestry. 

H Counterpoynts, counterpanes. 

H Bawdekin, a precious stuff introduced in 13 cent., said to haye been silk inter- 
woven with gold in a most sumptuous manner. 

** Canopies and hangings. 

ft The sacred utensils ot precious metals would be comprised among the plate, 
otherwise disposed of. The ^tar candlesticks (unless of silver) of which there wo\Ud 
probably be but two in a private chapel where only Low Mass was said, are included 
no doubt with the latten candlesticks mentioned below. 

%1 Yestments, chasubles. 

|§Aulter fronts, frontals or antependia : obviously white, red, green and violet 
proper to the Festivals and seasons of the Church. 

Ill Caae for containing the Corporal or linen cloth spread over the Body (corpus) 
after the bread has been consecrated in Holy Communion. It was in use in tiie 
Church as early as the 6th century. 


Sheets of course canvas, xzy pajre ; fyne canvas, ix payre ; lenjn, ▼ 
payre, and one berrying sheet — xxxix payre and a shete PyUowberes* 
of fyne, vi payre; and of course, ij payre— viii payre. Table clothes 
of fyne damaske, two ; fyne playne diaper, one ; course diaper, x ; fjrne 
playne canvas, xxij. Cupbourde clothes of fyne diaper damaske, two ; 
other diaper, viii. Playne towells of fyne clothe, two ; and canvas, 
xij. Napkyns, diaper damaske, one dozen ; fyne playne diaper, xiij ; 
napkyns one dozen ; x napkins. Yet napkyns, of canvas wyth blewe 
rowes, X ; playne canvas, vi ; old playne, vi. Aulter clothes of canvas, 
one. Pewter, Basyns, Bolles and Ewers. Basyns and Ewers, silver 
fashyoned, three. Playne bolles, two. Chai^rs, silver ffashyoned, thre ; 
playne one. Platters, sylver &shyoned, one dozen two platters ; playne, 
lij dd.iij platters: iiij dd. v platters. Dysshes of sylver fiEashyon, 
VI ; comeryd, v ; and playne dysshes ijdd. Porringers sylver ffashyoa 
one dozen ; comeryd, yj ; playne, vii — ^ii dd.j porringers. Sawcers 
sylver fikshyn one dozen ; and playne ij dd. v. sawcers iij 
dd. sawcers.' Trenchers, one dozen. Plates for chargers (vi in all) 
Candelstycks of pewter; sylver flEashyon, iiij. Potts for ale, wyne, 
herbes, and chamber potts, xxii. Latyn candelstycks of latyn of dy vers 
sorts, xiiij Gandelbeamef of latyn, large, one. ChaQrngdishes of 
latyn, twoo. Chafoms of latyn one. Ladylles of latyn, two. 
Scommers} of lattyn one. Andyrons of lattyn, very fayre, one payre. 
Brasse and copper pannes of dyvers sortes, vi. Ffumynge pannes 
of lattyn, two. Potts of dyvers sorts, ix. Chafomes of dyvers 
sortes, iii. Spyce morter wyth pestyll of yron, one. Yron raks, great, 
V. andyrons great and smale, vi payre. ffyer forks of yron, two ; ffyer 
showells of yron, three. Tongs of yron, two payre. Gredyrons of yron, 
iii. Spyttes greate and smale, xvii. Trevetts, great and smale, twoo. 
frying pannes, one. Dressing pannes, thre. rotthokes, thre payre. 
Backstocke for chymneys, two. A clock wyth bell to be hanged upp and 
to remayne at Smythes hall for ever. Beddsteddes of joynours wowrk, 
xiii. Stoles joyned xvi. Chayres of dyvers sortes, vi. Close stoles, 
two. Chestes, wyth one of yron, and viii gardevyance§ — xviii. Tabells 
yoyned, and other formes joyned, three. Hevy cupbordes, one. 

Harneys, complete, lackynge legges, one payre. Almery ryvetts wyth 
splents and backs, viii. Item, one cote of fense covered wyth black 
saten. Item, jacks covered wyth whyte fustyan, twoo. Item, helmett, 
one. Item, salletts, vii. Item, scuUsJI covered wyth satyn, one. Item 
a mayle capp, one. Item, gauntletts and gorgetts, two. * Bowes, iiii. 
Sheves of arrowes, iiii ; pollaxes, one ; halberds two ; glayves, one ; 
swordes, three. Item, one woodknyf gylt. Item, a quyver of shoting 
arrowes, to my sonne Thomas Smythe. 

It is manifest from the tenor of the will that some of the 
testator's household effects are not included in the preceding 
schedules. The plate is omitted, inasmuch as one moiety 

* Pyllowheres, or Pillowberes, still called in Essex PUlowbeys, Pillow-cases ; also 
doths for Laying over the pillow frequently of very rich material and embroideiy. 

t The Bood-beam in the Church was also so called from the great candles set on 
high candlesticks burning on either side of the Holy Bood. 

I Skimmers. 

6 Gardevyance, a cheet, trunk, pannier or basket. 

jl Skull-pieces or morions. 


was given to the testator's wife absolutely, and the rest was 
directed to be sold. All the articles comprised in the 
second inventory were specific bequests, and the ^ standerts 
of household ' in the third schedule were to remain 
permanently in the mansion. These, however, un- 
doubtedly comprise the great bulk of the household stuff. 
The armour was a specific bequest to the testator's eldest 
son and heir. 

The length to which the present communication has 
extended, warns me to close ; but should these notices of 
early wills and inventories prove acceptable to Essex 
archaeologists, I shall be happy to continue them in future 
pages of our journal. 



Bj AnousTUs Cni^BLEs Velet, Esq. 

There were Shaksperes in Essex before and after the 
time of the Poet I do not mean in the sense of ^^mute 
inglorious Mil tons/' but living and breathing bearers of 
that world-honoured name. 

Having alighted on this fact — which, as far as I can 
learn, has not been noticed by any of the biographers — I 
have thought it worth while to place on record what is 
known concerning them, in case any future investigator 
should think fit to pursue the inquiry. 

All that is known of 8hakspere and his family is, that he 
was the son of John Shakspere and Mary Arden, — that he 
married Anne Hathwey, — that his own descendants failed 
in the second generation, — that he had three brothers and 
four sisters, most of whom died young, and there is no 
proof that any of them left issue^ except his sister Joan. 
Even the Christian name of his grandfather has not been 
ascertained, nor whether he possessed any more distant 

Such, however, is the interest attached to the name, that 
the individual considers himself fortunate who can add a 
grain or two of information to the slender stores at present 
existiug. I can only flatter myself that, if I fail in this 
object, the collateral results of the search may justify me 
in trespassing for a very few minutes on your attention. 

My office, as Kegistrar of the Archdeaconry of Essex, 
and the other Courts lately possessing testamentary 
jurisdiction in this county, gives me, till other arrange- 
ments are made, the custody of a series of original wills, 
probably far exceeding 60,000 in number, commencing 
about the year 1400. 
' Few have any idea how vast a store of interesting in- 


formation is to be obtained from this source. The insight 
which the wills of the common people afford, as to their 
education — their religion — their family affections — their 
daily habits — their food and raiment — and eyen the 
furniture and arrangement of their dwellings — is surpris- 
ingly minute and accurate. And it was not without reason 
that they were described in a paper already printed in our 
^* Transactions/' as " Bich repositories of arch89ological in- 

It is a fact which would scarcely be suspected, that the 
number of wills proved in a single year three centuries ago 
far exceeded the number at the present day, notwithstand- 
ing the great increase of population and wealtL But, in 
truth, every one who was " sick and weak in body, but of 
whole and sound mind, memory, and understanding, praised 
be God for the same," and who was the possessor of what 
would now be deemed a very humble store of the com- 
monest honsehold goods, considered it his bounden duty to 
make a testamentary disposition of them. Perhaps, in 
Boman Catholic times, the presence of a father confessor 
helped to remind the sick man of the claims of the Church, 
and of " tithes and dues negligently forgotten." Perhaps 
also, in later days, the imposition of a tax on probates and 
legacies operated, like the tax on hair powder, to extinguish 
that it fed on. 

Before the Beformation, three wills out of four would 
begin in this fashion: " First and principally, I bequeath 
my soul to Almighty God, and to the Glorious Virgin our 
Lady Saint Mary, and to all the Holy Company of 
Heaven ;" and the bequest of a portion of the testator's 
worldly substance in payment of masses ^' for his soul, and 
the soul of his deceased wife, and for all Christian souls," 
would form an essential and striking characteristic. 

An example of this, carried somewhat to an extreme, is 
to be found in the will of Edward Brooke, of Bobbing- 
worth, gentleman, dated 1545 [37 Hen. VIII.], who 
gives the following directions for his funeral, and for 
the custom&ry commemoration, known as the ^^ Month's 
Mind" :— 

'* First, I win tbat four torches and four tapers be bought, and the 
* Notices of Ancient Wills, by H. W. King, Esq., yoI. 1. p. 160. 


same and none other to be spent and occupied at my burial and month's 
mind. Also, I will four poor householders and four children hold the 
torches and tapers, eyerj man taking for their labour 4d., and every child 
2d. And afler my month's mind past, I will two of the said torches, and 
two of the tapers, to Bobbingworth Church ; and I will the other two 
torches, one to Magdalen Church, and the other to Shelley Church ; and 
I will the other two tapers be burnt in Bobbingworth Church, on the 
holy days at high mass, and at none other time. Item, I will four priests 
of my near neighbours, of my wife's election, and no more, but my 
Curate, and Sir Thomas, my son, and my cousin Maurice Chauncy, if he 
come ; every of the four priests to sing those masses folio wing« as they 
shall be appointed, that is to say, a mass of The Five Wounds of Our 
Lord, — and the Name of Jesu, — of the Trinity, with a memory of the 
Kesurrection of Our Lord, — and of the Birth of Our Lord, with a 
memory of Our Blessed Lady, Virgin Mother to our Lord ; with a collect 
for my soul and all Christian souls. Every of them having for his labour 
8d., without meat and drink ; and else 6d. with meat and drink, at my 
wife's election. My son. Sir Thomas, to sing a mass of the Ascension of 
Our Lord, with a memory of the Holy Ghost, with a collect for my soul 
and all Christian souls. My cousin, Maurice Chauncy, to sing a mass 
at his election : making him purveyor of the residue of the masses. 
The Curate's Mass of Requiem for my soul and all Christian souls. 
Every one of them having for his labour, 12d. Also, I think it necessary 
to prepare meat and drink, as well for the poor people, because they have 
no money, as for honest neighbours. And the poor people to have 
warning that they come not to my month's mind, for there shall be no- 
thing prepared for them ; nevertheless I will meat and drink be prepared 
for my neighbours that cometh thither. And as for the poor house- 
holders not to be at dinner at my month's mind, for my will is that 20s. 
in money be bestowed at my month's mind on this manner following, that 
is to say, every poor householder of the parish to have 4d. — the man 
2d. and the wife 2d., in recompence of their dinners ; and the rest of the 
said 20s., if any be, to be given accordingly to my poor neighbours 
householders nigh unto, at the discretion of my wife. Also at my month's 
mind, I will have no more priests, but my son Sir Thomas and my 
Curate, and I would they should be warned at my burial. And all other 
things, if any be to be done, I put them to the discretion of my wife, 
John Brooke my son, and other of my friends, so they be not excessive. 
And thus I give my soul to our Saviour Jesu Christ, our Lord 
God omnipotent, and my Saviour, my Lord and my God, in whom I 

A vory few years changed the ctirreiit of ideas on these 
subjects. We find in the will of William Leicester, in 
1566, an elaborate confession of Protestant faith : — 

** First, I give and commit my soul into the hands of Almighty God, 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Maker of heaven and of earth ; — to 
whom I give thanks for my creation. And the like to Jesus Christ, my 
Lord and Saviour, by whose precious death and passion I feel in my soul 
free mercy, pardon and forgiveness of all my sins committed against the 


Divine Majesty, in word, thonght, or deed ; — to whom I give thank9 for 
my redemption. And also to God the Holy Ghost, by whose mighty 
power I was incorporated into the fellowship of Christ's congregatioa* 
and was made a lively member of the same, and the child of God by 
adoption ; — to whom I give thanks for my regeneration and sanotification. 
And as concerning my body — even with a free heart and good mind I 
commit it to the earth whereof it came, nothing doubting but that I shall 
receive it again at the joyful resurrection of the just ; but not as it is 
now, a weak, vile, and a mortal body, but a strong, a glorious and a im- 
mortal body, like unto the body of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
according to the working of his power, by the which also he is able to 
subdue idl things unto himself. To whom, with Father and the Holy 
Ghost, be all praise, power, majesty and glory, both now and ever. So 
be it." 

I might easily diversify these instanees, and, perhaps^ 
exhibit them in stronger contrast ; but I pass on to other 
matters, merely remarking, that when trentals and obits were 
suppressed by law, the spirit of piety and charity displayed 
itself, as we learn from other contemporary documents, in 
'^ legacies given to good and godly uses," as to ^^ the relief 
of poverty, to poor scholars, orphans, highways, marriage of 
poor maidens, and the like,"* examples of which might be 
plentifully adduced.— The will of Nicholas Thresher (1567) 
contains a bequest not unworthy of present imitation-— 
'^ Item, I give to the mending of Ckilderditch Churchy ten 

The anxiety evinced by testators that their earthly 
remains might rest with those who had gone before is 
another marked peculiarity. John Arthur of Much Baddow 
ri504) says, " Item I bequeth x li. to bye a stone to be 
layde upon me and my wyff ; And I wull that it be graven 
upon the said stone, the pictor of a man and a woman, with 
all my children, and the iiij Evangelists of iiij comers, and 
an image of Owre Lady, with a rowle, therein wryten, 
* Mater Dei^ memento meiV^ 

Sometimes the expression of this desire affords in- 
formation of antiquarian interest, inasmuch as, in speci- 
fy ing churches and churchyards, the name of the Patron 
Saint is frequently given. I have noticed, among a 
number of instances which corroborate New court's autho- 
rity in that particular, a few in which information, wanting 

 Cardwell's " Documentary Annals," vol. 1, pp. 66^ 360. 


in his ^' Bepertorium/' is supplied by these documents 
— yiz.y 

Cbigtial Smelej • • • • St. Nicholas. 

Eastwood . • • . All Saints. 

Epping • . • • All Saints. 

Fobbing . • • « St. Michael. 

Hadleigh . • . . St. James. 

Homdon-on-the-Hill . • St. Peter. 

Ingatestone » • . . St. Edmund King and Martyr. 

Mucking • • • . St. John Baptist. 

Bainham . . . . St Giles. 

Ditto . . . . St. Helen. 

Romford . • • . St. fdward King and Confessor. 

Bhenfield • . • • St. Mary the Virgin. 

Thurrock Grays • . • • St Peter and St. Paul.* 

Sometimes we obtain a hint towards fixing the dates of 
certain erections. John Stackwell, in 1 503, bequeathed 
** to the byldyng of the new stepull in Chelmsford, x s." 
And Thomas Fuller, in 1547, desired to be buried in the 
parish church of Barking, ^^ in the new aisle there." 

Among other things, we learn the prices of various com- 
modities. In the will of William Manning, dated 1541, 
the testator chronicles his debts to his ^^ father-in-law, 

Kempe " — 


For a nag . . . • 

For a bushel of wheat • • . • . . 

For a bushel of rye • , . • • . 

For two oxen .• • 2 

And while we observe the contrast between these prices 
and those of the present day, we find in another will of 
the same period (Francis Wyott, Esq., 1567), "a dozen of 
silver spoons which cost £7," — shewing, as might have 
been expected, from the history of the currency, that the 
value of the precious metals, as measured in money, was 
much the same as now. 

The possession of live stock is invested with prominent 
importance. We meet with " two beasts, the black with 
cut horns, the white pied," — " a cow with a star in her 
forehead," — " a red crumbled horn cow," — " a cow called 
by the name of Gold," &c. And Miles Symonson, who 

* In £cton*B " TheBaurus Bemm Ecdedasticaruin " most of the aboTo DedicatiODS 
are giTen on the autliority of Browne Willisi the well-known antiquary. 








was Rector of Stifford in 1567, having appointed " Master 
Doctor Cole, Archdeacon of Essex," to be one of the over- 
seers of his will, directed the said ^^ Master Doctor Cole to 
have, for a remembrance of his good will, his grey gelding.*' 

Then, again, the minute supervision with which tiie 
head of the family would portion a daughter with ** a cow, 
six sheep, a mattress, a bolster, two pillows, six platters, 
two pewter dishes, two saucers, a brass pot, and two pair of 
sheets ;" and a son with ^^ all my apparel, as coats, 
doublets, hose, shirts, sword, dagger, bow, arrows, and 
girdles, and half a seam of rye to be delivered unto him 
the Michaelmas after my decease" (James Medcalf, 1666); 
the occasional cutting off of a luckless prodigal with the 
customary shilling; anxious solicitude for the care and 
custody of a granddaughter, ^^ She being a Innocent and 
not able to govern herself" (Joan Eipon, 1567); injunc- 
tions to the widow, ^^ to be careful and diligent to provide 
and see that our children be virtuously brought up in the 
fear of God and good learning " (Francis Wyott, 1567) ; 
and to the children, ^' to deal faithfully, lovingly and 
brotherly together, and to be ruled by the advice and 
counsel of their guardians ;" — these, and numerous other 
points, omitting for the most part those which have been 
noticed by Mr. £ing in his paper before referred to, have 
occurred to me on a very cursory survey, and in abler hands 
would yield a rich harvest of local and general information 
and amusement. 

I have brought with me two or three of the books 
containing transcripts of ancient wills. One volume 
in particular (Wyndover) I have selected on account of 
the hand-writing. Almost every will begins with an 
ornamental S. • 

*^In tj^e V(Am of (Sfob^ ^men.'* 

And the scribe, one Thomas Hopkins, whose skill deserves 
to be recorded, seems to have exercised a good deal of 
ingenuity in making no two of these initials alike. In a 
few instances, the exuberance of his pen, imcontroUed by 
the gravity of his subject, seems to have led him into the 
regions of caricature ; — witness the fancy portrait at page 
48, from which it might be inferred that, in the reign of 


Queen Elizabeth, Bomething bearing a strange resemblance 
to the modern crinoline was worn by the sterner sex. 

Other books contain sundry odds and ends of information 
on the fly leaves, not always germane to the subject matter. 
There is a weekly record of ** The number of all those that 
died of the plague in London," from the 7th of May to the 
10th of September, 1563, " by John Osborne, Registrar of 
Essex," rising from 6 deaths in the first week, to 131 in 
the tenth, and 1,454 in the eighteenth, and giving a total 
of 6,779. There are also remedies for bums and scalds, as 
well as other ills which flesh is heir to, including ^^ a very 
proved medicine for restoring of nature," of which one of 
the principal ingredients is '^ a fat sucking pygge." 

With these preliminary remarks — which I hope will be 
pardoned if they have strayed a little from my professed 
subject, but which have been introduced in the hope of 
enlisting some one, with more leisure than 1 can command, 
to labour in the same vineyard — I invite your attention to 
the documents now on the table, and to the pedigree which 
I have drawn up to illustrate them. 

They are as follows : — 

I. The will of Thomas Shackespebe, dated 26th August, 
1557, (4 and 5 Philip and Mary). He is described as a 
priest, and he died about seven years before the birth of the 
Poet, whose father, John Shacksper, was at that time an 
** ale taster " in the borough of Stratford-on-Avon. The 
contents of this will are sufficiently interesting, even apart 
from any bearing on our present subject, to warrant its 
being quoted at length : — 

" In del nomi'e Amen. The xxvj day of August in the jere of owre 
lorde god 1557. I Thorn's Shackespere priest beyng in parfjt memory 
pray8ydM)e allmyghty god consideryng w*t my selfe the fraylte of this 
lyfe And yt nothynge [more] uncertayne then ys the howar of dethe Do 
ordeyne and make this my testament contaynyng my last wyll in man'r 
folowyng ffyrst I geve and bequcthe my sow lie to allmyghty god The 
fiPather y'e son and the holly gost And to owre blyssyd Lady Sent Mary 
And to all the holly company of hevyn And my body to the erthe and 
to be buryed in zreten buryall It^m I geve to viij prests of Jesus 
comons^ wherin I now dwell beyng at dyrge and masse and to brynge 
me to my grave the day of my buryall and to reme*bar me when they 
saye masse xi^d a pece It*m I wyll have xij 11 tapars to brynge me to my 
grave & xij chyldern to cary them And eu'y of them to have for ther 

* Jesus Commons. A college of priests which stood on Dowgate Hill. 


labor i]d a pece It'm I wyll that my executor shall geve the day of my 
buryall among powre people xs It'm I geve and bcquethe to the 
mayntenance of J'sos comons to the use of the howsse z«. It'm I geve 
and bequethe to the snstars of Syon *x/t. It'm I geve and bcquethe to 
the ffathers of Schynef xli, It'm I geve and bequethe to the obsarvant 
fryars of grenewyche^ ▼/»'. It'm I geve to the blacke fryars of sent 
bartyllmewys 8mythefelde§ v/t. It'm I geve and bequethe to the nunys 
of Kyngslan^ley || v/t. It'm I give and bequethe to the parrysche churche 
of sent mylderyds in brcdstret in london^ towards the byeng of a pyxt or 
monstrat to carye the blyssyd sacrament in on palme sonday and 
corpus x'ti day and other tymys neadfuU v/t. It'm I geve and bequethe 
to my brother Robart Shackespere iij/t. vj*. viiJA?. It'm I geve to my 
brother Harry Wyll son iij7t. vj*. viijrf. It'm I geve and bcquethe to my 
brother John Ck>oke iij/t. vj«. viijd, It'm I geve and bequethe to my 
syst'r grace Starke xl«. It'm I geve and bequethe to my sust'r Jone 
Shackespere x\s. It'm I geve and bequethe to sust'r C>cely Rychardson 
in case she be aly ve at the tymc of my decease xxvj*. viiyL ou' and above 
zl#. wyche I lent hyr husband in redy money. It'm I geve and bequethe 
to John Cooke of Jesus commons iij«. iiijd. It'm I geve and bequethe 
to mother Angnys belonging to the comons iij«. iiijc^. It'm I geve and 
bequethe to good wyffe bio war my kepar vj«. viijrf.** 

II. The next is the will of Joseph Shakspeare, or 
Shakespeare, of Havering, dated 10th May, 1640, and 
proved on the 12th August following. There is a certain 
degree of quaintness in the brevity of this exordium — 
" First I commit my soul to God, my body to the grave, 
my estate to friends in form following " — which shows a 
compliance with the forms of the time, while it stands out 
in contrast with the long windedness which, as we have 
seen, sometimes prevailed. He gave 20s. to John Pelichie, 
clerk, " to preach his funeral sermon at Eomford." 

III. The will of Susan Shackspbar, of Hornchurch, 

* The Sisters of Sion. Hemy V. built a house at laleworth, on the site of the 
present Sion House, for the nuns of St. Bridget. 

t The Fathers of Sheen. Henry V. built and endowed the Carthusian Priory of 
Jesus of Bethlehem at Ridimond. 

t The Observant Friars of Greenwich. Henry VII. founded a Convent of Fran- 
ciscan or Observant Friars at Greenwich. 

§ The Black Friars of St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield. Here was a priory founded 
in the reign of Henry I., for the Augustines. After the suppression, Q. Mary 
granted the choir (adjoining to, and now forming part of, the Church of St. Bartholo- 
mew the Great) to the Black Friars, who used it as their conventual church during 
her reign. 

I The Nuns of Kings Langley. There was formerly a house of Friars Preachers 
at Kings Langley, which was assigned by Q. Mary to a prioress and nuns. 

H St. Mildred's Bread Street. This Church was burned in the great fire of 1666, 
and the parish is now united to St. Margaret Moses. 

•• The document in the registry is not the original will, but a copy. We leam 
from the report of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, that in early times it was by no 
means unusual for the original wills to be returned to the executors after probate, 
leaving a copy only in the registry. 


widow and relict of Samuel Shakspear, yeoman, deceased, 
dated 24th July, 1678, and proved 7th October following. 
She was the sister-in-law of the last named Joseph. 

lY. The will of Thomas Shakesfhere, of Hornchurch, 
yeoman, dated 19th November, 1702, and proved 2nd June, 
1703. He was the son of Susan, and the nephew of 

V. The will of Samuel Shakespeare, of Eomford, 
yeoman, dated 1st July, 1707, and proved 27th December, 
1710. He was the brother of Thomas. 

VI. The will of John Shakespear, of Bawreth, yeoman, 
dated 2nd March, 1723, and proved 16th February, 1727. 
He was the grandson of Susan, and the nephew of Thomas 
and Samuel. 

I am sorry to say that these wills are in themselves 
more barren of interest than the generality of their class ; 
and it must be confessed that no light whatever is thrown 
by any of the testatdrs on any subject connected with 
their illustrious namesake. My hope, as I unfolded one 
after another of these documents — that I might find some 
bequest of books or manuscripts — some allusion to heir- 
looms or relics — was doomed to disappointment. They 
appear (with the exception of the priest) to have been 
simple every-day yeomen, tolerably well to do in worldly 
circumstances, but not one of them able to vmte his name. 

For the sake of comparison, I have prepared a pedigree 
containing, as I believe, all that is known of the Poet's 
kindred. A few of the Christian names are common to 
both pedigrees, such as John, William, Joan, Susannah, 
Judith, Anne, and Elizabeth; and although the dates do 
not absolutely preclude the possibility of the priest of 
1557 having been an uncle, and the others descended from 
a brother of the Poet, yet the probabilities are all the 
other way. There is indeed a tradition that "One of 
Shakspere's younger brothers lived to a good old age, 
even after the restoration of Charles the Second." Our 
Joseph Shakspeare, who died in 1640, might have been 
his son. 

The spellmg of Shakspere's name has often been a sub- 

}'ect of controversy. There is documentary evidence for at 
east nine different modes. I should despair of making 


the distinction apparent to the ear, and I mast therefore 
appeal to the eye : — 

Shaespebe. Shasspeeb. Shaespeabe. 

Shaxespebe. Shaksspeabe. Shagspebe. 

Shagespeb. Shackespeabe. Shaxspsbe. 

And the family under consideration seem to have been no 
less remarkable for the ingenious manner in which they 
oontriyed to diversify it. In the six wills before us, 
although it is clear, from internal eyidence, that at least 
five of the testators were nearly and intimately connected, 
their names are spelt in six different ways, no two of them 
being alike : — 

1. Shacxespebe. 4. Shaxesphebb. 

2. Shaxspeabe. 5. Shaxespeabe. 

3. Shacxspeab. 6. Shaxespeab. 

And in the grant of letters of administration which was 
made in 1731 to Judith Vassal, the sister of the last of 
the name, we have a seventh variety — 

7. Shaxespabe. 

One of these — ^No. 5, " Shake-speare " — corresponds 
with the mode in which the name was usually printed 
during the Poet's lifa Another — No. 4, " Shake-sphere " 
is suggestive, and I do not recollect to have seen it before. 
We might almost fancy that "Glorious John" had it in 
his mind when he made his Alexander 

Assume the God, 
Affect to nod, 
And seem to shake the spheres. 

All the individuals of whom 1 have spoken resided at 
Bomford, Homchurch, Havering, and Bawreth, in this 
county ; and it is prol3able that, if the registers of those 
parishes were searched, some further information might be 
gleaned. If the wills themselves had disclosed any trace 
of a connection with the family of the Swan of Avon, I 
should have applied to the incumbents of those parishes 
for their co-operation in the inquiry, and I am well assured 


I should not have applied in vain. But I apprehend that, 
whether or not any such connection existed, I have only 
unearthed from their long repose a set of very ordinary 
mortals, who had nothing in common with the Poet but 
the name. Any one of them> might have described him- 
self, in the words of Corin, the shepherd, in ^^ As You 
Like It : ^^— 

" Sir, I am a true labourer ; I earn that I eat ; get that I wear ; owe 
no man hate ; envy no man's happiness ; glad of other men's good ; 
content with my harm ; and the greatest of my pride is, to see my ewes 
grace and my lunbs suck." 










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(No. 3.) 

By H. W. Kino. 

Among the ancient Essex families there is not one extant 
so long and intimately associated with the county and its 
history as that of Tyrell. With a descent dating from the 
Norman Conquest, when Sir Walter Tyrell, the founder of 
the House in England, obtained the Manor of Langham, 
they have flourished for eight centuries ; and the long roll 
presents twenty-three Knightly Tyrells in direct lineal 
succession till the middle of the last century, when the 
main line terminated in two co-heiresses. We find, 
however, but little upon record relating to the family in 
Essex until the reign of Edw. II. or Edw. III., when 
Sir James Tyrell, the eighth in succession from Sir Walter, 
married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir William 
Heron. This lady brought the Manor of Heron to her 
husband : their son, Sir Thomas, in 1363 imparked 400 
acres of land around the mansion, and Heron Hall thence- 
forth became the family seat, where the old knights lived 
in splendid hospitality for four hundred years. From the 
parent stem many branches sprang. 2. The House of 
Tyrell of Qipping, in Suffolk, whose descendants, I believe, 
still exist. 8. Tyrell of Beeches, in Kawreth, which 
expired in 1576. 4. Tyrell of South Ockendon, and 
Thornton in Buckinghamshire, raised to the Baronetage 
in 1627, which became extinct in 1749. 5. Tyrell of 

TOL. lU., PART m, X 


Little "Warley, which failed of heirs male in 1585. 6. 
Tyrell of Homdon-on-the-Hill, which died out in brief 
spaca 7. Tyrell of Buttsbury, raised to the Baronetage in 
1809, of which family is the present Sir John Tyssen 
Tyrell, Bart, the last and sole male representative, in 
Essex, of his ancient and honourable race. 

Heron Hall from its antiquity, perhaps too from 
alterations or restorations at various periods since its 
erection, and from the fact that it was the residence of 
one family for so many generations, must have been one 
of the most interesting and remarkable domestic edifices 
in the county. Although standing almost within living 
memory, I have failed to discover that any plan, drawing 
or description of the mansion has been preserved. All that 
we possess is the brief, meagre and unsatisfactory notice of 
it by Morant, who merely says, " It is an old brick edifice, 
surrounded with a moat ; on the outer side of which moat 
stand four towers, detached from the rest of the building. 
Great part of it is as old as the time of King Henry VI. or 
Edward IV." If we may accept the date assigned to it by 
Morant as authentic, it must have been rebuilt by Sir 
Thomas Tyrell, who died in 1476 (if not by his father), 
and this is, perhaps, not improbable ; but it must be borne 
in mind that if Morant had no other evidence than the 
style of the architecture to guide him, upon such evidence 
the accuracy of his judgment must be extremely doubtful. 
Ancient English architecture was but imperfectly under- 
stood in his day, and the otherwise excellent historian was 
a very incompetent authority on this particular branch of 
his subject. 

The mansion was demolished either early in the year 
1789, or in the latter part of the previous year.* Two of 
the towers remained standing long afterwards, but it was 
not until they became picturesque ruins that they attracted 
the attention of the artist, the antiquary or the architect, 
and they were first engraved to illustrate the " Beauties of 

* The old materials of Heron HaU were adyertised for sale by prirate contract in 
the " Chelmsford Chronicle/' March, 1789, described as, " All the remaining articles 
and materials of the mansion, consisting of sashes and glass, shutters, doors and 
linings, wainscotting, stairs and balusters, timber firaming, a marble chunney piece 
and slab, stone piers, between three and four hundred thousand bricks at 128. per 
thousand." Psort of the materials and fittings appears therefore to haye boen 
preyiously disposed of. 


England and Wales" in 1805.* So long as the edifice stood 
intact it remained unheeded. Mailman, who embellished 
his " History of Essex" with numerous " neat engravings " 
of country seats which neither command our veneration for 
their antiquity, nor excite our admiration for their elegancoi 
excluded Heron Hall, which like Flemings, f and Jervis, 
and Crixea, and a hundred others, has been remorselessly 
destroyed without illustration and without record. The 
land has long since been disparked, not a vestige of the 
edifice remains, and a few traces of the moat alone serve 
to indicate the site. 

But the destruction of the Tyrell monuments is more 
remarkable and more inexplicable than the destruction of 
their house. The demolition of the house was, perhaps, a 
necessity, the destruction of their monuments was a 
sacrilege. Very careful were the old knights, as we shall 
see, to provide for the due celebration of their funeral 
solemnities ; they founded chantries and obits, they ordered 
fair tombs to be built *^ according honestly for their degree," 
and their successors fulfilled their pious intentions and 
enriched East Horndon Church with costly monuments and 
memorial windows. Nearly all have perished. If we had 
been left to simple conjecture, we should probably have 
attributed their destruction to Puritanical fanaticism and 
personal hostility to the venerable Cavalier " once deci- 
mated, twice imprisoned, thrice sequestered," and brought 
almost to utter ruin for his attachment to the Church and 
his allegiance to the Xing ; insomuch that he commences 
his last will, though he survived the Bestoration many 
years, with this touching direction : — " My body to be 
buried with little charge on account of my great sufferings." 
Owing to the calamities his allegiance had brought upon 
him he felt that he could not afford to be buried ^' according 
to his degree." But honest old Weever who wrote in 1631, 
and had visited East Horndon Church before that, disproves 
what might have been the not unfrequent assumption. 
After describing the monuments and inscriptions extant, 

* The towers are drcolar with conical cappings and in the engraving seem 
to be in the style of the Idth century. They stand apparently on the inner side 
of the moat, a more probable position than Morant assigns to them. An engraving 
in " Excursions through Essex/' dated 1818, vol. I., p. 165, represents only one <m 

t Flemings was partly destroyed by fire ; some habitable portion remains. 


yet partly defaced, he says, '^ There be other funerall 
Monuments in this Church, erected to the honour of this 
familie ; but their inscriptions are all torne or wome out, 
and their Sepulchres like the rest, foulie defaced : These 
Tirelb (me thinkes) hauing beene gentlemen for so many 
reuolutions of yeares, of exemplarie note, and principall 
regard, in this countrey, might haue preserued these houses 
of rest for their Ancestors, from such violation. But the 
Monuments are ansuerable to the Church, both ruinous."* 

So that whether in the zeal of ^ Beformation,' or from 
whatever cause, nearly all the monuments in the church 
were despoiled while the family were resident Since 
Weever wrote, the fenestral inscriptions, as well as those 
upon the tombs have been destroyed, with the exception of 
that in memory of Alice, Lady Tyrell upon the superb 
incised slab dated 1422. 

For the purpose of endeavouring to resolve some 
historical doubts and of ^ correcting some manifest 
inaccuracies, I have been induced to make a careful 
examination of the early wills of this family ; with the 
hope that at the same time they might, perchance, shed 
some light on the history of tho mansion or furnish 
inventories of its contents ; and especially with the view 
to ascertain who were the founders of the singularly 
interesting Chantries which were the subject of an able 
and valuable paper, by our Honorary Secretary, the Rev. 
E. L. Cutts, read before the Society at the Chelmsford 
Meeting in 1861, 

My endeavours, as far as I have proceeded, have not 
been altogether unsuccessful ; at all events some of the 
documents, independently of the more immediate object of 
my researches, are, I think, of sufficient general interest to 
be included in the present series of communications. The 
earliest will of one of the Tyrells of Heron that I have at 
present found in the Prerogative Office is, 

The Will op Sib Thomas Tyrell, op Hebon, Knight, 

Ob. 1476. 

He was the second son and heir of Sir John Tyrell of 
Heron, by Alice, daughter and co-heir of Sir WilUam de 

• Weeyer'a " Funeral MonumentB/' p. 658, Ed. 1631. 


Coggeshall and Antiocha his wife,* daughter and heiress of 
the renowned warrior Sir John Hawkwood, by Aufricia his 
wife, natural daughter of Barnabas, Duke of Milan. Sir John 
Tyrell was a distinguished soldier who served in the wars 
of King Hen. V., and, according to Morant, was afterwards 
Treasurer of the Household to King Hen. VI., and SheriflF 
of Essex and Hertfordshire in 1423. Sir Thomas Tyrell 
married Annef (not Emma as Morant says in several 
places) daughter of Sir William Marney, of Layer Marney, 
ancestor of the Lord Marney.J 

Lawyers will know, though perhaps laymen may not, 
that it was anciently very usual, especially when the estate 
was large, for the testator to execute two wills, or, to speak 
more correctly, a Testament and a Will. By the first he 
disposed the personalty ; by the second he devised his real 
estate. § The more interesting is the Testament of Sir 

* Morant says that Alice, Lady Tyrell, upon the death of her husband remarried 
to John de Langham (Morant Vol. II p. 406). But surely this, even upon his own 
shewing, is impossible. John de Langham died in the year 1417 ffiA pairia, yet 
Alice, Lady Tyrell, called by Morant his Jirat wife, died in 1422. Besides if Sir 
John Tyrell were Treasurer of the Household to King Henir VI., that monarch did 
not ascend the throne till 1 Sept., 1422, and it appears further that Sir John served 
Sheriff of Essex and Herts in 1423, if indeed he is not the same who served also in 
the 9th of the same reign. Lady Tyrell lies interred with a sepulchral slab in 
East Homdon Church, and the inscription does not imply that she had a second 
husband. She was tiie mother of ten children while John de Langham it may be 
inferred died rather young. But if any doubt can i>ossibly remain it is resolved by 
the Will of Sir William Tyrell of Beeches who mentions his other's second wife 
' Kateryn.* Sir John TyreU and Dame Katherine his wife, who are doubtless the 
same persons, were buried in the west wing of the Church of the Austin Friars^ 
London. (See StoVs " Survey" p. 67, Thom's Edn.) 

t In his account of the Mamey fEunily sub Layer Marney he calls her by her right 
name Anna. 

X The Chantry erected on the north side of the chancel was most unquestionably 
for Anne, Lady T^dl, daughter of Sir William Mamey, although from the style 
of its architecture it must have been built many years after her decease. Over the 
entrance is sculptured the shield of Arms of Mamey and within was an altar tomb 
inlaid with the effigy in brass of a female in widow's costume according exactly with 
the period of Edw. IV. The altar tomb has been destroyed but the brass effigy 
remains. I conjecture therefore that when this chantry was built the tomb and 
remains of Lady Tyrell were removed into it. Her husband as we shall see desired 
to be buried on the site of th^ Easter Sepulchre. His inscription was extant in 
Weever's time, as follows, Here lyeth Thomas Tyrell, sonne and heire of John 
Tyrell, knyht, and Dame Anne his wyff daughter to Syr William Mamey, knyght, 

which Thomas deceysyd the xxii of March. . . ^ There was also 

' In the glasse of tike East window . . . I^rtUf knyth, and Dame .... 
and for al the soulys schuld be preyd for. 

Prey for the welfar of the seyd Thonuu TyreU^ knyth, of John TyriU, knyth, 
Alyee his wyffe, and for all cristen souls 

the well&r of the seyd Dame Anm ter of 

William Marney , knyth, and .... and bei hys wyffe and for 

all cristen souls. 

§ Such real estate, that is, as was devisable, for prior to the statute 32 and 34 
Hen. VIII., at Common Law, a man could not devise by wlQ the lands which he 
had by descent, (except in certain Borough Towns, by custom) though such estate is 
frequently mentioned as descending to the heir. But lands held by purchase or for 
a term of years could be devised. 


Thomas Tyrell which I here produce almost in extenso. 

In the name of Almighty Qod, the fader the 8one and the holy goost, 
and of oure blessed lady saint Mary the Virgin, of all the companye of 
heven, I Thomas Tyrrell, Knight of the Shire of Essex, being of hole 
mynde the xvi day of the moneth of May the yere of our lorde god 
m^cccclxxv, and the xr yere of the reigne of oure leige lorde Kyng 
Edward the iiij^, aftre the conquest, make my testament in articles as 
hereafter followith, Besechyng almighty god of pardone and forgivenes 
foi all my synnes doon unto hym, his saints, and creatures, to 
whom I haye offended ; and also besechyng our lorde Jhu Criste 
to gif his grace to myn executours and ffeoffees that they truly 
execute, in asmoch as to tham belongith, my testament and wylle to 
the pleasure of his pittefull mercy and erace. ffirst and principally I 
bequeath and recomend my soule to Almighty god, our lady saint mary 
and all saints of heven, and my body to be buried in the chancell of 
the church of Esthornedon in Essex aforsaide, under the place where 
the sepulchre is wont to stonde their,* and I wolle that their be a 
tombe of tymber or of stone for me and my wif according honestly for 
our degree, and also a stone to be ordeigned for Sir William Tyrrell, 
my Sonne, with his Image, and the ymage of dame alianor his first wife 
theruppon, tobe made w^ their Armes and scripture aboute tham, the 
which stone shalbe laide uppon his burying place in frere austyns of 
London. f Item, I woll that all the detts which can be proved duly 
of right that I owe, shalbe wole and truly paied, and yf I have wronged 
anny p'sone or p'sones, and that be duly proved, I wole that they and 
ev'y of them shalbe duly recopensed of my moveable godes ; wylling 
also that due serche be made by my attourneys in my bokes and 
evideno* wherth'with the truth may be pausitely knowen and understond 
in this behalf. Item, where I have in a boxe xij Ires sealed lieinge 
to gider, sealed, by the which I am made a broth' of divers houses of 
religion, I woll that w^out delaye after my decesse the said xij Ires be 
sent and delivered sep*ately to the houses that they came from, and 
ev'y house to have with the Ire xx% and the hous of cristechurch of 

* That is on the north side of the chancel, near the altar, where the Easter 
Sepulchre was accoBtomed to stand. This was commonly a wooden erection as was 
obviously the case at East Homdon. It was an honourable and much coveted place 
for interment, usually, however, appropriated to the founder or first incumbent. 
Sometimes it was a permanent stone structure recessed in the wall, as at South 
Church and Runwell in this county, both of which contain tombs. 

Sepulchral effigies carved in wood exist at several places in this county as at 
Little Horkesley and Little Leighs, and no doubt both tombs and effigies of the 
same materisd were formerly more numerous ; but if they were generally disposed 
of as a former Vicar of Messing disposed of the effigy of the founder of that church 
(and not very long ago either) it is not to be wondered at that they are scarce. 
The Yicar of Messing gave it to the parish clerk to be burnt for firewood as useless 
lumber ! (Vide " Suckling's Memorials," p. 130.) 

t In the long roll of Knights and NobUity interred in the magnificent church 
of the Austin Friars, enumerated by Stow are, Sir John Tyrell and Bame 
Kathcrine his wife ; Sir William son to Sir Thomas Tyrell referred to in this 
will ; Sir William Tyrell and Sir William his brother ; and Sir James Tyrell of 
the &.mily of Gipping in Sufiblk, beheaded in 1602. It is hai-dly necessary to say 
that every grave has been violated, every monument destroyed, and the nave was 
granted in lodO to a congregation of Dutch Prcsbyteiians *' lor a preaching place." 


Canterbury, where the holy marter saint Thomas licth, to have 
delivered with the Ire xl% to thentent that the religious people of ev'y 
of the same houses, upon the deliverances of the said Ires an(| bequests^ 
shall pray sp4ally for me, and for Dame Anne my wife, my fader, my 
moder, and for all tham that god wolde I shulde pray for.* Itm, 1 
biqaeth unto the Chirche of Esthomedon aforesade my yestyment of 
blewe clothe of golde, w^ the cope, and ij tunydes of the same, and w* 
thapparrell ;t and also a masboke, and a gilte chalice that Sir William 
Wylbyi^ yave thider to be praied for for ev'y sonday, and I woll that a 
remembrance thereof and of oth'r gode dedes be made in the saide 
masboke wherthurgh the prayers may better bee continued. Itm, I 
biqueth to the y houses of ffreres in London to ev*y house x', to 
thentent that the convent of ev'y of the same houses anon after my 
decesse, doo syng a Trentall§ for me and for my wife and for tho' that 
god wolde shulde be p'teners therof. Itm. I biqueth to the Chirches 
of the townes that I have livelode in, that is to say, OyngrafP, Dounton* 
lytyll Burstede, lytill Warle, Dounton, Buttysbury, 8tokhanyngfeld,|| 
GrayeSy Spryngfeld, Shepereth, Melreth, Mulketon, Sople and Milton, 

* It was common for persons of all ranks and classes to make presents to 
Beligious Houses and to be admitted in return to the Fraternity of the house ; 
whidi probably meant that they were enrolled on its books and were entitled to 
mention in its prayers ; perhaps to civility and hospitality if they visited the 
house and in some cases to interment after death. Thus the Catalogua Benefaeiorum 
of 8. Albans Abbey contains a long list of such cases. Sir Bobert KnoUis, Kt., a 
Benefactor, bad the fraternity, and Sir Bartholomew de Weedon, Rector of Shack- 
reston, Leicestershire, another benefactor, was admitted to the fraternity at his earnest 
request. (See Newcome's Hist. S. Albans.) In the singularly interesting wiU of Sir 
Thomas Montgomery of Faulkbome, he says ** I will that eVy presto in Syon, Shene, 
Howneston and the Chartrehouse in London have tx^, praiing them to remembre 
me accordinge to their graunte of brotherhode to me, and to say a masse and a 
dirige by note for me ; and also I will that such as be brethren and in the abito 
of any of the said housis, being no preste, and dwell ther, ev'y of them to have 
zij' to say placebo and dirige for the said sowlys." 

t My Vestment of blue doth of gold. By vestment as an ecclesiastical garment, 
in this sense, the chasuble is always meant. And thus the authorised vestments of 
the Church of England are described, when he that executeth the holy ministry 
is to wear a ves&nent or cope, t.«., a chasuble when he celebrates the Holy 
Eucharist, and a cope at the eltar service when there is no communion. This rubric 
was perfectly intelligible when it was framed, but long disuse has caused the 
distinction to be forgotten, and vestment and cope have either been inteipreted as 
synonymous, or else it has been supposed that they might be worn indinerently ; 
hence at the last Coronation both the Archbishop and Dean of Westminster were 
vested in copes although the Prelate was celebrant. A set of copes of the 17th 
century belonging to the Dean and Canons of Westminster is kept in the vestiary 
of the Abbey ; and a very fine example of a post-Keformation Cope, richly 
embroidered, may be seen in the monumental brass efiSgy of Archbishop Harsnet 
(who died in 1631) in Chigwell Church. 

It is noteworthy that the chasuble bequeathed to East Homdon Church and that 
bequeathed to North Bemfleet Church by John T}a-ell of Beeches are blue. Blue is 
not an ecdesiafitical colour, but it is the Hvery of the House of Tyrell, and as such 
the colour of the vestments worn by their domestic chaplains. The colour of the 
day or season, however, would be sufficiently marked by the apparels of the alb, 
whatever might be the colour of the chasuble. Church vestments at this period 
were often of very secular character, embroidered with heraldic badges and 
such l:QEe. 

X Mentioned hereafter as Willoughby. 

6 Trental. Thirty masses. 

II Sh in ReffUtro, but Stock and Hanningfield are probably conjoined by a 
clerical error. 


that is to Bay, to the chirche of ev'y towne of hem ▼!' viij sterling, and 
to the p'rysshens othe' iij' iiij** towards the chirche werks and the 
repa'cions of the ornaments of the ohirches aforesaid, to pray sp*ially for 
me, my wife Dame Anne, and for all the soules god wolde shulde he 

{)raed for their ; also I biqueth to the nonnes of Berking to pray in 
yke wise for oth' soules aforesaid iii li. vi\ viij*^* and in lyke 
wise I biqueth to the Nonnes of Strattford* iij li. to pray as is 
aforesaid ; and to the freres of Chelmsford for a trentall to be doon as 
is aforesaide y". Itm, I woU that yf I make nott up in my life tyme to 
the steple and new werk which I have bigon at Esthomedon aforesaid, 
that thanne myn executours and feoffees see that it may be made up and 
doon to the worshipp of oure lorde Jhu, and that it be made sure in 
such wise that the stepill fall nott dooun.f Item, where as the' hath 
been gadred of me and of myn houshold many yeres, certain money, 
whereof parte hath gone yerely to the fynding of the sepulchre light, I 
woU that myn Executours, to thentent that a gode Rule be hadde 
hereafter to the pleasure of god and for the soule that any thyng have 
given th'to, shall give and deliver of my godes to the fynding and 
cont3muance of the saide light, v li. sterling, and I woU that all oth'r 
somes of money bilongyng to the saide light, and being in oth'r mennes 
hands, shalbe gadred and be deliv'ed unto humfrey Tyrrell and the 
othe', they to se that it may from henceforth be employed to the wele of 
the said light. Item, I will that my monethes mynd be discretely doon, 
and in soberwise ; and I biqueth x li. to be disposed and deled by the 
discrecion of myn Executours where they shall seeme expedent and 
nedefuUe to have my soule prayed for ; but I woU also that an obite 
or anniv'ary for the soules of my fader and moder and my wife be wele 
and truly kept in the Chirche of Esthornedon a foresaid, yerely, durying 
XV yeres, remembred in n&y wille of my londes, and that xiij* iiij*^ 
shalbe employed thereuppon, yerly, dureyng the said xv yeres ; and 
also I will that my houshold be kept at my cost by xiij wekks after my 
decesse ; also I woU that all Bruyng vesselles w^ tables, trestills, 
cupbourdes, stoles and fourmes be left still in ev'y place of myne, there 
to remayn and be occupied as thei have been used aforetyme. Item I 
woll that as soon as it may godly be doon after my decesse, and atte 
ferthest w^ in . . ,% weks next after my dethe, a trewe inveatorye 
to be made by myn executours of all my godes and cat alls, and that they 
be consciensly praised, and theruppon I woll that all my goodes and 
oatalles, movable plate, houshold, and all detts due unto me be disposed 
and employed for the contentacion of my detts and upon such 
recompenses as of right in my behalf owe to be made, and in beryng of 
myn ordinary charge and performyng of my legacies and execution of 
my testament and last wille, by the discrecion of myn Executours or of 
the more parte of them, as far as they will atteyne unto, &o. 

Testator next gives to his wife part of his goods, 

 A small Benedictine Nunnery at Stratford-le-Bow, now S. LeonarcU Bromley, 
which held the advowson of the Church of Buttsbury where Sir Thomas Tyrdl 
had a manor and lands. 

t Much of the work at East Homdon Church appears to date from this time. 
The rebuilding of the red brick tower must undoubtedly be attributed to the 
munificence of the testator, although the style may be well refezred to a period at 
least twenty years later. 

X Sia(us in Meg, 


chattels, plate and household stuff to the value of 100 
marks, with another hundred marks also assigned to her 
out of the sale of certain lands and tenements provided all 
the brewing vessels, &c., previously mentioned, be left in 
the places as before ordained. To John Daroy and Anne 
his wife 100s.* He directs further that all his servants 
who have no fee specified in his will, shall have their 
wages, and be rewarded within thirteen weeks after his 
decease, and gives to 

Ev'y gentilman and woman of that degree, xz.s. and ev'y yeoman and 
woman, and ev'y grome, v.s, to pray for me and my wife and oth' as is 
abovereherced to be praied for, for the love they owe to god and also to 
me that to my power have been their lovyng frende.f 

Item, I woll that John Stockers executours fulfiUe the wille of John 
Edeney, and also save harmles for the same me and John Clopton and 
oure executours for that cause ; and that doon, I woll then they have 
delyvered unto them an obligacion made to me and to John Clopton for 
the same entent, by the said John Stocker, of iij li. for John Stocker 
had the goodes of Edeney so to doo. I woll that where' I am oon of 
thexecutours of Kauph late the olde lorde Cromewell,} and have had by 
delyv*aunces of John leynton for parte of my costes and other dedes of 
Almes, by the space of xix yere, according to his testament, as written 
in my rede boke, the which, consideryng the long and troublous tyme 
that I and John leynton have sufifred in that behalf, me semeth of reson 
to have that and also a rewarde ove' it, consideryng the grete rewardes 
that other have had for their labour and s'vice, and so, I trust, my 
fellowe executours woll se that I shall so have. Item, I woll that tho 
V marcs which Byott toke to me to be disposed in highwaies, ba 
disposed in high wey under the parke of the heme bytwixt Ingatt att 
Wonnfrith and Bomyng MiUe. Item, I woll that after my decesse my 
boke called Barthu. de p'prietatibus§ be delivered to Esthornedon chirch 
there for to sue in perpetuete to have my soule, and the soules of my 
wif, and all xpen soules their, praied for. And also I woll that after my 
decesse my boke called Legenda Sanctorum be deliv'ed to the said 
Church of Esthornedon, their to abide p'petuelly, to have my soule, my 
wif soule, and the soule of William Willughby, and all xpen soules 
praied for. Item, I woll that all such sommes of money and of legacies 

* John Darcy, sometiines called Thomas, married Anne daughter of Sir Thomas 
Tyrell. There were several intermarriages with the Tyrells and Darcys. 

t These bequests convey some idea of the state in which a wealthy knight lived 
at this period, and of the character of his domestic establishment. 

1 Balph, Lord CromweU, Baron by Writ of Summons, died in 1455, s.p. 

{ The work referred to is Bartholomseus " De proprietabus rerum." Bartholo- 
mseus, commonly dted as Bartholomteus Anglicus, was an English Franciscan £riar 
whose real name was Glanvill, of a good Sufiblk &mily. He flourished in the 14th 
century and studied successively at Oxford, Paris, and probably at Home. His work 
was a popular volume of encyclopsBdic knowledge comprised in 19 books, the first 
treating of God, and others in succession including the whole circle of created 
things. The work rendered him very famous ; it is found in numerous MSS. and 
after the invention of printing went through nuny editions and was transhited into 
Belgic and English. 


and all other mortgages as have com to my hands syn the dcthe of John 
Leynton oonoemyng to my said lord Cromewell, I well that they be 
delivered to myloi^e of Winchestre and to the lord fifbrskevre.* upon 
saoh discharge as shalbe lawfuU to discharge myn executours, which 
some of money excedeth not • . . .f Item, to execute this my last 
wille in all things that is rem'bred herin, and in my other wille in 
all that belongeth to be doon according to myn en tent in the said 
testament and will reheroed, I make myn executours. Dame Anne 
Tyrrell myn wif, Thomas Urswyk, Knight,} John Tyrell of Beeches, 
Humfrey Tyrell, Robert Tyrrell my sonnes. Sir William Howard and 
Thomas Hotoft :§ to be supervisourcs of my said tefitament and wille. 
Ijpray and desire my singular g^oode lorde the Krle of Essex, Sir Thomas 
Monngomerey, E!niffht,|| Richard Hunte and John Tyrell, that they, 
or some of diem, will take the labonre therof, or, if it might be, of the 
more parte of them, and woU that any of them so taking that labonre, 
shall be rewarded according to his diligence, Requireing you myn 
executours aforenamed and also my feoffees to remember myn entent, 
and to do for me as ye wold be doon fore to pleas god ; and theis to do, 
for charite I hertely pray you forgete me nott. that your charite may be 
the moor acceptable in the sight of our lord Jhu. In witness wberof 
the said Thomas Tyrell, Knight, to this my p*nte testament have sette 
my scale and syne manuell the day and yere abovesaid. Item I will 
tlmt myn executours fynde a comenable and an honest preest by the 
space of XT yere next after my decesse at Esthornedon Chirch, to pay 
yerely for his salary x marc, provided alway, that if my said wif 
wolhave the same preest to sing whereas her abidyng shalbe durynge 
her lif tyme or parte thereof, thanne I wolle myn executours abate 
yerely, duryng the same tyme that the said preest shall so syng and 
abide with my said wife, yerely iiij marc of the said x marcs and the 
said iiij marcs so retayned and abated by myn executours, to bo 
employed to the fynding of a comenable preest by the longer tyme after 
the said xy yeres.^ 

The Will by which Sir Thomas Tyrell devises his real 
estate^ consisting of manors and large possessions in Essex, 
Cambridgeshire and Hampshire, is a document of con- 
siderable length, and contains valuable information for 

• William de Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, and Lord Chancellor, died 1486. 

Sir John Fortescue who became Chief Justice of the Swing's Bench in 1441 and 
Lord Chancellor toirardfl the end of the reign of King Hen. VI. author of a yaluahle 
book entitled De Laudibut Legum Anglia and other pieces. 

t Hiatus m. JSea. 

X Sir Thomas Urswyk, Recorder of London died in 1479 and ia interred in 
Pagenham Ohurch wi& effigies in brass of himself his wife and thirteen children. 
Engrayed in Mrs. Ogbome's *' Hist. Essex." 

{ Thomas Hotoft of a Hertfordshire &imly foimded and endowed a chantry in 
Orsett Church. He died in 1495. An extract from his will bequeathing a parcel of 
land to the parishioners of Orsett is engrayen in old TCTi gliali on a brass plate affixed 
to the south wall of the church. 

II For an account of Sir Thomas Montgommery and his family see Morant sub 

If Thia assumes that Lady Tyrell would continue to maiTititiii a chaplain^ and 
undoubtedly there was a chapel at Heron. 


the county historian, but as it is of but little general 
archeeological interest I shall extract but one passage : — 

I will that after my decease and daring zv ycre in Esthomedon 
Chirch iiij marcs in money under this forme, that eVy week in the yere 
be disposed xijd. in almes to 3dj poore folkes by myn executonn • • 
and that the same poor folks have their mass, and say ower lady sawter 
for my soule and all xpen soules, that day that they have the almes, and 
that the almes be delt on friday and on the Saturday weekly, friday yijd* 
Saturday vd. 

The Will of Sib Willia^m Tyrell op Beeches in 
Eawreth, Knight, Dated 1 470-1 • 

William Tyrell was the fifth son of Sir John Tyrell of 
Heron by Alice de Coggeshall, brother of Sir Thomas last 
mentioned and founder of the Beeches family. ,Morant 
could not find the date of his decease, nor in this instance 
does the probate occur in the Begister. His death, 
however, may be assumed with tolerable certainty to have 
happened prior to 1475, as his son John, described as of 
Beeches, is named executor in the will of Sir Thomas. 
His will is written with his own hand and bears internal 
evidence that it was also drawn by himself, one among the 
many proofs that the country gentlemen were well educated 
in the so-callod '* dark ages." 

It is dated IGth of March 49th of King Hen. VI. " and 
the newe taking upon him of his Eoyall power the flfurst 
yere and the yere of^oure lord MCCCCLXX."* 

The last will and Intent of me William Tyrrell of Beeches in the shire 
of Essex Knight, written in a copy pap' of this w^ m3m owne hande* 
then beinge in good mynde and resonable helthe of Bodye, blessed and 
thanked mote be almighty Jhu. 

There are some few interesting passages in the will, 
particularly that in which he expresses a desire in the 
erent of the death of his two daughters to found and 
endow a school in the parish of Bawreth. These I shall 

They [his feoffees] and also myn heires male and theire issue male, to 
be charitable that they and every of them shall yerely kepe my mynde 
day inp'petuite with a masse of requiem, and V di. be deled in Almes in 
w'shippe of the fyye woundes of o' lord Jhu, boithe in the Churche of 

* In the Historical year 1471. HezirT YI. recovered poesession of the throne in 
October 1470 and resumed the regal title ; the battle ot Bamet fought 14th April 
1471 again drove Henry from the throne and Edward the lY. reigned once more. 
Bir William dates his will within a month prior to that event. 


Rawreth and in the pyssbe Chorcli of Pritelwell, and at that tyme in 
botbe places to remember tbe soules of Jobn Tyrell, Knight, Alyce, 
Kater3'n, hys wiffs, Anne, Dame Phelip' my wiffes, and my fader Jobn 
Tbomeburye * and all my good doers 

Testator directs certain tenements to be sold and the 
money appropriated as marriage portions for his daughters 
Jane and Anne when they come to the age of 16 or 18 
years, respectively, but if both die before 

• ••.;• and yf it myghte be browgbt abowte, then I wolde 
baye a convenyent place made ther [at Hawkes tenement] for a preest 
to dwell yn that cowde teche gram', and a bowse made for the children 
of the cuntre to be tawght in, their skole here to be free, and the said 
priest to have for to singe for me in tbe churche of Rawreth, and to 
rememb',' when be is disposed to singe, in bis masse, to have in 
remembrance tbe sowlls of me, Anne and Dame Phelipp' my wyffes, the 
sonle of my fader John Tyrell, Knyght, Alice and Kateryn bis wyffes, and 
tbe soules of my Broder Thomas Tyrell, Knyght, Anne his wife, and tbe 
soules of John Thornebrough and Anne ; and eyery ffridaye in tbe yere, 
weekly to saye in tbe churche of Rawreth, for tbe soules aforesaid, 
dirige, on the morowe a masse of requiem, but there be a resonable 
cause of lett, then I woUe the said preest should have tbe said teneme't 
of bawkes so builded, w^ all tbe app', to have zij marcs of money 
yerely, bis resonable £Pewell and candell, for to execute trewly this myn 
Intent and to make this sewre by tbe advyse of my said feoffees^ 
executours and superyisours. 

The Testator charged the manor and tenement of 
Plumberow with the maintenance for this Priest and 
Schoolmaster ; then follow directions as to the feofment 
and the nomination of the Priest, who, if the feoflfees were 
negligent, was to be appointed by the ordinary. If the 
intention could not by lawful means be fulfilled, the 
tenement and rent were to go to his wife for life, 
afterwards to his eldest son Jasper and his heirs, with 
remainder to John and his heirs. There appears to be 
nothing upon record to prove whether Sir William TyrelPs 
design were carried into effect ; but if so, both school- 
house and endowment would probably have been swallowed 
up by some greedy courtier in the reign of Hen. the YIII. 
or his successor. 

Sir William thus concludes his will. 

All this afore written her' in paup' bvderto written w* myn owne 
hande, is for trowthe the very last will and yntent of me, William Tyrell 

• Father of the testator'fl second wife. 


of Beeches in the shire of Essex^ Xnjght ; I sette this paup* my sygne 
manuell tyll y^ may be wrytten on p*chemyn', and, furthermore, though 
this writtyng be not soo lawful! made as it owght to be, yet myn Intent 
what I meane may be clearly understood, and thereafter I wolle praye 
and requyre myn feoffees, Ezecuto" and sup*visoures at ye rev'ence of 
the passion of o' lord Jhu, and in the waye of Charitye, to helpe to make 
it goode & lawfull accordynge to myn Intent ; And to see the execu'con 
of the same, w'tten w^ myn oune hande, and sealed w* my scale of myn 
Armes, the day and yer* above said. 

If not a new fact, it is one not mentioned, that I can 
find, by Morant, that this William Tyrell was a Knight. 
Although the orthography is more variable and uncertain 
than in most contemporary documents of the kind, written 
by scriveners, it is a remarkably lucid and clerical instru- 
ment. It bears no attestation, neither is the probate 
appended in the Begister ; but as it terminates at the end 
of the last folio this may be an omission. 

The Will of John Ttbell of Beeches in Eaweeth, 

Esq. Proved 23 Nov. 1494. 

He was the eldest son of Sir William Tyrell by his first 
wife, Anne, daughter of William Fitz-Simon. Both 
Testament and Will coutain much new and interesting 
matter, and illustrate strongly the religious feeling and 
habits of the age. Much information may also be gathered, 
from the value of the plate and household furniture, of the 
style in which the testator lived. It will also appear, I 
think, that he maintained a chaplain. I shall give the first 
instrument almost iu its entirety. 

In DEI NOMiNB, AHEN. in the worship of the holy and blessed 
trinite, Jhu criste and blessed Virgin Marie, and the holy company of 
heven, I John Tyrell of fieches of the grace of god hole in mynde & 
body the xvi daye of the moneth of Decemb' in the yere of owre lorde 
god mksccclxxxxiij, and in the yere of the reigne of Eling Henry 
the Tij make and ordeigne this my first testament as hereafter 
followeth. ffirst I bequeth and comitte my soule to almighti god my 
creato'i to the blessed mayden marie, moder of Jhn, and to all the 
saincts in heven, and my body to be buried in the church of Saint 
Nicholas in Rawrethen in Essex, where I am a parishen, or els wherin 
the parish church where I die. Itm I bequeth to the High Aulter of 
the Church of Kawrethen for tithes and offerings forgotten, due to my 
Curatt XX' ; Item to the parson of the church of Pakelsham for my 
tithes forgotten x'. To the Vicar of the Church of Canudon for my 
tithes T*. Item, to the parson of Hey ley Church for my tithes xx^. 
Item I bequethe to the said chirch of Rawrethen my blcwe yestment of 


damaske or satcn with th'appell and a tonckill, with other apparell, 
Dekin and eubdekin, according to the said vestiment, and a cope to be 
bought by myne cxecutours.* Item I will that ev'y p'ste being at my 
burying, dirige and masse, have vi** ; and ev'y clerk iiij** and ev'y poure 
man. woman and child j"^, and mete and drinke. Item I will that 
within the moneth after my deth be deled in almes to poure people 
w*in the parishes whers my livclode, in the hunderd of Rochford, 
Barstabel in Essex, Ixvi' & viij*^ in money and in brede, chese, ffleshe 
or ffysh to the some of Ixvi' & viij"* to the said poure people. Item, I 
will ther be kept no monthes myndc for me, but I wil that ev'y day 
within the said month, be said by som honest prest within the chirch 
wher I am buryed in dirige and mnsse of requiem for my soule and xpen 
Boules, vi**. I will that w4n the said monthes mynd be delivryd to ev'y 
hous of freres with [sic) w4n the shere of Essex x* to my dirige and 
masse of requiem for my soule and all xpen soules. Item, I bequeth to 
the chirch of North bemeflcte xl* to bye with a bookc, or coope, or 
what they nedeth moost to goddes worshipp. Item, I bequeth to the 
making of the lane agenst Qatwards v li. that is my keping of Alson 
Scots. Item I bequeth to the making of hulbrigge in lilssex xl' for 
Master (iryffith soule. Item, I bequeth to ev*y brother and sister of 
myne lyving a goblet of silver. Item I bequeth to ev'y of my servaunts 
in houshold at my dcth a cowe or shepe, some more and sum of theym 
lesse, as they have deserved, after the discrccion of myne Executours. 
Item, I bequeth the best of myne aray for my body amonge my children 
and the Eemnant of myne aray for my body as gounee, dowbeletts and 
Looses to be devided among my said servaunts. Item, I bequeth to 
ev'yche of my god children lyving at my deth a ewe shepe. Item I 
bequeth to John Skulle, my (Servant ?), xv Ewen. Item I 
bequeth to John Skulle the son that dwelleth w^ me xx ewen shepe and ij 
kene. Item, I bequeth to Richard Charlton my s'vnt xx ewe shepe and 
iiij kene and a horse. Item, I bequeth to Edward Tyrell my sonne 
xxli. worth of plate and xxli. worth stuff of household. Indifferently. 

t Testator next gives the farm ' aparatus' &c. being on the Manor of 
beeches to his son William when 22.] To William Tyrell my son at 
xxij, (except xxli., of plate and the xli of stuff my wife to have,) and my 
son William to have as much more plate and stuff, that is xxli. of silver 
and parte gilte, and xl oxen or colts, or the money of them, when xxij ; 
if he die, then same to my wife E[athrine Tyrell and my daughter 
Margaret Tyrell in equal porciona, and if they both die then I will that 
all that be deled and disposed in almes to poure people, making of 
highwayes and fynding of scolers to Cambrigge or Ozenford. 

A brief abstract of the ensuing passage will suffice. 

To my daughter Margaret Tyrell £100 at her marriage or other 

Preferment or finding or when 21. If she die before, then to WiUiam 
'yreU my son unless he have inherited my lands, otherwise £50 to my 
wife and £50 to the making of bridges and highwaies in the shire of 
Essex and in Rochford Hundred. 

* To my daughter Anne Tyrell a goblett of silver with a coVyng. 
Item, I bequeth to Maistres Temaunt my bedys of L of white amb^ 

* My blue vestment of damask or satin with the apparel; and a tanide with other 
apparel for deacon and sabdeaoon. See note p. ante. 


(gaudred ?) of the same.* To cosin James Fitzlowesf my litill englishe 
booke like a prymer [Residue of goods to his wife.] To Edward Tyrell, 
my Sonne, my cheyne of goold with a crosse thereto. To North 
bemeflete chireh the owteside of my gowne of damaske to make them a 
cope or vestiment at their pleasure. | To my cosin. Sir Thomas Tyrell, 
my next best hors ; and to my brother, Thomas Huntyngdon, a nother 
hors ; and to my brother Jasper Tyrell a nother hors, or a colt." 
Appoints Kxecutors, " My wife K^atrine Tyrell, John Bardvile.g Sir 
William Howard p*son of Rawreth, and William Aleyn my faithful 
lovers, praying them to do for me as I wold do for them, and if they 
take upon them the charge of Kxecutours I give to John Bard vile 
Ixvi* viij**, William Alyii Ixvl" vilj'*, and Sir William Howard 
Ixvi' viij**. 

The following is a brief abstract of the will by which 
the testator devises his real estate. The endowment of a 
guild, or its existence in Rawreth Church seems to have 
been previously unknown. The obit which testator 
ordered to be kept was only temporary. 

Give to my * Katryn Tyrell* for jointure my whole manor of * North 
bemeflete,' ' Portion ding mersh' in Canvey with appurtenances, and the 
advowson of the Church of ' North bemeflete' with wards, marriages, 
fines and woods thereunto belonging. Wife to receive profits of a 
tenement called ' Bawnes' in Southchurch as part of her jointure. She 
may sell the same for £ 26.13.4 ; llichard Ste Wynnes, of whom it was 
formerly purchased, to have preemption ; otherwise to descend to my 
heirs by said wife. Whereas John Mcxe holdeth jointly with me by 
copes of Court lloll of • Moch Wakering' a tenement and 10 acres of 
land called * Brigges' and a marsh with little hoppets and a marsh lying 
between ' Oxenham' and the ' mill pond,' called * Brigge Marsh,' my 
executors shall surrender the said premises that the revenues and yearly 
profits shall go *^ to the maintenyng of the glide p*ste found' of the 
Tisitacion of o' lady, kept in the parish Church of liawreth, and yf in 
caas hereaftre it fortune the said gielde to breke and be not kepte in the 
savd chireh as yt is now kept, then all the said tenement and land and 
other the profits shall go towards fynding and mayntenyng a p'ste to singe 
in the same parish chireh as ferre as it will strech." My feoflees in lan£i, 
tenements &o called Qatwardes, Yones, Roddely, Hayes Cokks, and a 
croft that was Thomas Scotts and croft purchased of the heirs of John 
Hover lying beside Gatwardys tenement, Parkes, Shobewes, Mawgerys, 
Butteris, and Suttony's, lying in Rawreth, Hockley, Raley, 
Thundersley and Southchurch to pay to my Executors rents and 
profits till my son William be 22 ; ** and to be divided yearly zx" to 
Dame Anne Tyrell, my daughter, being a nonne at the mynores wV)ut 
London," out of said lands as by deed. Executors out of said yearly 
profits to find yerely an obit for me in the church of Rawreth • • • 

* His Bosary. This appendage is often seen attached to the girdle in 
monumental brasses, 
t Probably one of the very ancient £Eunily of FitzLewis of Wert Homdon. 
X To make thorn either a cope or chasuble. 
{ Mort probably John Berdfdld of Margaretting who died 15 Feb.; 1497. 


• . and spend at the keeping of the same in dirige, masses, bread, 
cheese and drink and almes to poor people, 20s. as long as they receive 
the said rents. Give said lands to my son William ; Remainder to son 
Edward ; Remainder to heirs of my father. Give the lands called 
Smotts, Bamardyston's tenement, and three crofts called Hethonscroft, 
Culwerlsfeld, and Long Leylond in Hockley to my servant, Richard 
Charlton, and his heirs for ever. Will proved 23 Nov. 1494 by the 
Executors named. 

Sir William Tyrell the eldest son of Sir Thomas, with 
whose will I have commenced this series, died during the 
life-time of his father. According to Morant he married 
Alianor daughter of Eobert Darcy by Alice FitzLangley, 
and had by her Sir Thomas, a Elnight Banneret ; Alice 
wife of John or Eobert Eochester ; and Maud wife of 
Eichard White. At this point the learned historian gets 
the descent into great confusion, though it is probable that 
to those who have not been accustomed to verify genea- 
logical statements and to test them by ascertained data, 
the errors may not have been apparent. He first confounds 
this Thomas Tyrell with his grandfather, giving the date 
of his death in 1476, and of his Shrievalty in 1460 ; and 
the natural consequence of this is, that he confounds 
Thomas Tyrell, the next in succession, with his father Sir 
Thomas, the Knight Banneret, giving the date of his death 
in 1510. The error which occurs at p. 209 sub East 
Horndon is repeated in another form at p. 211, for although 
he says, correctly, that the next owner of Heron after Sir 
John was Sir Thomas, who died in 1476, he makes the 
latter to have been succeeded by his son Thomas who died 
in 1510, instead of his grandson. 

The reader will find that the respective wills rectify 
Morant's inaccuracies most conclusively. 

The Will of Sir Thomas Tyrell op Heron, Knight 

Banneret, ob. 1510 (1512 ?) 

He, as has been said, was the grandson and successor of Sir 
Thomas Tyrell who died in 1476, and the fact is expressly 
stated in his grandfather's * will of lands.' Morant Bays he 
married first Elizabeth .daughter of Eichard Devereux, 
Lord Ferrers of Cliartley. The same will proves that her 
name was Anne and that the Lord Ferrers then owed Sir 
Thomas Tyrell 400 marks for her marriage with his 


grandson. His second wife was Beatrix daughter of John 
Cockayne, Esq., of Derbyshire. 

The will is brief and bears date the 26th of Aug. 1510. 
Testator says, 

ffirst, I comende my soule to Almighty god and blcss^ lady saint 
mary, and to all the holy company of hevyn, my body to be buried in 
the south side of the quere of the p'isshe churche of Esthordon, and 
there by the discrecion of myn executours to be made a chapell w^ a 
conyenient tombe over my saide bodye to the charge and value of G 
m'ks to be taken of my goods for bildinge and makinge of the seme, also 
I will have a prest to synge for my soule, the soules of Thomas 
Mongomery, Knight, Dame lore his wife, my frends soules and all 
xpen soules, ev'y sonday and holiday in the said chapell or churche 
where my said body shall rest duringe the terme of xxx^ yeres next 
eominge, and the residue of the weks, not beinge sondaies or holidaies, 
the said prest to singe and pray for the soules abovesaid in plac's to bo 
appoyntd and assigned at the pleasure and discrecion of my son Thomas 
Tyrell ; the said prest takinge for his wages as my son and my 
executours can w^ him agree. Also I will that an yerely obite be kepte 
in the said pisshe church of Esthordon on the same day that it shall 
please god I shall departe out of this worlde, w^ a conyenient observaunoe 
of my soule, the soules of the said Sir Thomas Mongomery and dame 
Lore his wife, as longe as it shall be thought reasonable by myn 
executours*. [Testator next giyes his wife Dame Beatrice all title and 
dower she can claim of his lands and his manor of Hemmenales* with 
appurtenances, and after her death the whole to Vemain to his son 
Thomas according to the old entail of the same] * I will that the 
Man' of Rivenh all which late was the said Thomas Mongomery, Knight, 
be put in feoffment or record that yerely in p'petuite x m'ks of the 
profits of the same shall be paid to the parson of ffulborn, and yiijli. 
part of the profits shall go yerely in p'petuite to the yi pou' men at the 
newe abbey beside the towre hill in London accordinge to the last wille of 
the said Sir Thomas Montgomery :f and for the adyoysion of the said 
maner of Riyenhall for as nioche as the Abbas of Brewsyarde in the 
countie of Suff* shewith sufficient eyidenc's proyynge the said adyoysion 
to be longinge to her and her successors, how be it hath been long oute 
of their possession, yet I am content that they, by adyyse of my councell 
and theirs, andby the councell of my lorde of oxforde, be restored to the 
same, they makinge by the adyise of my said councell sufficient writinge 
that they and their sucoessours shall yerely in p'petuite kepe an obite 
in their monastery for the soules of the aboyesaid Sir Thomas Mon- 
gomery, dame lore his wife, and all xpen soules ; and I woll that if it 
fortune John ffortesoue and his wife to dye w^out heires of their body 
lawfully begotten, then the reyerclon of the said manors of ffalkborn and 
moche Tey^ in the same countie of Essex whereof the reyercion is in 

* HemnaLs alias Trenmailes ; in Downham. 

t The Ciatercian Houbo of S. Mary Graces or New Abbey upon Tower Hill. Sir 
John Montgomery built in it tiie Chapel of our Lady, in which he was interred in 



my beires as by writinge ibereof may more plainly appear, sball remain 
to my son Tbomas and his heirs for ever/* 

[Gives to Beatrice bis wife goods and chattels to the value of 100 
marks ; 20' yearly rent to bis godson Tbomas Halys for life, or else £20 
of bis goods & chattels. Appoints Executors bis son Tbomas Tyrell, 
Robert Norwiche and Richard Wright Esquires, and " Richard 
fialdringe my gostely fader and p'son of Esthordon" and gives eacb 
13* 4^ Tbomas Tyrell & Richard fialderynge proved 16 Oct. 1512.] 

The Will of Beatrice^ Lady Tyrell Proved 1512. 

Beatrice Lady Tjn'ell, snrvived her husband but a short 
time and her will was proved four months prior to his. It 
is dated 14th Feb. 4th of Hen. VIII. and is very concise. 
She describes herself ^ as Beatrice Tirell wedowe late wyff 
of Thomas Tyrell, Einyght.' It proves that she was a 
widow at the time of her marriage with Sir Thomas TyrelL 
The following is a brief extract : — 

To be buried where it ahall please God. If I die in London to be 
bnried within the Church of * Crichurch*t or else in Bow Church in the 
city where John Sutton my first husband is buried : if elsewhere, in the 
parish church where I happen to die. Qiye to the Prior of ' Crechurch* 
and his convent for breaking my ground and necessaries thereto 
belonging, 40*, and to the Church works of Bow Church 20'. Residue 
of estate to William Browne, Alderman of London, and William Weston, 
mercer, to dispose for my soul as they shall think best and appoint them 
Executors (the former proved will). Give to each 40'. Appoint 
Thomas Terell my son overseer ** takynge for his labor my best primer, 
my weddyng ryng, a crosse of golde w* a pece of the holy crosse therin, 
praiyng for the gyvers therof to me ; and a nother crosse w^ salutacion 
bf cure lady." 

The Will op Sie John Tyrell op Little Waelbt, 

SlNight. OB. 1540-1. 

He was the eldest son and heir of Humphrey Tyrell 
Esq. of Little Warley Hall by his second wife Elizabeth 
daughter of Sir John Walwyn of Loundsford, Herts. He 
died 28th of February 1540-1 eight days after he had 
executed his will which is dated 20 Feb. 1540 (1541), and 
the introductory formulary is identical in its terms with 
other wills dated anterior to the Reformation. I insert 
here a brief abstract with extracts verbatim of the more 
interesting passages. 

* The matter contained in tiiis extract appears to me to be qjaJd/Q new infonnatioiL 
t The Church of the Grey Friars in Newgate Street. 


' I bequeath and oomend my soule to Almighty Ood, and o' lady 
Baynt marye and to all the saynts of hevyn, and my body to be buryed 
in the chauncell of litle Warley aforesaid before alhalowes w* a stone 
over me in lyke wyse as my father humfrey lyrell lyeth in Esthomdod 

Church Item I remit the charge of my burpng to the 

discrecyon of myn Exeeutours w^out pomp, wayne glorie, or grete ooste. 
Item, I wi]l that my monthes mynde be kept in idl the pysn churches 
followith, Esthornedon, Cbilderdich, grete Warley, Orsett, Homedon, 
Langdon, Donton, Hotton, ChauldweU, ffbbbing, Gyngrave, and 
graysthorrok, and the churchwardens of ev'y of the say** p'ysshes shall 
have yi* Tiij"* ; to bestow to every prest of the said pysshes to say dirige 
and masse for my soule and all xpen soules viij**, and in brede, drinke & 
chese enough for the p'ysshen's vi" ; yf any be left of the say** vi' to be 
for the repa'cions of the church. Item I give and bequeth to the 
repa'cions of the church of little Warley xx", and I give to the said 
church all the clothes that be usyd about the sepulcar every year.' 

[Give my daughter fiPriswith 100 marks at her marriage or living sole. 
To Stephen, Morris and Humfrey my sons 5 marks yearly for life out of 
my lease of Thorndon Hall. To my son Morris £20. To my son Kauff 
according as I am bound to Mr. Randulff of Kent (which I suppose is 
200 marks) when 21 : if he die before, nothing. To my son William 
40" yearly out of Thorndon Hall during my lease.] *' Item, I bequeth 
to Mary my doughter sometyme a nonne of Barking a ring with a safier 
that my wife hath in keping, and a counterpointe, a fetherbed, a bolster, 
a pillowe, a payr of blankets and fy ve marks in money.* Item I bequeth 
to Elizabeth Hopton my wifes daughter xl li. on condicyon that neither 
I nor my executours be troubled or vexed about any thing conteyning 
the will of John Hopton Esquire her father. Item, I bequeth to Dame 
Anne Tyrell my wifct foure fetherbeddes, iiij bolsters, iiij pillowes, iiij 
payer of sheets and four counterpoynts, wherof one ys in the myddell 
chamb' and three in the closet over the p*lor, and a salte w^ a cover 
w^ stone and perle, and three coffers to be appointed by the discrecion 
of myn executours, two dozen napkyns, six towells. [To William 
Wortington my son in law £10 : an inventory of my goods to be made. 
Goods to be sold. To Margaret Tyrell my daughter £6.4.4. Appoint 
John Tyrell my son, Humfrey Tyrell my brother, and Anthony Brigge 
my son in law, Executors. They proved 19 Mar. 1540 (1541).] 

I have been careful to avoid overburtlieiiing these 
communications with the mere dry recital of the devise of 
manors and lands. ISTo species of evidence, however, is 
more authentic in relation to the descent of estates than 
that to be derived from wills, and to these instruments any 
future historian who would correct the inaccuracies and 
supply the numerous defects of Morant must of necessity 
have recourse. My chief object in these papers is to select 

* This magnificent foundation, Barking Abbey, was diflsolved 14 Nov., .1539. 
Mifls Tyrell was therefore Uying on the pension allotted to her. The Abbesses of 
Barking were usiudlv women of noble fsunily or high extraction, and the nuns, most 
probably, were daughters of distingniahed or affluent parentage. 



Buoh passages as serve to illustrate the habits, manners^ 
religious feeling and social condition of our forefathers, 
and, if so be, to trace to whom we owe the foundation and 
frequent restoration of our religious edifices. Half the 
domestic history of the country lies buried in and may be 
drawn from ancient wills, and I hope to bring out in con- 
tinuation of the subject, and in excerpts from others, many 
interesting facts and particulars which I trust may con- 
tribute to our better acquaintance with the history of the 
past and the people of the past in their social and domestic 



By H. W. Kmo. 

.Although it is not perhaps generally desirable to 
occupy the limited space aflforded by our Journal with 
genealogical tables, I venture to think that an exception 
may be made in favour of the Pedigree of the Father of 
Essex History. I frankly own, at the same time, that I 
feel unwilling that the results of researches which I have 
diligently prosecuted during the space of more than a 
quarter of a century with the hope of discovering some 
particulars of the life and history of a man to whom we, 
as archsBologists, owe so much, should be utterly lost, 
however inadequate they may be to the labour bestowed* 
Such scattered notices and obscure traces of James 
Strangman as I had found at long intervals I have 
previously recorded in a brief memoir in these pages.* 
Few and indistinct as they are, I fear that they are all 
that will ever be obtained. My endeavours to trace his 
genealogy have, however, been attended with unusually 
successM results, and it will not, I think, be regarded as 
an inappropriate supplement to his scanty memoir. 

Very recently, by the friendly aid of G. H. Eogers- 
Harrison, Esq., Windsor Herald, and member of our 
Council, I have been enabled to continue the genealogy 
upward from the time of Edward III. to the Norman 
Conquest ; and my thanks are further due to Mr. Harrison 
for the facilities afforded me for collating my own collec- 
tions with the Books of the College of Arms. To Colonel 
Chester I am also indebted for kindly assistance, and some 
new and valuable discoveries and excerpts from ancient 

That a descent deduced from an origin so remote will 
be entirely free from errors or defects is more than I will 

 Vol. n., p. 139. 



venture to affirm. In those cases where I had recourse to 
genealogical collections or early copies of Visitations, when 
discrepancies occurred, I had to decide what I should 
accept and what reject on the evidence presented to me, 
and to verify what I could by original records. Much I 
have, of necessity,, been obliged to accept upon trust from 
other compilers hands, on the fair, if not the almost certain 
presumption that they possessed, or obtained access to, 
evidences which are not now in existence. For the 
selection and application of the materials at my command, 
I am solely responsible, and have used them to the best of 
my judgment 

At my last revision I have seen reason to adopt as the 
basis of the Strangman Pedigree a descent compiled in 
Latin by Vincent, Windsor Herald, in the reign of 
Charles I. This I have collated with others. Vincent has 
the reputation of having been a man of great ability and 
equal industry, a plodding antiquary and a judicious 
genealogist. Besides his office of Windsor Herald he was 
under-keeper of Eecords in the Tower, an appointment 
which afforded him unusual facilities for research of which 
he did not neglect to avail himself, for he made a great 
collection of extracts.* His compilation therefore bears 
the stamp of authenticity. Some interpolations in a later 
hand have been rejected, either as partly erroneous, or 
incorrectly applied, and other insertions substituted from 
records of undoubted authority. 

The Pedigree which I now present to the members of 
the Essex Archaeological Society has not been hastily put 
forth, and if not entirely free from inaccuracy, is as 
perfect, as after long study and careful collation, I have 
been capable of making it.f 

Whether the family were of Saxon or Norman extraction 
cannot be determined, for from the Conquest until the reign 
of John or Henry the III. the name occurs only under the 
Latin form of Peregrinus. If I may hazard a conjecture, 
it seems more probable that the founder of the house was 
one of the Norman followers of the Conqueror called 

 \^de Noble'B " Hist of the CoUeg© of Arms." 

t Morant's narrativo pedigree and those contained in such transcripts of the 
Visitations as I have seen, commence temp. Edw. III. The reader will find very 
considerable variations from the text of Moront which is based upon or copied from 
an unautheaticated transcript of the Yisitatloii of 1612 er 16U. 


perhaps William le Pelerin, thence Latinized ^ Peregrinus/ 
and subsequently translated ^ Strange-man/ the surname 
borne by his descendants in Essex, Kent, Cambridge and 
Lincoln ; while another was Anglicised * Peregryn.'* 

Although the Strangmans occupied the position of 
landed gentry for the space of five hundred years and their 
possessions were large, the name does not once occur in 
the roll of Sheriffs ; hence I infer that their property and 
influence were insufficient to entitle them to serve that 
office, which was usually conferred upon persons of the 
highest consideration and wealth, and these in Essex were 
numerous. Neither have I found the name among the 
Magistracy, though I am not sure that I have seen a list 
of Justices of the Peace earlier than the reign of Elizabeth. 
In the antiquity of their lineage, the distinction of their 
alliances and the number of quarterings they displayed in 
their shield, they nevertheless rivalled those of the highest 
rank.f This will be apparent on referring to their 
genealogy, and for the purpose of shewing what ancient 
&milies they represented in blood, and how most of their 
numerous quarterings were acquired, I have included the 
descents of several of the more considerable heiresses.:|: 
But he in whom my interest has centred during this long 
protracted investigation, is James Strangman, the approxi- 
mate date of whose death and age is at length determined. 
He was, as will be seen, the fourth son of William 
Strangman by Mary daughter of Sir Thomas Bamardiston 
!Kt., a name which still survives in Essex. Vincent, who 
was his cotemporary and probably knew him (as well as 
Camden and Dethicke with whom I have formerly shewn 
he was well acquainted) distinguishes him in his pedigree 
by the appellation of ^^ Antiquarius" and says that he died 
in 1595 or 1596. The will of his father is dated 5 Dec, 
1573, and was proved 19 June, 1574. Bartholomew his 
eldest son and heir was of fall age and appointed Executor. 

• ThuB, 6.g. Pererell is Latmized PipereBm ; Bivers, D$ Ripariit ; Montagne, D$ 
MonUAeuio; Beauchamp, Dtf Betto Campo; Beaupre, J)e Bella Frato ; and many 
other examples might be died which must be iiEuniliar. 

t They qaartored 21 coats, the greatest number, with one or two exceptions, that 
I have met with among the county fGunilieB at that period. 

X The Doreward Pedigree I have drawn exclusively from Morant as sufficient to 
exhibit the descent from that family. The descent of MantoU, BattaiUo, Atte-Hoo 
and Yngoe I haye drawn frY)m MS. Pedigrees and other records, collated with the 
Books of the Herald's College. 


James is expressly mentioned as a minor. The greatest 
age therefore that can well be assumed for James in 1573, 
is 18 years, as there were, according to the pedigree, two 
sons bom between Bartholomew and him. Upon this 
supposition he could not be more than 40 at the time of 
decease and may have been several years younger. To 
Bartholomew, his father bequeathed all his lands, leases, 
stock, &c., who was to be charged. with an annuity of £20 
to his brother James and with the payment of a further 
sum of £200 on his attaining the age of 21 years. This 
was. the entire fortune of the Antiquary. Beckoned 
according to the value of money in the reign of Elizabeth 
it was not an inadequate provision for the younger son of 
a country Squire, but sufficient to place him in a state of 
honourable independence. The fortune bequeathed to his 
daughter * Thamysand' was 500 marks. Thomasine was 
also a minor, which proves that she could not have been 
bom of his first wife, and the error into which Morant and 
other genealogists have fallen, is that of making Mary the 
sister of Sir Thomas Kemp, William Strangman's first 
wife, instead of his second.. As the testator does not 
mention his daughters Ann and Martha, they were pro- 
bably then married and had been provided for. Martha 
Wiseman at all events was living as late as 1604, when 
Administration was granted to her " De bonis noUy ^a," of 
her said father. To his brother (in-law) John Barmston 
(i.e. Barnardiston) William Strangman bequeathed 40s. 
yearly for the space of six years, if he should live so long. 

There are strong reasons (amounting almost to positive 
proof) for believing that upon the death of Eobert Strang- 
man, the eldest son and heir of Bartholomew, this ancient 
family after having flourished more than five hundred 
years became extinct. 
























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HELD FEBEUARY 16th, 1864. 

By the Bey. E. F. Botle, Yicar of East Ham, Essex. 

Bait Ham, Barking^ 

Jufy 23rc/, 1864. 


In assenting to the request that my short 
paper should be included in your forthcoming number of 
the ^^ Essex Archeeological Journal," I have to repeat what 
I mentioned to one of your Secretaries, viz, : that in my 
opinion it does not deserve to be so dignified. As a 
truthful and exact description of the facts I can safely put 
it before you, whilst no pretension is made to a knowledge 
of the special subject which these facts illustrate. 

Ho JiiriXer remains have been found in the excavations here. 

I remain, Sir, 

Faithfully yours, 


^ Vicar of £aU Mam^ Etwx, 

To THS EBrroR 


" £u$x Ar0haoloffieal Jourttal." 

The part of this evening's proceedings which I have 
undertaken is of a nature so simple, that any one of 
common observation, whose evidence is credible, could 
readily undertake it. And I must confess at once, that if 
archeeological knowledge were necessary to set before this 
present meeting the facts relating to the discovery so 
recently made in the parish of East Ham, it must have 
devolved on some one more competent thltn I profess to be 
to relate them. But if I confine myself to facts and offer 
nothing of my own, I believe I shall best consult for that 


very interesting brancli of knowledge which this county 
Society is instituted to promote. 

It is well known to the Society, for its own records 
testify, that a very curious little church, the parish church 
of East Ham, of considerable antiquity — in whose church- 
yard lie the remains of the great antiquary. Dr. Stukely — 
stands on the confines of the marsh which stretches from 
the river Lea on the west, to the river Boding on the east, 
terminating at Barking Creek. Along some miles of this 
level the new gigantic sewer, called the high level eewer^ 
which is to carry off the drainage of London north of the 
Thames, traverses this marsh. So large is the embank- 
ment required for the sewer, that it became necessary for 
the contractor of the works to purchase four acres of land 
close to the sewer, to excavate gravel for ballast, to line 
the sides of it for some miles. It so happened that the' 
land most suitable for his purpose was to be had within 
about a quarter of a mile of East Ham church, and in a 
direct line with the churchyard, westward. This land was 
to be carried away bodily, except the surface of eighteen 
inches, and is now being daily carried away on trucks, for 
the purpose of ballasting this mighty sewer ; a work in 
comparison with which the Boman Cloaca Maxima was a 
moderate one; that being a single channel 14 feet in 
diameter, built in dry masonry ; while this consists of three 
co-ordinate channels of nine fee^ diameter, built of the best 
bricks, and beautifully cemented. In the process of 
excavation the workmen, on Friday, the 1 3th of November 
last, came unexpectedly upon what they thought was a 
large block of stone. On further uncovering, this stone 
proved to be hollow. It was more than two feet square at 
the end which came first in sight, and it had a coped lid 
of more than five inches in thickness. When wholly 
uncovered it proved to-be a large stone sarcophagus 
or coffin, apparently of coarse Bath stone, the lid being 
broken, when found, into three parts. Within this 
sarcophagus were two skeletons, lying at opposite ends, 
one larger and more entire than the other. A skull W6ts 
at each end, and in one the teeth were nearly complete, 
the entire skeleton, indeed, being very perfect. A surgeon 
who saw these stated his belief that they both belonged to 


persons of about forty-five years of age. When first found, 
one of the skeletons was entire and but little decayed. 
This was still the case when I first saw them. The police 
kept guard for two or three days and nights to watch, on 
behalf of the CSrown, lest any treamre trove should be 
unlawfully abstracted. This surveillance will prove what 
a sensation must have been caused in the neighbourhood 
by the discovery ; it was given up, however, on the third 
day, when it was tolerably well ascertained that no treasure 
was contained in the sarcophagus. Whilst still in its berth, 
the monster coffin was seen by some hundreds of sight- 
seers, especially on Sunday, the 15th of November, 1863. 
After a few days the numbers became inconvenient to the 
workmen. It then became a question what was to be 
done with it, I offered the use of my church porch for its 
temporary resting-place, as I knew that many persons still, 
desirous of seeing it, had not had the opportunity. 
Accordingly it was placed in the porch, and I hope several 
hundred persons of the neighbourhood and from London 
had a quiet and sheltered view of what all confessed to be 
a most interesting relic. Meanwhile other coffins were 
being discovered, but these were of lead. Three leaden 
coffins, in all, have been found as yet, lying north and 
south, as the sarcophagus lay. About twenty cinerary 
urns were also found close to them. Persons skilled in 
such matters pronounced both the stone and leaden coffins 
to be unquestionably Boman. Certain marks and mould- 
ings, it seems, are indicative of their Boman origin, 
although no date whatever could be traced. Escalop shells 
of beautiful device are on the lid of these leaden coffins, at 
the head, foot, and sides of each, and an astragal moulding 
runs diagonally across them. In short, every antiquary 
who saw them readily pronounced them to be Eoman. I 
have, fortunately, been able to preserve for your inspection 
this evening impressions of the escalop shells and of the 
mouldings, and some specimens of pottery used as cinerary 
urns. Some of these are of Eoman, others of British 
manufacture, found near the coffins, and containing, when 
found, the ashes or fragments of bones. These urns have 
fared very ill indeed under the mattocks and pickaxes of 
strong armed navvies, such as are found in all our great 


public works. No recompense was then offered for the 
preservation of any of them, and I do believe they would 
all have perished, had not a few non-antiquaries, such as I 
am, been ready with a few half-crowns to rescue what 
seemed to our unlearned eyes to be at least great 
curiosities. Your hon. secretary has now authorised me 
to reward the men if they shall preserve, intact, any more 
relics that may be found, if they should still be found ; a 
measure, I humbly suggest to this Society, most necessary 
in this age of excavations, for securing such antiquities as 
may be dug out from the soil of Essex, a county second to 
no other for its deposits of Boman sepulchral relics. 

The Board of Works claimed and exercised the right to 
dispose of these remains. And so, after leaving the coffins, 
at my request, for six weeks longer than tiiej at first 
intended, to be seen by the inhabitants of the neighbour- 
hood, they have been taken away to be deposited, as I am 
informed, in the British Museum. I only wish that a 
little more care had been taken of the contents of the stone 
coffin, and that they had not been disturbed. Two sacks 
full of the dust contained in it were taken away, and one 
of the leaden coffins was thrust into it, thus destroying 
the leaden coffin, and confounding its contents with those 
of the sarcophagus. It is easy to perceive how much 
more valuable, as an object of antiquarian curiosity, the 
unmutilated and undisturbed contents of such a coffin 
would be, if we had them now to show. Begrets are 
useless, however. Only, it shows my present hearers how 
needful it is for a county ArchaBological Society to have 
eyes in all parts of the county, and a reward ready at hand 
for those workmen who shall be at the pains to preserve 
and hand over such objects of interest as may be from time 
to time discovered. Such moderate reward, I mean, as 
would operate as an inducement to take a little extra 

Some antiquaries have expressed their belief that these 
discoveries are but the commencement of still larger 
discoveries in the same place. Others have said that this 
was probably but a smaU burial place, perhaps belonging 
to a single proprietor and his retainers. Time will soon 
prove whether this be true or not, for the excavation is 


rapidly advancing. But I am bound to say that for 
seyertd weeks no further discovery has been made. 

At an early period of the discovery I wrote to the 
honorary secretaries of this Society, announcing what had 
then been found. The Eev. Mr. Cutts promptly engaged 
to send a competent person to view, and another to sketch 
the coffins, as they lay in our church porch. Those 
drawings, no doubt, will be reproduced in the way of 
engravings in an early number of your " Essex Archseo- 
logical Journal." And I hope your honorary secretaries 
will give us the advantage of their descriptions in the 

The honorary secretaries of the "Archseological Institute 
of Great Britain and Ireland " also heard of the discovery, 
and though unwilling to thrust their sickle into the harvest 
of another society, asked permission to view the relics. 
This, you may believe, was freely granted, and they too 
concur in pronouncing the remains to be Boman. 

Before dismissing the subject, I must mention that bones 
were found in considerable quantities near the spot where 
these coffins were exhumed. Some few of these are pre- 
served, but not in sufficient quantity to satisfy a curious 
inquirer. One fact only need be mentioned to indicate 
their sepulchral character, viz. — that they were found at 
the same depth as the coffins and urns ; and two skeletons 
were found in a tolerable state of entireness. They were 
far below the reach of plough or harrow, and in so regular 
a disposition as to lead an observer to the obvious con- 
olusion that they were the remains of human beings, 
perhaps too poor to afford either a coffin or an urn. 

The Boman occupation of Britain, if we date it from 
the second invasion under Agricola, lasted from A.D. 
84, to the early years of the 6th century. The shortest 
time, therefore, we can reasonably assign to these Boman 
relics would be 1,400 years ; and the probable date of 
their burial would be farther back than that. Having 
reappeared after the lapse of so many centuries, and 
comparatively well preserved too, in their gravelly bed, 
capable \)f identification as to their nationality, it is 
surely well worthy of the care of a learned body such 
as yours to take every precaution for the future that such| 


or similar, relics shall be seen as soon as may be after their 
discovery, and accurately drawn or photographed for the 
illustration of your journal. 

If I might venture to define the object of your Society, 
I should say yours is pre-eminently an association for the 
recovery of authentic traces of the footsteps of Time. It 
is not an enthusiastic search after the romantic or the 
fictitious, but an exploring of facts, patient in investi- 
gating, and faithful in expounding them when discovered. 
Permit me, in conclusion, to say that if you wish to succeed 
largely in collecting the facts which concern the past, you 
must do two things : — First, you must increase con- 
siderably the numbers of your subscribing members ; this 
will be necessary as explorations advance : and secondly, 
you ought to eulist the services of those who are competent 
and trustworthy, all over the county, to seize upon the 
facts as they come to light. As railways, tunnels, sewers, 
and embankments are proceeding to turn up the bowels of 
the earth, strange things will crop up to view. But then 
the question is. Who will care to have them preserved ? 
Who is trustworthy to record the discoveries ? Tour hon. 
Secretaries, it is clear, cannot be everywhere present. 
The Magistrates of the county might, in some cases, take 
an interest in these matters. But they are not so equally 
spread over all parts as might be desirable. You will 
probably anticipate my thought — the Clergy are the body 
who are more equally diffused over the country than any 
other body of men who are as well informed. And I hope 
I am not assuming too much for my own order when I 
suggest that they, with all their many avocations, 
would be as willing as any other set of men, to undertake 
the duty of describing the genuine remains of antiquity, 
each in his own respective neighbourhood. Scotland, it 
is well known, is better described in its statistical and 
geological features than other parts of Great Britain, for 
this very reason, because the clergy there take pains to 
inform themselves .of the facts in their respective parishes, 
and to communicate their information to the publia 



By H. W. Knsro. 

Ths preceding commnnioation from the Rev. E. F. Boyle, 
to whose careful observation, judicious counsel and active 
exertions for the preservation of the interesting sepulchral 
remains exhumed at East Ham we are so greatly in- 
debted, furnishes our associates with a detailed report of 
the discovery, and a description of the various antiquities 
brought to light ; the accoinpanying illustrations, engraved 
from the beautiful drawings of that accurate and accom- 
plished draughtsman, Mr. A. F. Sprague, to whose minute 
and scrupulous fidelity I can bear testimony from personal 
inspection, render any description from my pen superfluous. 
My duty is simply, in compliance with the request of our 
Honorary Secretary, to lay before the Society some notes 
of similar discoveries in Essex and elsewhere, in illustra- 
tion of, and for the sake of comparison with, this so 
fortuitously made. 

The subject of Roman interments in coffins of lead and 
stone has been so amply and ably treated by Mr. C. Roach 
Smith in his " Collectanea Antiqua,'^ * vol. iii., p. 45, et 
seq.j that I can scarcely furnish examples which he has not 
already cited, adduce to facts and evidence which he has 
not abeady discussed, or form conclusions which he has 
not already established. To his able essay, and to the 
examples which he has cited, I am almost exclusively 
indebted for these brief comparative remarks, as I must 
be also to his generosity for the freedom with which I 
refer to his pages. To the reader I make no apology for 

* A work which ought to be in the hands of every antiquary, but — as I gather 
from the oomparatiyely contracted roll of subscribers, though comprising archn- 
ologists of the highest reputation— is not. 


Roman Saj-coj-ihii^us &. Samiaji ware _ East Hain, 


t'' '■■') 

Htad, J-'bbI 

Rdman CoUni.--- m Lead _ East. H;Lin 


saying nothing new when nothing new is to he said ; hut 
that some few illustrations in point should he offered is 

Yarious modes of interment were adopted hy the 
Bomans, whether the remains of the dead were oonsumed 
hy fire or the hody were consigned to its kindred earth. 
Both these practises were common, and examples of hoth 
often occur in the same cemetery ; hut in Britain crema- 
tion and urn hurial certainly predominated. ^^ The earliest 
practice of the Bomans," says Mr. Wright, " was to hury 
the hodies of their dead entire ; it was not until the time 
of the Dictator Sylla (81 b.c.) that the custom of cremation 
was estahlished, and from that time either custom was 
adopted, at the pleasure of the individual or the family of 
the deceased. Ahont the second century of the Christian 
sera the older practice hegan to he resumed, and from this 
time cremation was gradually superseded."* 

When cremation was employed, the ashes of the dead 
were collected and usually placed in an urn, occasionally 
in a leaden coffer. There were yarious modes of depositing 
these urns. Sometimes they were placed in a hole in the 
ground, hut were more frequently enclosed in a little cist 
of wood, stone or tiles. Many examples of urns enclosed 
in small square tile cists have heen found at Colchester, of 
which drawings may he seen in the Museum of our Society. 
Occasionally ^ey have heen found enclosed in large am- 
phorsD of which the neck has been broken off to admit 
the urn and afterwards reunited. Graves composed of 
roof tiles set on end, and adjusted in form like the roof of 
a house, beneath which urns were deposited, have also 
been met with ; and others have been found enclosed in 
stone chests. 

When the body was to be buried several kinds of coffin 
were used, according to the affluence and dignity of the 
deceased,' namely, of wood, baked clay, lead or stone. 
Wooden coffins are, of course, entirely decayed, but lig- 
neous fragments are sometimes found, together with three 
or four large nails with which they were fastened. These 
nails have induced some to believe that they denoted the 
burial place of persons who had been crucified, but it was 

• «<Th6 OeLt, the Boman, and th^ Saxon/' by Thomas Wzight. 


conclusively proved by Mr. Boach Smith, in an article in 
his " Collectanea Antiqua," vol. iii., p. 19, that they were 
simply used for the purpose indicated. 

Boman coffins of stone and lead have been exhumed in 
different parts of England as well as upon the continent, 
but as Mr. Boaoh Smith observes, ^' Coffins in lead of the 
Boman epoch are not of very frequent occurrence in Eng- 
land and in Franco, but there is every reason to believe 
that they have often been confounded in past times with 
those of much later date " In Essex stone sarcophagi 
have been found at Hazeleigh and Bamsden Belhus, and 
several leaden coffins at Colchester. 

As I remarked in the brief account which I furnished 
to the ^^ Gentleman's Magazine" of the sepulchral remains 
found at East Ham at the time of their discovery, stone 
sarcophagi and leaden coffins manifestly denote position 
and wealth, as such materials must have been costly, 
especially in this part of the kingdom ; while the existence 
of such cemeteries proves the great population of Boman 
Britain, for we find them everywhere, not only near towns, 
but in places sparingly populated, if populated at all. Many 
must long since have been destroyed, and many probably 
remain for future accidents such as this to bring to light. 
The greatness of the Boman population in Essex is very 
surely indicated by their remains extensively scattered 
over the entire face of the county, and will be more clearly 
manifest in the numerous traces of their occupation detailed 
by our Hon. Secretary in his " Notes on Boman Essex." 
But it may be incidentally noticed that at Barking may be 
seen Boman material worked into medieeval walls ; at Up- 
hall, some three miles distant from the site of the East 
Ham cemetery, is situate a vast Boman entrenchment, and 
at Stratford-le-Bow, scarcely four miles distant, sepulchral 
remains were found in considerable quantities, and, in 
1844, a leaden coffin, described by Mr. Boach Smith in 
the ** ArchsBologia," vol. xxxi., p. 308. 

In every interment of this kind, I believe, which has 
been accurately noted, the coffin has contained lime which 
has been poured over the body in a slaked or liquid state, 
and this practice was probably invariable. Thus, in two 
recorded examples at York : One coffin appeared to be 


half-filled with lime, excepting the place where the head 
had lain. The lime being very carefully taken out, the 
lower surface presented a distinct impression of the human 
body over which, with the exception of the face, the lime 
had been poured in a liquid state ; the body having been 
first covered with a cloth, the texture of which was dis- 
tinctly seen in the impression on the lime. The feet had 
been crossed and covered with shoes or sandals, having 
nails in the soles, the marks of which upon the lime were 
distinctly visible. The remains were those of a female, 
who had been buried in all her usual attire, and the coffin 
contained numerous personal ornaments, rings, bracelets, 
earrings, necklaces, &c. In the other instance the coffin 
had contained a Eoman mother with her babe in her lap, 
whose forms were perfectly impressed in the lime, which 
retained also the colour of the purple cloth in which they 
had been wrapped.* I have briefly cited these two ex- 
amples on account of the remarkable and accurate indica- 
tions presented of the mode in which the bodies were 
encoffined. In the great majority of cases, as at East 
Ham, the contents have been disturbed and rifled by the 
workmen before they could be submitted to careful and 
scientific examination, f It is greatly to be regretted that 
when excavations are being carried on, especially for great 
public works, definite and peremptory instructions are not 
given to the workmen to refrain from disturbing any 
ancient remains which may be found, but to reserve them 
for inspection and examination by competent persons. 

Sarcophagi enriched with sculpture or bas-reliefs are of 
very uncommon occurrence in this country : they are gen- 
erally quite plain or but very slightly ornamented. But 
one found in the Minories, London, described by Mr. Eoach 
Smith and engraved in his -" Collectanea Antiqua,"J is 
elaborately decorated with sculpture, and has a bust of the 

• " The Celt, the Boman, and the Saxon." 

t Thus the fine sarcophagus found in the Mmories was instantly broken open by 
the workmen, in expectation of finding treasure, and the leaden coffin only saved by 
the timely interposition of the Bev. Thomas Hill, Rector of Holy TrJbuty; in whose 
parish it was found. The like happened at Hazeleigh. And at Bethncd Green, tiie 
I*arish Beadle, accompanied by two policemen, and intent upon a coroner's inquest, 
dug into and mixed the whole contoots of the coffin into a confused mass, witibL a 

t Vol. iiL, p. 45. 


deceased in a medallion on one side. It contained a leaden 
coffin, within which were the remains of a boy, and a 
quantity of lime. The coffin was ornamented with a 
beaded pattern and escallop shells. These are now in 
the British Museum. 

Boman coffins of lead found in England, when enriched 
at all, are almost invariably ornamented with escallop 
shells mixed either with a corded or beaded pattern, dif- 
fering only in the arrangement of the design. That upon 
the larger coffin found at East Ham is more elegantly dis- 
posed than in any other example which has come under my 
notica In another specimen found in Bethnal Green 
about three years ago, which I was fortunate enough to 
see very shortly after its exhumation, we have, instead of 
the beaded or corded lines, a pattern resembling a closely 
jointed bamboo, or the vertebrae of a fish ; an ornament 
which, I believe, is at present unique.* Others, fix)m 
Colchester, engraved in the ^' Collectanea Antiqua," pi. 
xiv., figs. 3 and 4, have annulets interspersed with the 
escallops. In all cases the lid overlaps the sides. 

There is no reason whatever for supposing that there is 
any recondite signification in the escallop shells, least of 
all that they denote Christian sepulture as some have 
hastily conjectured, thus reducing their date to a period 
considerably later than the Boman epoch, to which they 
unquestionably belong ; and in fact on the lid of a coffin 
found in the Old Kent Bead, in 1811, the escallops were 
associated with figures of Minerva. The escallop, however, 
appears to be an ornament peculiar to Boman coffins found 
in England, but Mr. Boach Smith considers that there is no 
reason for supposing that it was intended otherwise than 
as a neat and not inelegant ornament selected to suit the 
popular taste, or the whim or convenience of the manu- 

Several Boman leaden coffins have been found at Col- 
chester, but not one of them has been preserved in the 
town. Morant states that ^^ On the 24th of March, 
1749-60, in the Windmill-field, near the west end of the 

« la this instance the leaden ooffin had been encased in another of wood. For a 
detailed acooiint of the disooTerY, with a deecription of the ooffin and its oontents, 
accompanied by illoBtrationfl, by Mr. H. W. Bolfe, see the Ftooeedings of the 
Evening Meetings of the London and Middlesex, and Snxrey ArchsMlogioal Sooietiefl. 


town, was found a leaden coffin ; not lying due east and 
west, but north-east and south-west. In it was a quantity 
of dust, but no bones, except very small remains of the 
backbone, and the skull in two pieces. There lay near the 
head two bracelets or picture frames (!) of jet, one plain 
the other scalloped, and a ver^ small and slender one of 
brass wrought, and four bodkins of jet. The coffin was 
cast or wrought all over with lozenges, in each of which 
was an escallop shell, but no date. Near it was found an 
urn, holding about a pint, in which were two coins of large 
brass, one of Antoninus Pius, and the other of Alexander 
Severus."* "This coffin," says Mr. William Wire, of 
Colchester, in a letter to Mr. Boach Smith, " was found 
immediately opposite the Hospital on the other side of the 
road. I have heard old people say that some years ago a 
scallop-shell lead coffin was found in the field where the 
Union-house now stands." Two other discoveries of the 
same kind, made at Colchester, were communicated to Mr. 
Boach Smith by Mr. Wire. Both coffins were dug up on 
the site of the Boman burial place to the west of Butt 
Lane, at the depth of about six feet. One was about half 
full of lime upon which lay the remains of a skeleton much 
decomposed. The contents of the other were similar, but 
the skeleton which appeared to be that of a young person 
was better preserved and the teeth were quite perfect. 
Mr. Wire states that two oblong medallions in the central 
compartment of the lid which were repeated on the side, 
contained what appeared to him to be the representation of 
persons sacrificing. The first of these coffins is fortunately 
preserved, and was in the Museum of Mr. Bateman of 
Youlgrave, Derbyshire. The other, soon after its discovery, 
was sold for its value as old lead and melted down I I 
Both specimens are engraved in the " Collectanea Antiqua," 
pi. xiv., fig. 3 and 4. These appear to comprise the whole 
of the known discoveries of Boman leaden coffins in Essex^ 
but out of the four found at Colchester only one has been 
preserved, and that in a remote county. It is to be hoped, 
now that a Museum exists, that no more antiquities will 
be destroyed or conveyed from the town. 

• Morant's ** Hist. Colchester," p. 183. « Collectanea Antiqua/' toI. iii., p. 52. 




A letter from the late Mr. J. A. Bepton, dated Spring' 
field, Aug. 18th, 1838, addressed to the Editor of the 
^^ Gentleman's Magazine," gives a description of a Bomaii 
sarcophagus discovered on Jenkin's Farm in the parish of 
Hazeleigh, which contained the skeleton of a female. It 
was about 6ft. 9in. long, and the stone four inches thick. 
The description is illustrated by an engraving of a section 
of the coffin. It was about four feet from the surface. In 
the same communication Mr. Hepton also relates that 
another was found a short time previously in Stoney Hills 
Field, upon Woolshot's Farm, in the parish of Bamsden 
Belhouse, about two feet from the surface, resembling the 
former, excepting that in the absence of a lid tins appeared 
to have been arched over with flints. A piece of lead was 
torn up by the plough near the spot. 

Those who would desire a perfect and more systematic 
description of this class of Boman interments will consult 
the memoir in Mr. Boach Smith's ^^ Collectanea Antiqua"* 
to which I have referred, and which appears to have 
exhausted the subject, the numerous examples cited by 
Mr. Smith comprising most of the known discoveries of 
Boman Coffins in lead in England and France. 

* '<Coll. Anti(|.," Yol. iii., p. 45 et seq., with an additional notice of Boman 
Sepulchral Bemains found at Petham, Kent, vol. It., p. 173. See also Weever's 
« Funeral Monuments/' p. 30, edit. 1631, for an early and interesting notice of a 
leaden coffin with its contents found in Batdiffe Fields, Stepney. 


Ma^y Babnabdiston, the first wife of William Strangman, and mother of ih9 
Antiquary, was the daughter of Sir Thomas Bamaraiston, of Kedyngtotn in 
Suffolk, and Gbreat Oot^ in the County of Lincoln. Hls will was proved 
8th November, 1542, in which he mentions his son Strangman. The 
mother of Mary Baxnardiston was Anne, daughter of Thomas Lucas, of 
Little Sexham, Solicitor-General to King Henry YII. Her will, dated 
26th December, 1559, was proved May 3ra, 1560. (See Pedigree in Gage's 
" Hundred of Thingoe, Suffolk.")—^ inform. Bd. Almack, Em., F.8.A., 
H. W.K. 

d^Sc vt i^Ht • iAM foHe t«^ £om^ «Kc 




(\% c€<*n^tyK4 -eft / ^vnb/n^^ft ♦fti ^«e^ %2^ffvSt 
/^:2^t iVH*c\yo3 f^ Cettfi* 'wt'Vynee fen? 

JUWiB « /-Ht^^ffe^ ot V^tttft/' 4^9^ ^Oivre >e 



By Bauton Lodge, A.M. 

Thb following is carefully copied from an unpublished 
Manuscript in Colchester Castle Library. The volume 
from which it has been transcribed bears the autograph of 
the late Charles Gray, Esq., and appears to have been 
presented, together with many other valuable books, by 
that distinguished benefactor of the Institution. By a 
strange mistake of the binder, it is lettered ^^ Tusser's 
Calendar," whereas it is a Translation of Palladius " de 
rebus rusticis." That Author wrote in Latin some time 
after the middle of the 4th century, in the reign of 
Yalentinian or Theodosius. His work consists of 14 books, 
one for each month in the year, describing the agricultural 
proceedings then in season, with an introductory book of 
general directions, and there is appended a treatise on 
Grafting. This last only is in verse ; the other books 
are in plain, matter-of-fact prose in the original, though 
the Translator has arrayed them in a poetical dress* The 
first, or introductory, Book of the Translation is here given 
entire. As a specimen of the language of the period it 
will be interesting, and not without value. 

It is vain, at this time of day, to inquire after the name 
and history of the Translator : scarcely a clue remains to 
lead to their discovery. The title-page, if there ever were 
any, has perished, together with the first leaves of a carefully 
executed index prefixed to the Translation ; the concluding 
book also, and part of that preceding it, appear to have 
been ruthlessly destroyed before the volume was submitted 
to the conservative ofiices of the binder. 

An idea of the penmanship may be best gained from the 
accompanying faC'Simile^ produced by lithography. The 
date of the M.S. the Editor is disposed to assign to the 
early part of the 15th century. 


Among the points especially to be observed are the 
following : — I., there are none of the distinctive Anglo- 
Saxon letters. 11., the nouns have frequently n for the 
plnral termination ; not only homen^ and oxen or ezon^ but 
foon for foes, fleen for fleas, been for bees, treen for trees, 
cleen for claws, &o., &c. III., double letters are of com- 
paratively rare occurrence, but we have in many places ike 
for thee, to for too, of for off, ihre for three, &c. ; and yet 
eree is used frequently for ear or plough, and is pronounced 
as a monosyllable. lY. The pronouns have regularly a 
dative case, by which only we can account for such strange 
expressions as " Us is to write," in s. 2, and " Us to wear 
honest is," in s. 166. Y. Hem is the accusative plural 
for Thetn^ and Her is the form constantly used for their ; 
Bit or Hyt is the neuter pronoun for it ; whom occurs in 
the neuter gender, and this is plural as well as singular ; 
Self and Selve are used indifferently in the singular and 
plural. YL In verbs the termination — th occurs in all 
persons in the plural number, but most frequently in the 
2nd person plural imperative ; the infinitive in n, as to 
doon, to seen, is very common, and sometimes occurs joined 
by a conjunction to the more modem form, which rejects 
the n, as in s. 3, ^^ to rere and doon." The custom had 
commenced of discarding the n not only from the infinitive, 
but also from the passive participle ; thus we have not 
only to do instead of to doon^ but also it is take^ it is know^ 
instead of it is iaken^ it is known^ &c., &o. It is needless to 
say that the latter form has been discarded, the former 
adopted, by modern usage, quem penes arbitrium est et jus et 
norma hquendi. Not only to but as also is used redundantly 
before the imperative: vide ss. 11, 22, 33. VII. In the 
glossary will be found many adverbs which have gone 
completely out of use, e.g.^ astite, bydeen, yome, &o., &c. 
YIII. The conjunction But^ and But if^ in the sense of 
except^ is remarkable. An instance occurs in s. 14. For 
is repeatedly used in the sense of for the prevention ofy or 
as we should say now, for fear of e.g. in s. 74. We find 
this usage in later writers, as for example, in Fairfax's 
dedication of his Tasso to Queen Elizabeth — 

" Her hand, her lap, her vesture's hem. 
Muse, touch not for polluting them.'' 


In fact, it is oontinued to the present day, in suoh phrases 
as '^ good for a cold/' &c.y &o. The metre is one which 
was a favourite with Chaucer, and which he doubtless 
made popular in his time : it is the stanza of 7 lines, each 
line consisting of 6 feet, or 10 syllables ; the final e in 
such words as wyse, in 1 s. 5 L, as in Chaucer's time, is 
often to be read as a distinct syllabla This is the metre 
uniformly employed throughout the Translation ; but pre- 
fixed to several of the Books is a Preface by the Translator 
in a stanza of eight lines, the first and third rhyming to- 
gether, and the sixth and eighth ; the second, fourth, fifth 
and seventh all ending in the same sound. 

It has been the Editor's endeavour to present the text as 
nearly as possible as it stands in the M.S. ; even palpable 
errors have been preserved ; as the omission of the s from 
myschief in s. 140 ; and hnge and strange for longe and 
stronge in s. 13. A word, probably East^ has been omitted 
from s. 44, 1. 5, and in s. 85 there is an omission of a whole 
line, and space left for it. The departure from this rule of 
forbearance to add or alter in s. 139, where i^ is inserted 
in brackets, is a single exception. 

In ss. 33 and 40 occurs the word p^mynent^ which most 
likely is an abbreviation of promynent. The reader can 
determine for himself by referring to the fae simile page. 
The Editor has not met with any other instance of pro^ 
minent used substantively and applied to persons ; he 
thought at one time the word might be parmynentj from 
the Fr. mener ; but that is equally unsupported by 
authority. There is, however, no difficulty about the 
meaning, which is '^ one who presides over, a foreman, 

The spelling also is presented in the same charming 
variety which prevails in the M.8. : thus we have air spelt 
in four different ways in the space of two pages. Medymng 
for medicine, and Echate for Hecate are, however, more than 
we should expect in a Translation from a Latin Author. 

The rendering of the original may be considered, upon 
the whole, intelligent and faithful : but there are signs of 
its having been made from a corrupt text ; e.g.^ in s. 24 
the corresponding Latin is ^^ tria mala asque nocent, steril- 
itas, morbus, vicinus," but the Translation is made from a 


&lse reading of vitium instead of vic%nu8j and takes the 
incongruous form : 

** Iliohe fre fro thinges tbre thowe twynnet 
Sterilitee, infirmitee, and sjnne.'' 

Although we read in s. 105, 

** Yit as myn auctor spak, so would I speke, 
8eth I translate, and lothe am fro him broke/' 

yet this can only mean that the assertions of the original 
shall not be suppressed or altered ; for in several passages 
the Translator speaks in his own person, and some of these 
are among the most interesting parts of the publication ; 
thus, after specifying in s. 120 some ridiculous remedies 
against hail, mist, and mildew, he adds praprio motu: 
^^ Whi laugh ye so ? this crafte is not so lite," and again 
in s. 121 in a more serious tone : 

** But as I trust in Crist that shedde his bloode 
For us, whos tristeth this Y holde him wode. 
My no auctor eke (whoo list in him traTaille 1) 
6eith this prophaned thyng may nought availe/' 

In s. 78, having translated from Falladius that to hang in 
the window a piece of rope by which a man has been 
strangled is a charm to keep off weasels, he adds face- 
tiously in a parenthesis — 

" Pray God let it be never the ! " 

In s. G5 the original '^ Bain-water is to be preferred to all 
other for drinking" is amplified with all the enthusiasm of 
a Teetotaller into, 

*' To drynke of this, of waters first and best, 
Licoure of grace above, a thing oelest." 

With respect to the explanatory words between the lines 
in several places, they are apparently in the same hand- 
writing as the text, and sometimes suggest a substitute for 
the expression introduced into the Translation ; but gene- 
rally they are intended to explain the meaning of the 
word employed in the text ; they are by no means always 
the words of the original. 

The Glossary does not pretend to be anything like 
complete, but it is hoped that it will enable the Beader 
even though not much versed in language of this period, 
to arrive at the meaning without much trouble. Where 
the word differs only in tiie spelling from that now in use, 


it has not been thought worth the while to introduce it 
into the Glossary. - 

The Editor, in conclusion, tenders his best thanks to the 
Committee of the Colchester Castle Society for the kind 
permission granted him to retain the M.S. so long in his 

Colchester^ November^ 1864. 


Consideraunce is taken atte prudence 

What mon me moost enforme : and husbondrie 

No rethorick doo teche or eloquence ; 

As Bum have doon hemself to magnifie. 

What com therof ? That wyse men folia 

Her wordes helde. Yit other thus to blame 

We styntte, in cas men doo by us the same. 


Us is to write tillinge of everie londe. 

With Goddes grace, eko pasture and housyng ; 

For husbondry how water shal be fonde ; 


What is to rere or doon in everything, 
Flesaunce and fruyte the tilier to bring 


As season wol ; his appultreen what houre 
Is best to set is part of our laboure. 

In thinges iiii aUe husbondrie mot stande : 
In water, aier, in lande, and gouvernance. 
And III the first, as water, aier, and lande 
Beth natural, the iiiith is of plesaunce 
And crafte of men ; but this consideraunce 
Is first to seen, how thyng is of nature 
In places there thou wilt haye the culture. 


And first beholde aboute and se thin aire, 
Yf it be dere and hole stand out of fere ; 
The Water eke beholde jf it be fuire, 
Hoolsum, and light, and eyther springing there 
Or elles thider brought from elles where. 
Or that it come of rayne ; eke se thi lande 


Be bering, and commodiously stande. 

Good ayer is there as dales deep are noon. 
And mystes derk noo dayes maketh nyght ; 
The contreemen coloured well ichone, 
Thaire wittes clere and unoffended sight, 
Her Toioes faire, her herynge pure and light. 
All this is preef of holsum aire and dene, 
And there as is contraier is aire unolene. 


The water out of gayseyn or of myer 
Be it not brought, nor out of metal synke, 
That it be freshe coloured first desire, 


Not poury, but plesaunt and good to drinke. 
And smell also therto in cas it stynke ; 
If it be coole in heeto and luke in colde. 
The better may thowe with that water holde. 

Tit although thees in water faire appere, 
An hidde defaiote is sumtyme in nature 
Under corert, and therof thus thowe lere : 
Yf contreymen in likyng hele endure. 
Her hedes good, her chekes also pure. 
And lite or no compleynt inwith the brest. 
The longes hole and wynded with the best. 


The longe-woo oometh ofte of yrel eire. 
The stomake eke of eire is orertake^ 
Take heede eke yf the dwellers in that leire 
Her wombesy sydes* reynes swelle or ake, 
Yf langoure in thaire bledders ought awake. 
And if thoue see the people sounde and faire, 
No doabte is in thy water nor their aire. 


Ffecunditee thowe see thus in thi lande : 


8ee not the swerd all naked, white, unclene, 


All chalk or gravel groissyng in thi hande 


Withouten moolde admizt, nor sandy lene, 


Nor hongrie clay, nor stones fill iche rene, 
*To ronke and weete, yolgh, bitter, salt ragstone, 
Valeyes herde and deepe eke be thir noon. 

A rotten swerd and welny blaake, it selve 
Suf^sing wel with gpraas to ooerwrie. 
And tough to glue ayem though thowe it delve, 
The fruit of it not scabby, rosted drie. 
With walwort that goode lande wol signifie. 
With ryshes, reede, graas, trefoil, plummes wilde, 
And briers fatte also goo it with obilde. 


Coloured stonde not on to besily 

To see thi lande ; but rather fatte and swete ; 

To prove it fatte, a clodde avisely 

To take, and with gode water weel it wete, 

And loke if it be glewy, tough to trete ; 

Or nuike a dyohe, and yf the moolde abounde 

And wol not in agayne, it is fecounde. 




Yf it be lene, it goeth all id and more, 


Yf it be meene, it wol be with the brinke ; 

But for to take it swete, ataste alore 

The bitterest erthe and werst that thou eanst thinke ; 

An earthen potte thou take and yeve it drinke 

In water swete, and theruppon thou deme, 


Ffor yynes land to chees eke must thou yeme. 


In odors and in eolaur solute and rare, 


The treen thereon light, fertile, foir, and lange. 

As peres wilde, as plummes boshes are. 

Not croked, lene, or seke, but hole and strange ; 

•taKoet (Tcrbnn at) tlODftt (verbm csl> 

Ne pulle it not, but goodly plaine elonge, 
Ne pitehe it not to sore into the Tale, 
Nor breke it not all doun aboute a dale. 

Tempest, yf it be hilly, must assaille ; 
An eyen feelde thou chese, and in the mene, 
Thater by the cleef awaie travaiUe ; 
Or hille or dale in mesure thou demene, 


But se thin eyre be faire and land unlene. 
An higher hille the wynd that wolde offende 
Must holde of, but yf woddes the defende. 

The landes fatte or lene, or thieke or rare. 
Or drie, or moiste, and not withouten viee, 
Ffor divers seede yit thay right needful are ; 
But chese the £&tte and moyste is myne ayyse. 
Her werk is leest, and fruyt is moost of price. 
And after it the thieke and ronke is best : 
But thieke and drie espy, and grannt it rest 


Ayer, water, lande considered in nature, 
Nowe se the crafte ; — the cnifte is gouvemance ; 
Nowe every worde and sentence hath gpreet cure. 
The lord present hb feelde may best avaonoe. 
The lande is goode, the odour nought perchaunce ; 
Therefore in hewe doo thou noo diligenoe, 
ffor god by his plesaunce alle will dispence. 

The graffe and grayne is goode, but after preef 
Thou sowe or gra£fe, and seedes newe esohewe 
To sowe or sette, and trust in thair bonchief. 
Cute of thaire kynde eke seedes wol renewe 
And change hemself, as vrriteth dercs trewe. 
In places weete all rather then in drie. 
ffor yynes nowe, apointe of husbondrie. 

Northwarde in places hote, in places oolde 
Southward, and temporannt in Est and West ; 
Yet of tylling is dyvers reson holde ; 
But chuse of thi proyinoe I holde it best 
To fructifie also this is honest. 
That yonger men obeye unto thaire eldron 
In gouvernynge, as goode and buxom children. 

To kytte a vyne is thinges iii to attende : 
The vyne, and fruyt, and place in whom thai growe. 
Of erly ky tting braunches feie ascende. 
Of late kyttyng cometh grapes right enowe. 
From feble ladde eke chaunge hem yf thou mowe : 
For man and tree from feble lande to goode 
Who can and wol not chaunge I holde him woode. 



pate viodlafaa 

And kytte hem streyt after thi goode yindage. 
And grapes fewe and badde, thoa kytte hem large. 
Thyn yrons kepe in faarde and sharpe usage 
For graffyng and for kytting I the charge. 
And doo thi dede, or flour or germ enlarge. 
And yf the plough mys doo, the spade amende. 
In landes drie and hoote noo yyne cxtende. 

In places hoote, in places over drie 
It is noo hoote his Tyne a man to sette, 


There as for heete he must hem over wrie ; 
Yit if that he Vultumns oversette 
A yyne in heete or other blastes lette. 
Or brenne a yyne, in stre or other thynge 
To covert here is holsom hnsbondynge. 


The bareyne braunche, if rouke and greene it be. 

Right by lette kytte him of as mortal foo 

Of alle thi tree ; but barenne lande thou flee 

As pestilence ; in douged lande also 

To sowe in yynes younge as do not so ; 

Yit Grekes sayen that after yeres thre 

Save Wortes, sowe in hem what ever it be. 

Iche herbe also thai sayen it is to sowe, 
In landes drie, outtake of hem the bene ; 
The bene in landes weete is best to throwe ; 
And sette not outte thi landes fate or lene 
To him whoos lande adjoyneth on Ha, rene ; 
For harme and stryffe of that upon thi self 
May ryse, ye and perchaimce the OTerwhelre. 


Tylle all thi felde, or all tby felde is lorne ; 
Thi whete, a wonder, chaungiog, thries sowe, 
In lande to fatte, wol toume into other come. 
And rie of whete ysowen wol up growe, 
As thay that are expert in tilling knowe. 
Iliche fre fro thinges thre thowe twynne, 
Sterilitee, infirmitee, and synne. 

In bareine lande to sette or foster vynes 
Dispiseth alle the labour and ezpenoe. 


In feldes more, in hilles nobler, wyne is ; 
Abundaunt wyne the north wynde wol dispence 
To vynes sette agayne his infiuenoe ; 
The sotheren wynde enspireth better wyne. 
Nowe moche or noble chees ; the ohoys is thyne. 

Necessitee nath never haliday : 
Take hede on that, and feldes temporate. 
All though it be goode sowyng, yit alway 
Or long yf it be drie in oon astate. 
Let sowe it forth, and god it fortunate ; 
And yf thi wey be foule, it is dampnable. 
And neither plesaunt, neither profitable. 


To tille a felde man must have diligence, 
And balk it not ; but eree it upbe bydene. 
A litel tilled weel wol quyte expence. 
So take on hande as thou may wele sustene. 
The vynes blake awaie thowe take, eke grene 
And tender vynes kytte are therby shent, 
And stakes long are vynes increment 



Twine every kirf awey warde from the grape ; 
Leat dropping doo it harme, ennointeth eke 
The braunches kitte, and up thay faate escape 
Alle fatte and sadde : deep lande also thai seke, 
Olyves greet cute of that lande wol reke 
With drafty, wattry fruyte and late and lite 
Unsuffieaunt the costea for to quyte. 


Luke ayer and tempre wynde olyves love, 
And vynes, that upon the hilles atande, 
By procesae may be brought to thair above, 
Yit not but fotes iiii in feble land ; 
And seven foote in fatte up may they stande. 
Eke as the grape is grene and wol not shake. 
Up bind it softe and it is undertake. 


Thy vyne in oon stede ever thou ne bynde, 
And delve her oloos for hurtyng thi vindage. 
Eke deep and fertile land it is to fynde, 


And two foote depe is good for oome tillage* 
And double deep for treen in depnesse gage. 
A novel vine up goeth by diligence 
As fast as it goeth down by negligence. 

And take on hande in husbonding thi lande 
As thowe may here in manor and mesure ; 
War arrogaimce in takyng thing in hande ; 
For after pride in scome thou maist assure. 
And elder then oon yere noo grayne in ure 
Thowe putte, in drede it die ; yit hilles yelde is 
Wei gretter grayne and fewer then in feldys. 


In springing of the moone is best to sove 
In daies warm ; and, treen unprofitable 

Yf that thi lande with hem be overgrowe, 

•e tern 

Deyide it thus ; — that fatte and bering able 

K tern 

Let eree it up. and leve the lene unable 
Covert in wode ; yit wol this, with travaille 
And brennjng it, thi fatte lande couotervaille. 

But when it is so brent by yeres fyve, 

dimitip Jacere 

As nygh it not, and after shalt thou se 


That is as fatter lande wol crece and thrive. 
Tholyve, as Grekes sayen, shall planted be 
Of children clennes in virginitee. 
Perchance in remembraunoe that tholyve tree 
Ys p'mynent to virgyne chastitee. 

The greynes names is noo nede to telle. 
Nor after tyme and places how thai chaunge ; 
Suffice it the there as thowe casteth dwelle, 
To see the countrey seed, and seed estraunge, 
Preve eke the unproved grene afore eschaunge ; 
Lupyne and fetches sleyn, and on thaire roote 
Up dried, are as dounging landes boote. 


And lette hem drie unsleyne« and up thai drinke 


The landes juce : in place eke hoote and drie. 
In champeyne eke, and nygh the sees brynke 
Betyme upon thi werk in vynes hie ; 
In places colde and moist, or shade and hie 
Have thou noo haste, and this to kepe in houres 
Aswell as moneth or dayes, thyne honoure is. 


And tilling, when the tyme is it to doo, 
Is not to rathe yf daies thries fyre 
It do prevent, and not to late also 

xf diet 

As for as long ; eke comes best wol thry ve 

In open lande solute acclyned blyve 

Uppon the sonne, and lande is best for whete 


If it be marly, thicke, and sumdele wete. 

And barly lande is goode solute and drie. 
That manner molde hath barly in delite. 
In cley lande yf men sowe it, it wol die, 
Trymenstre sedneas eke is to respite 
To places colde of winter snowes white, 
There as the lande is weete in somer season ; — 
And other wey to wirohe is counter reason. 

Trymestre seede in henrest for to sowe 
In landes colde is best, and yf the need. 
In landes salt that treen or greynes growe. 
Thou must anoon on herrest plante or sede. 
The malice of that lande and cause of drede 
That wynter with his shoures may of dry ve, 
Yit must it have an other thing to thryve. 

Sum gravel or sum water lande caste under 
If thou it plannte, and yf thou wolt it sede 
A comune molde among it part asonder. 
And alle the better wol ihi werkes spede. 
The stones on thi lande is for to drede ; 
For thai be somer hoote and winter colde, 
That vyne, and greyne, and tree distempre wolde. 


The lande aboute a roote is to be moved 


All upsodoune, and flejkes shal we take 

Of dounge and moolde, and first be moolde admoved 

And after dounge. A pmynent to make 


Upon tbi felde, bym nil I undertake 

That is tbi dere entere : and wbi ? For, be 

Wol wene bis werke be wele, bou soever it be. 


To obese or bey a felde consider tbis, — 

Tbat bis nature and bis fecunditie 

Be not fordoon. In bousbonding is mysse, 

XJnbusbondyng undootb fertilitee. 

Yet posi I tbat it mygbt amended be. 

The surer is to trust in tbinges sure ; 

The hoole is save, the hurt is for to cure. 

Yit as for seede, it may wel been amended ; 
But vynes may have vices worthy blame, 
To longe, or broode, uptrailed, or extended, 
As dyvers men have doone to fresh her fame. 
And fewe or feble grapes in the same 
Have growe. A grete laboure is to coiTecte 
A molde in this manor that is enfecte. 


Thy landes is thus to cheese in costes colde ; 

On south and este se that it faire enclyne, 

And that noone hille the sonne out from it holde. 

But from the colde Septemptrion declyne. 

And from northwest there chylling sonnes shyne. 

In coostes hoote Septemtrion thou take, 

Ther fruyte and high plesaunce and helthes wake. 



And 86 the floode be goode ther thou will daelle ; 
For ofte of it exaleih myst impure : 
And fle ther from, in oaas it mjght the quelle. 
By myre also to dwelle it is not sure, 

•rent et ioduranl terbum 

And namely and West that drie and dure 
In season hoote, for causes pestilent 
Engendring there, and wormes violent 


Thyce house as wol thi fortune and thi felde 
Lete make it up in crafte and in mesure, 
II to repaire as may thi lande foryelde, 
Demened so that yf mysseaventure 
Fordo thin house, a year or two recure 
It at the mest, and sette it sumdele hie. 
For gladsum and for sadder ground and drie. 

The fundament enlarge it half a foote 

extrt parleiem 

Outwith the wongh, but first the grounde assay 


If it be ragge or roche ; on it thou foote 
In depth a foote or two ; but uppon clay 
If thou wilt bilde an other is the array ; — 
Let delve and cast it up until thou fynde 
It herde and hoole, and tough itself to bynde. 

"With orchard, and with gardeyne, or with mede, 
Se that thyne hous with hem be umviroune. 
The side in longe upon the south thou sprede, 
The cornel ryse upon the wynter sonne. 
And gire it from the cold West yf thou conne, 
Thus shall thyne hous be wynter warm and light, 
And somer colde, and lo this crafte is light. 


Eke fourme it so that fiure it stande yfere ; 


The wynter wones on the Bonny side 
There Phebus with his hemes may it chere. 
And tymbre stronge enhioe it for to abyde. 
Eke pave or Boore it wele in somer tyde, 
But tymbre not thyne hons with dy vers kynde 
Of treen, as ashe and birche, and coke, and lynde. 


•eer llraslaw 

The mapul, ooke» and assche endoreth longe 

AJcee tlcrnu paU It sleniM 

In floryng yf thou feme it weel, or cbave, 

M putrelkdeodo 

That in the tree the morter doo noo wronge. 
Oon parte of lyme and tweyne of robell have. 
Sex fyngre thicke a floore therof thou pave 
With lyme and asshes mixt with cole and sande, 
A flake above in thiknesse of thyne hande. 


The flooring wol be blak and wynter warme. 
And lyco oure shedde, anoon it wol up drie. 
But, lest the sonne in somer doo the harme, 


Thy somer hous northest and west thou wrie, 


With marble or with tyle thi flooryng wrie. 
Or thus thou maist thi wynter flooryng take, 
Or lyme or gravel mynge and therof make. 


The bylder eke to knowe is neeessarie 
What gravel and what lyme is profitable. 


Savelles dolve in iii natures varie, 

tbiM U uoUMe 

In reed, and hoore, and blake unvariable. 
Of hem the reed is best, the hoor is able, 
The blake is werst, yit gripe hem in thyne honde 


For grossyng gravel fynest wol be fonde. 


Eke prove it thus, in olothes white it kest 
And shaken onte yf that the clooth be cleue, 
Withouten spotte, that grayel is the best, 
And yf thou may noon delve in flood, or lene 
Clay lande, or nygh the see, gravel thou glene. 
The see gravel is lattest for to drie, 
And lattest may thou therwith edifie. 


The salt in it thi werkes wol resolve 

qvc tomUk tU pone 

And lande gravel anoon set in worohing, 


£r soone or wynde or shoures it dissolve. 
And floode gravel is goode for ooveryng. 
Oute of the see gravel the salt to bringe 
Let drenche it for a tyme in water swete. 
Thy lyme of stones harde is thus to gete — 


Stone tiburtyne, or floody oolumbyne, 

Or spongy rede, lete, brenne, or marble stone, 


For b jlding better is the harder myne, 
The fistulose and softer lete it goone 

partes pftn 

To cover with, and tweyne of lyme in oon 

mlic« Terete 

Of gravel mynye, and marl in floode gravel 
A thriddendele wol sadde it wonder weL 


Thi walles bricke with brik thou must corone 
A foote aboute, and sumdel promynent, 
That thay by storme or rayne be not fordone. 
And lete hem drie er thou thi hemes bent, 
Or rovyng sette uppon, lest all be shent 
For lacke of crafte, eke this is husbondrie' 
To covert hem with sumwhat whille thay drie. 


Make light ynough aboute on eyerie syde, 
And loke, as the is taught, that este and west 
And north and southe thyne houses thou devyde^ 
In wynter south, in veer and heryest est ; 
Septemtrion in summer houseth best ; 
And half as high thy chambre and triclyne 
Thou make as it is mesure long in lyne. 


Of suche a stufiEb as easy is to fynde 

Is best to bilde, and hordes of cipresse 

Plaine and direote upsette hem in thaire kynde 

A foot atwynne, and hem togedre dresse 

With jenyper, boxe, olyye, or cupresse, 

So worohing up thi wowes by and by, 

But se that it hp tymbred myghtely. 


craan cavna palude oontma 

Fatte reed of myre yground and tempered tough. 

Let daube it on the wough on iche asyde. 

And with a trowel make it plaine yo, 

That it upon the tymbre fast abyde, 

Lyme and grayel oomyxt thereon thou glide. 

With marble greet ygrounde and myxt with lyme 

Polisshe alle uppe thy werke in goodly tyme. 


Eke whityng werk is thyng of grete delite. 
Lime is for that in tymes long made lene ; 


That it be profitable preye astite ; 


As tymber hewe it with an axe and sene 


Yf it be not in the egge, and sum sustene 

ailra flutteotia 

In the axe all gliry tough and softe relente ; 
For whytyng that lyme is conyenient 


The parget of thi wough be stronge and bright. 
The tmel first ful oflte it mast distreyne. 
And as it drieth efte and efte it dight ; 
The kirtils doo theron of marble greyne. 
But first lete oon be drie, and thenne engreyne 
A smaller eoote above on that, and thenne 
A thridde on alle as small as it may renne. 

And ware a thyng that many men have used. 
To drenehe her dwellyngplaoe in dales deep. 
Lest water sholde hem laeke, and foule excused. 
For helth is rather thenne thi lust to kepe ; 
The languor of thi lande is to by wepe. 
In stede of Welle or wynche haye a cisterne 
And rayne of every hous in it gouveme. 

Let craile it up plesaunt as it may suffice 
Unto thi self, as best is broode and lomre. 
The guttures left in sadde ground assise« 

fttndo Inlaeeaai psTteciitain 

And yole on it tilpanyng playne and stronge. 
This pavyng must thou cure and labour longe 
And olere it up, but frote it wol with larde 
Fatte and decocte ; thi werk wol the rewarde. 

Whenne that is drie, upwalle it every side 
In like maner, eke larde it, herdde it weel. 
Tyl water wol endwelle it and abyde. 
And fede in it thi waterfish and eel. 
To move and make it faire and fresh as well, 
As though it were a ryver or a welle. 
Now ohenes to lepaire I am to telle. 



The ohenes, holes, pottes, poles mende. 

And thorough the stoone yt that the water synke, 


Take pitche and talgh, as nede is the to spende. 
And seeth hem tyl thai boile up to the brynke. 
And let it ooole ; eke give it lyme to drynke 


A lite and lite and smal, but mynge it yorne, 
Tyl every parte until oon body toume. 


Whenne this cyment is made, it must in synke 
Uche hole, and chene, and every lekyng stoone. 
And presse it thioke aboute on every brynke ; 
And holsum is that pipes from it goone, 
To bringe aboute in water oon by oon, 
To drynke of this of waters first and best, 
Licoure of grace above, a thyng celest. 

Thi wyne celar in oolde Septemtrion 
Wei derk and ferre from bathes, oste, and stable, 
Myddyng, eisterne, and thynges everichoon 
That evel smelle ; eke se that it be able 
As for thi fruyt, an other thyng notable. 
Above it well the caleatory make, 
A wyne pitte the oon half either to take. 

Thre grece or iiii is up therto to goo ; 
Canels or pipes wynes forth to lede 
Into the vat» and tonnes make also. 
And pave it yf the lyst in length and brede. 
A pitte in it^ for wynes white and rede 
That over renne of ignoraunt kepynge. 
To make is oon goode poynte of husbondyng. 


Thi barnes fer fro stynk and sumdele hie, 
Thi stable ferre away therfro thou sette. 
Eke se that thay be wyndy, colde, and drie, 
Thi heme also be playne, and harde the flette. 
And footes two to thicke it thou ne lette. 
For every oome a place is to devyse. 
As large as for thi tylljng wol suffice. 


Thi gamer and thi vessel for thi grayne 

Make sumdele high, ajid walle it thus to thryve : 

Oyldregges mixt with clay thou must implayne 

Thi wowes with, and leves of olyve. 

In stede of ohaf upon thi wowes dryve, 

And drie it wel, and then oyldregge it efte. 

And saufly may thi whete in it be lefte. 

This manor orafte wol holde oute of thi whete 

Gurgolions and other noyus bestes. 

The coriander leves, lest it swete. 

Is putte therin, an other crafte unleest is ; 

From floor to floor to chaunge it ofte his feest is. 

Conusa is an herbe, as Ghreekes sayne. 

That drie is goode to kest under thi grayne. 



Thyne oilcellar sette on the somer syde, 
Holde out the cold and lette come in the sonne 
At hooles, so that in the wynter tyde 
Thyne oil with esy pressure out be wonne. 
Oilmylles, wheeles, wrynges, not begonne 
Of ncwe I nyl not speke of nowe, but dene 
Thyne oyle*s receptacles thou demene* 



If en may also doon other diligence 
Aboute an oylcellar. it for to warme. 
The pament under thorled and suspense 
Bete under iyre, so smoke it may not harme, 
A dell and hete eke wol thi hons enarme. 
As from the swerde of wynter kene and oolde. 
Now husbondrie for stables write I wolde. 


Towards the southe thi stable and thi stall 
For hors and neet thou sette, and gette in light 
Oute of the north, and wynterolose it all 
To holde outte oolde. In summer yeve it sight 
Thi hous to oole, and nygh thi bestes dight 
A fire in oolde ; it wol thyne oxen mende, 
And make hem faire, yf thai the fyre attende. 


For harming of thaire hoof eke sette hem drie. 
And for iche yoke of exon in thi plough 
VIII foote in brede, and goodly length outtrie. 
The length as from the home unto the sough. 
The brede is crosse, and plank it stronge ynough 
Under thyne hors, that it be lygging softe 
Ynough, and harde enough to stande alofte. 


Eke on the south thou make an hous for bestes. 

But over hoote attemporate to holde, 

A pointe of husbondrie not this the leest is, 

Of forkes, and of horde, and bowes oolde 

A standyng must be made, and overfolde 

And heled weel with shyngul, tile, or broom, 

Or segges are as good as to my doom. 




This hou8 aboute also make up thi mewes, 

For donnge of foules is ful neoessarie 

To londtillynge ; yit gooses donnge eschew is, 

It is right nought, it is an adversarie 

T6 erery seed, now eyerie birdde hem warie 1 

Fy on yon, gees ; fy on yonr taQ for shame ! 

Your donnge is nonghty turn out youi^ taille of game 


And in a toure with plaine and whited walles 
And fenestelles ziii, a oolumbaire. 
As is the gyse, away from there thyne halle is 
Lete sette, as doves may therto repaire. 
And inwith make hem nestes many a paire. 
Olde spartea, that bestes with both shode. 
To sprynge amonge the doves is ful goode. 

78. . 

The wesel shal for this doon hem noon harme. 

So it be doon secr^ that noo man see« 

Yit for the wesel use another charme. 

Sum of the roope wherwith hath strangled be 

Sum men, pray God lette it be never the. 

Hang part of that in every fenesteU, 

And this wol from the wesel wite hem well. 


Oyf hem eomyne ynough, and barme her pennes, 
And doves moo ynough in wol thay brynge ; 
And yf thou wolt have many briddes thennes. 
Let barly bake, or bene, or fitches flynge 
Afore hem ofte, also for her helping 
Lette honge aboute in dyvers places rewe, 
And bestes adversannt hem wol eschewe. 



Under thi colver hous in alle the brede 
Make mewes tweyne, oon litel and obscure, 
With wbete and mylde in that thi tortours fede. 
In somer fkat ynough with litel cure : 
But boile it in swetness, and oon mesure 
A strike is for vi"* oon dales mete. 
But water ofte refreshhed do hem gete. 


And thrushes fede upon that other syde ; 
To &at hem is avayling and plesaunte ; 
But make this house wherin thay shal abyde 
Light, olene, and playne with perches transyersannte 
To sitte upon, and bowes in to chaunte 
Yohannged ofte ; eke yere hem figges groimde 
Comyxt with flour to make hem &at and rounde. 


The seed of mirt, if that thou maist it gete. 

Of birch, of yyy, orabbe, and wild olyye 

Lete yeve hem nowe and nowe for ohannge of mete ; 

With channged water ofte. Eke fressh as blyye 

As thai be take unhurt, with iiii or y 

Of thrusshes tamed, putte hem in this mewe, 

To doo disport among thees gestes newe. 


What woman cannot sette an hen on broode 
And bryng her briddes forth ? the crafte is lite. 
But ashes smoke and dust is for hem goode. 
Eke best are hennes blake, and werst are white, 
And*good are yolgh : but yf thaire appetite 
With draff of wyne be fedde bareyne 
Thei beth : for thi therfrom thou hem refreyne. 



Wol thou thai often hatche and eyron grete 
Thai lone ? Half boiled barly ihoa hem brisge, 
Twey cnues in oca day oon hennes mete 
That gothe atte large, and odde eyron in springe 


Of eohates under thynne hen aittynge 

To putte, as whenne the moone is daies dene 

Of age is good, and til she be fiftene. 


And other while an hen wol haye the pippe, 
A white pellet that wol the tonge enromide^ 
And softely of wol with thi nailes slippe 
Anoon, and askes after on the wonnde 
Thou kest, and dense it, ley on garlio groonde, 
Ground alom eke with oile put in her mouthes. 


As staphisagre medled in thaire mete 
Wol hele her tonnge, another maladie 
Wol ryse of soure lupyne, if thai it ete. 
As oomes that wol under growe her eye. 
That but thou lete hem oute,the sight wol die. 
All esely thou maist undo the skynne 
With prikyng of a nelde or a pynne. 

Take woman's mylke and juoe of portulake. 
And therwith thou maist hele her eghen sore> 
Or hony, myxt with salt armonyake 
And oomyn evenly, is goode therfore. 
And yf thyne hen be lousy, there is more. 
Eke luys with staphisagre and oomyn 
Igrounde in wyne and juce of soure lupyn. 



The pokok men may rere up esily 

Yf bestes wilde or theves hem ne greve. 

Her briddes wol thai fede up besily 

In feldes forth, and up thai wol atte eve 

Into a tree lest thai by nyght myscheve. 

But warre the fox, as while thai sitte on brode 

To sette in an Bande were ful goode. 


And for a ook beth hennes t jrnowe ; 
The Cok his eyron and his briddes hateth, 
Until the crest upon thaire hedes growe, 
And first in Feverer of love he prateth. 
And benes bake alite his love abateth 
Bight nere adell^yf that he ete hem warme» 
For thei wol rather his courage enarme. 


The cok confesseth emynent cupide 
When he his gemmy toil begynneth splay 
About himself so fisdre on every side, 
That never foul was in so fresh array. 
A shuddering, a flusshing* and affray 
He maketh thenne, and tumeth him abonte 
All golde begoon his tail and wynges stoute. 


The pohen eke excused, yf men sette 
Another henne her eyron forth to brynge, 
Wol le^e in oon yere thries dewe as dette, 
V atte the frist and iiii at efte legginge. 
And after iii or ii ; but for bredynge 
To set an hen on eyron ix is goode, 
lY of her kynde, and v of other bloode. 



The first day of the moone is this to doo 
The x*** day, the iiii away betake. 
And other mi ensoore her place into. 
To toume hem ofte also good hede thoa take 
For she may not the tamyng undertake. 
Yet take for that a stronge hen and a grete : 
A litel hen on fewer must be sette. 



The XXX day gdth al out of the shelle, 

And oon norioe may xxt lede. 

So say not I, but so saith Columelle ; — 

XV I sey suffice oon henne to fede. 

And first for hem spring wynes white or rede. 

On barly Beede, or puis decoct and oolde 

To yeye hem firist is good and holsum holde. 

And after hacked leek or tender cheses 
Lete fede hem with, but whey thou holde hem firo ; 


Ek pluck awey the feet and yere hem breses ; 
And monethes ti it is to fede hem so ; 
And after geye him barly to and to 
Right as the list, but xxx dayes olde 
Thai, with thaire noroe into the felde betolde. 



She nowe behinde, and nowe she goth before, 
And docketh hem, but when she fynt a come. 
She ohioheth hem and loith it hem before. 
Hem ledyng home atte nyght lest thai be lome. 
Eke hele hem of the pippe as is befome 
Of hennes taught ; but when thaire crestles springe 
As seke are thay as children in tothinge. 



Fesanntes up to biinge is thus to doo : 
Take noon but of oon yere ; for, infeounde 
Are olde ; and fHst in marobe uppon thai goo 
Her Tyres ; but the males not abounde 
In coitUy though thai be &at and rounde ; 
A cok for hennes tweyne, and every hen 
Wol ones sitte on eyron twies ten. 


A commune henne may weel uppon xt 

Of hem be sette, and of her owen a fewe. 

And channge hem as before atte daies dene. 

At XXX daies ende oute wol thai shewe. 

Frist fede them daies thriee t arewe 

With barly ooct and colde, and wyne besprong, 

And after breeed whete and breses longe. 


Annt eyron yeye hem eke, and kepe hem fro 
The water for the pippe, and if it have hem, 
With garlic stamped weel and tar therto 
Her bekes froted ofte and sadde wol save hem. 
Her tonnges eke right as an hen to shave hem, 
And right as hennes heel her maladie 
Is gobde ; to fatte hem eke is husbondrie. 

With wheet a strike, or other half a strike 

oleo tpanl to offid«a redactl 

Of barly mele enoyled, offed lite. 

In dayes thries ten thowe make hem slyke 

And fatte ynough, so that her appetite 

Be served weel, and that noon offes white 

EngViyme uppon the rootes of her tonnge ; 

For that and hunger sleth thees briddes young. 


The goo8 with grasse and water up is brought, 


To plant and tree an opon foo is she, 


Her bityng harmeth come, her donnge is nought ; 

Take for oon male of hem females thre, 

And twies a yere deplumed may thai be ; 

In sprynging tyme and harvest tyme ; eke make 

lack Ucanam 

For hem, yf other water wonte, a lake. 


'dcTecta trlfoHom 

For wonte of grasse on trefoil lette hem bite, 

loiabto •freuRMU iMlaca grmco feno 

On gouldes wilde, or letuoe, grekysh hay, 

TarU colori* 

The skewed goos ; the brune goose as the white 
Is not feeounde. And why ? For as thai say 
Oute of the kynde of wilde gees oam thay. 
Fro Marche kalendes gees to sette on broode 
Until the day be longest is ful goode. 


An hen upon thaire eyron maist thou sette 

As of the pocok saide is all before. 

But lest this hennes eyron sholde ought lette. 

Ley netteles under with, and evermore 

The laughter last : unto the modres lore 

Is to be lefte that thai may with her children 

Laugh and be gladde, as with hem were here eldron. 


Ten dales first lete hem be fedde withynne ; 
And thenne, is Wedir faire, doo forth hem lede ; 
But netles war, from hem thi briddes twynne. 
And fatte hem xzx dales olde for nede ; 
Atte moneths foure alle fatte thou maist hem fede. 
Flour thries a day ; and lette hem not goo large ; 
Inwarme and derk to olese hem I the charge. 



Eke mylde is goode also in every mete. 

All manner puis is goode, the fitche outetake. 

Swyne heres brustels kepe hem lest thay ete. 

Two parties branne with flour thees Grekes take 

With water hoote comyxt ; also thai make 

Her water thries freshed every day ; 

And ones in the nyght* This is no nay. 


Yf thou desirest that thi gees be tender ;. 

When thai in age be passed zxz daies» 

Of fi^ea grounde and water tempered slender 

offobi A«tor loqr. 

Gobbettes yeve thi gees. But these arayes 
To speke of here for nought but myrth and play is ; 
Tit as myne auctor spak, so wolde I speke, 
Seth I translate, a^d lothe am fro him broke* 


This doon, is other thinges for to doo : 

Two stewes must thou make in erthe or stoone. 

Not fer from home, and bryng water therto 

avloai aqamticlt 

Of sprynge, or rayne for water foul that oon 
To swymme, also thi bestes to togoon ; 

■adefkclM eoffte 

That other wete in hides, yerdes drie, 
Lupyne and other thing for husbondrie* 

For hay, for ehaf, for tymber, and for redes 

BOD refert 

Make housyng as the list ; it is noo charge ; 
In drie and wyndie places there noo drede is 
Of brennyng hem, and for that alle atte large 
Away from home ordeyn hem I the charge. 
A fjre is foul affray in thinges drie. 
And nowe for dounge an other husbondrie : 



The myddyng, sette it wete as it may rote, 
And Bayer nought, eke sette it oute of sight ; 
The seed of thorn in it wol dede and dote. 
Thyne asses donnge is rathest for to dight 
A garden with ; sheep dounge is next of myght ; 
And after goot and neet ; eke hors and mares ; 
But dounge of swyne the worst of all thees ware is» 


Askes beth goode, and so hoot is noo doimge 
Of foule as of the doure, a quysht outake. 
And oon yere old is nought for herbes yonge 
And goode for eorne ; but elder thou forsake. 
Fresh dounge is best thi modes with to make ; 
Seeslyme al fresshe ywesh, and slyme of floode 
With other dounge ymedled is right goode. 


Thi garden and thyne orchard, sette hem nygh. 
The garden from thi mydding softe enclyne. 
That juce of that amonge thyne herbes sigh ; 
And water in sum stede away declyne. 
Eke yf the lacke a welle, a winche enmyne ; 
And if thou may not soo, lette make a stewe 
With rayne water thyne herbes to renewe. 


And yf that help it not, lete delre it depe 
Three foote or foure, in wyse of pastynynge, 
That it may in itself his moister kepe. 
And every lande, although a man may brynge 
With help of dongyng hit into tylling, 
Yit is the chalk or olaylonde for to eschew, 
And from the rede also thi garth remewe. 



Eke yf thi garth be drie in his nature. 
Depart it, and in wynter southward delve 
Hit uppe, and in the somer doo this cure. 
Upon Septemtrion to oyerwhelve 
Hit upsodowne ; thus wol hit save it selve. 
The garth eke closed is in dyrers wyse ; 
Dy versed wittes dyversly devyse. 


Hym liketh best a daubed wough, and he 
Wol have a wall of day and stoon, and stones 
Withouten clay an other wol it be ; 
A nother with a diche aboute ygone is ; 
War that, for that the werst of everichon is. 
That diche wol drie up thi humours of thi londe, 
Yit yf thi garth be myree, a diche may stonde. 

Oon planteth thorns, an other soueth seedes ; 

rubi, r morl, t bfttt inbam cmnlnam 

But bremble seede and seed of houndes thorn 
Doo weel, and geder that as ripe as nede is ; 
With fitches flour, y watered well befom, 
Lete medled all this seede, lest it be lorn. 
In ropes kepe this confect meddissyng 
Until the time of veer or of spryngyng. 


Thenne eree a double forowe zii foote a sonder. 
As ferre as thou wolt close, and deep a foote ; 
This ropes with thi seedes cloos hem under 
Light moolde aboute, and on anoon lete wrote« 


This doon, at twenty daies end a roote 

In erthe, a branch in aier wol reche aboute. 

Now rayle hem, and of closure is noo doute. 



Lete Toer go delve, yf herreet shall go sowe ; 
If yeer shall sowe it, hervest must go delve ; 
So shall her eitheres werke been OTerblowe 
With «olde or hoote under the signes twelve. 
Mark onto thi tables, iehon by hem solve, 
Sixe foote in brede and xti in length is best 
To dense and make on eidy side honest 


In plaees wete or moist make eidy brynke 
Two ibote in heght, a foote in plaees drie, 
And yf thyne humonr from thyne herbes synke. 
Dispose it soo that it from plaoes hie 


Desoende, and doo thi lande to fructifie ; 
And thens to an other part prooede, 
And so to every part» as it is nede. 

To sowe and graffi) although I sette a tyme. 
Tit gralfe and sowe as men doo the beside ; 


In plaoes oold thyne hervest sede betyme 
Is best to haast ; in springyng seed to abyde. 
In plaoes hoote eke ehaunge her either tyde. 
To graffe and sowe in growing of the moone. 
And kytte and mowe in wanyng is to doon* 


For bliohenyng and myst take ohaf and raf , 

And ley it on thi lande in dyverse stedes. 

And when thou seest the myst, lete brenne up chaf 


And raf, eke as for hail a russet wede is 


To kest upon the querne, also it nede is 

crncDlat aecam c«riaM 

All bloody axes here and heven threte 
In hardy wyse as hym to slayne or bete. 


Girde eke thi garth aboute in Tynes white ; 
Or, sprad the wynges oute, sette up an oule. 
Whi laugh ye so ? this erafte is not so lite. 
Or take thi spades, rake, knyf, and shoTelle 
And eidy tole in beres grees defonle. 
Eke sum haye stamped oile with grees of beres 
To greeee her yyne-knyf for dyreres deres. 


But that a man must doo full priyely. 
That noTor a warkman wite, and this is goode 
For frost, and myst, and wormes sekirly. 
But as I trust in Grist that shedde his bloode 
For us, whos tristeth this Y holde him wode* 
Myne auotor eke (whoo list in him trayaille !) 
Seith this prophaned thyng may nought ayaile. 


Oil dregges fresshe for gnattes and for snayles 
Or ohambre soote is goode to kest aboute ; 
For anntes eke an oules herte availe is 
To putte upon her bedde, and alle the route 
A trayne of ohalk or askes holdeth oute, 

erucs MinperYlva 

Thi seed ¥dth juce of rucul or syngrene 


To wete up sleth the rucul, as men wene. 

Eke figtree askes oon on rucul throweth, 


An other hangeth uppe or soweth squylle. 
The thridde among his wortes chitches soweth. 
For wondres fele and, he saith, as to kille 
The rucul and fele other thinges ille, 
A menstruous ungerd wommon, unshod 
XTntressed eke, about to goone is goode. 



Floode orabbes here and ther to cruoifie. 
He teth, is goode ; but bestes forto sle 
That dooth thi vynes harm let sle the flle» 
The oantharide in roses that we se ; 
Pat hem in oile, and roton when thai be. 
The yyne if thou shalt kytte enointe afom 
The knyf with this ; for this craft is noo soom. 


Oile diegges and oze galle is goode for gnattee. 
So that the beddes therwith thou enoynte. 
Eke oile and yry grounde is goode as that is» 
Or waterleohes brende an other point is. 
Ihi wortes, that the wermes not disjoint, 

tcfltadlah corio 

The seedes in a tortous skynne thou drie. 
Or mynte among thi cool thou multiplie. 



Eke fitches brese, of hem thair radissh springeth. 
Or rape, or thus take juoe of henbane 
With soure aysell, and hem togeder mengeth. 
And kest hem on your cool in every pane ; 

publicft oleraa (tic: but qoBre <* pallMi.'') 

Ereither wol be worterwormes bane. 
Brenne her and ther the heedles garlic seeles, 

conirm campM 

The stynke of it for hockes help and hele is. 

Hi! yyne knyf with garlic forto frote 

bitumen tulphur 

Is goode, eke cley and brymstone yf me brenne 

About a yyne, anoon this hockes rote. 

Or hocke in water yf men seethe, and thenne 

About in all thi garden do it renne. 

It sleth the hocke, but bring it from withoute 

Myne auctor saith, fro sum garth nygh aboute. 


Upon the wbetstoon sle the cantaride, 


The cantaride a yyne yf she enfeste ; 

llle auctor 

And Democrite he saith that mys betyde 

Shal neither seede nor tree by worme, or beest, 


Of flood, or see, x crabbes yf thou kest 

^^ oooperta 

With water in an erthen potte y wrie 


Ten daies throut until the yapur die. 


And herbe or tree to moiste in the lioour 
Iche Yiiith day is suffisaunt, saith he, 
To heel and helpe hem forth in fruite and flour. 
But holde aye on it holpon til thou see. 
Pysmires yit yf thou wol make hem flee 
Kest origane ystamped with brymstoone 
Uppon thaire hoole, and oute thay flee anoone. 

The same is doon with cokille shelles brente ; 


Eke brymstoon and galbane oute chaseth gnattes, 


Also the fleen wol sleyn on thi payyment, 
Oildregges ofte yspronge eke myse and rattes 
This dregges mo may sle than dooth thi cattes, 


8o it be thicke and poured in a ponne 
The mous by nyghtertale on it wol fonne« 


Elebur blak with fatte, or brede, or obese, 
Or floure comyst and oflred hem wol slen ; 

cocumer ^ coloqaantida 

Coeumber wilde and coloquynt doo brese ; 
The juce will sle the myse as dy yers men 
Haye saide ; A yit an other crafte sleth fleen : 


Watered cueumber seede, or eomyn grounde, 

pailotram terram 

Lupyne, or psilotre kest on the grounde. 




And for the feld mous, Apuleius 

Saith goode is alle his greyne in ozes galle 

A man to stepe, and sowe hem thenne : eke thus 

With a£Bsidille upolose her hooles alle ; 

Thai gnawe it onto, bat dede downe shal thai fiiUe, 

Right forth withall thai shall it not eschewe. 

The moldewarp the Grekes thus pursae : 


Thai thorle a nutte, and stnffe it so withinne 
With brymstoon, ohaf, and cedria, thees three* 
Then alle her hooles ther the molde is ynne 
Saye oon, the moste, uppe stopped must thai be. 
The fyred nnttes smolder shall thorowe fle 
This grettest hoole, as wol the wynde him serve 
And either shall thees talpes voide or sterre. 


Yit for the mous, kest oken askes soo 
Aboute her hooles in it that thai may trede ; 
The scabbe anoon will ryse and hem fordoo. 
For eddres, spirites, monstres, thyng of drede» 
To make a smoke and stynke is goode in dede. 
Brent hertshomey or gootes deen, or rootes 
Of lilie brente, or galbane all this bote is. 

The Greek saith eke that yf a cloude arise 


Of breses smert, men muste in hous hem hide, 
And thai wol voide. A crafte eke thai devyse 
That, breses seyn, men fle to hous and byde 
In houSy and as thai come, awaie thai glide. 
Cocumber wilde, or sour lupyne in drestes 
Of oil comyzt wol dryve away thees beestes. 

-^ t 




And other sayne that scorpions and thees, 
Tf some of hem be brent wol yoide ichone ; 


And other als sejne, hockes for to lese, 
Eest figtree aske on hem, and, but thai goone» 
Oil dregges and oxe uren iliche anoon 
Let mynge and boile, and when it coled is, 
Byrayne aboute uppon thi wortes this. 


The greek saith that a best prasocoride 
llie garth anoieth muche, and remedie 


Is this for that, a rammes panch athide 
AUe lightly soo there as thai multiplie, 

poet dnot (Net 

When Phebus chare hath gooD aboute it twye. 
There shalt thou fynde hem heped, sle hem there 
A twie or thrie, and thai ne shall the dere. 


Yit efte for hail a crocodilles hide, 

A see calf skynne, or of a lyonesse 

Bere uppe aboute thi lande on eidy side, 

And whenne thou dredest hail or hevynesse 

Lete honge it in thi yates or ingress 

Of hous or towne, or thus in thi right hande 

A myres tortous bere aboute thi lande. 

But bere it bolt upright, and toume agayne 
Right as thou went, and ley her downe upright, 


And undersette her crooked bakke that mayne 

Her lacke agayne to tourne herself downeright. 

This a crafle of witte, a thynge of myght, 

Por all the lande that thou haste goon aboute 

For cloudes wick is save, this is noo doute. 




When oUier seen derk cloudes over hove. 
The shappe of it thai take in a myrroure. 
And Ottther thns from hem his harme thai shove, 
Or to snm other doubleth his terroure ; 
For every myohief is a see calf hide 
Amydde a vyne another thyng socoure 
Aboute a quyk calf gridde on eidy side. 


Thi seedes with oocnmber rootes grounde 
Lete stepe, and save of eidy mysse thai are ; 
An other thinge that lightly may be founde, 

BOD vlrflnlc 

The oalvair of an horsed asse or mare, 
Sette that uppe : that wol make all fecundare 
On every side as ferre as it may se. 
Thus saithe the booke, and thus I trowe it be. 


Thi thresshing floor be not ferre of awaie. 
For beryng and for stelinge, as the gise is 
Of servanntes ; of fiynt eke, if thou may, 
This floor thou make, or hewen stoones besides. 
Or water myxt with grounde, the thridde avis is, 
Upshette aboute, and trampled with oatell 
Maade playne and dried after, wol do well. 


And nygh it make a place high, plain, and pure» 
When nede is therto cave upon thi come. 
This wol availle, and make it longe endure. 
Then after to thi heme it may be borne. 
£ke^ lest thi greyne in shoures sholde be lorne. 
Bight hoolsum is to have an hous besyde. 
That for a shoure in that it myght abide. 



But make it high, on eyerie half perflable^ 
Ferre fro thi garth, thyne orchard, and thi vynes ; 
For, right as chaf and dounge is profitable 
On rootes, and upbryngeth brede and wynes ; 
Right 80 the same upon the top a pynne is. 
The floures and the buddes wol thai drie. 
And bore them through, and make hem so to die. 


The Bee-yerd be not ferre, but faire asyde 

Gladsum, secrete, and hoote, alle from the wynde. 

Square, and so bigge into hit that no thef stride. 

Thaire floures in coloures or her kynde 

In busshes, treen, and herbes thai may finde ; 

Herbe origane, and tyme, and violette, 

Eke afladille and sayery therby sette. 


Of tyme is wex and bony maade swetest. 
Of tymbra, peleton ; and origon 
Is next to that ; and after hem is best 
Of rosmary, and savery, thenne is noone 
So goode as thai, but rustik swete echoon. 
Septemtrion sette treen upon his syde 
And bushes aboute y^der the walle devyde. 

And after busshes herbes in the playne, 
A sobrc brook amyde or elles a welle 


With pulles faire, and bowes or it trayne 
So langh and rare on hem that bees may dwelle 
And drynke ynough, but ferre awaie propelle 
Horrend odoure of kychen, bath, gutters ; 
Eddres to sleyn and foules oute to fere is. 



The keper pure and chaste aod with hem ofte, 

His hyyes havying redy forto take 

His swaimes yonge, and sette hem fidre on lofte. 

The smell of dounge and crabbes brende aslake 

Away from hem ; and places that wol make 

A Toice ayein as ofte as men wol calle 

Is nought for hem, eke nought is titonalle. 



This thapsia^ this wermoote, and elebre. 
Cucumber wild, and every bitter kynde 
Of herbe is nought for hem, as hem is lever 
Lete make her hyves all of thynner rynde. 
It IB not angry hoot, nor cold unkynde. 
Take ferules eke, or saly twygges take 
Ye may, but potters hyves thou forsake. 



Or make an hyve of hordes like a stonde. 
For that is goode, or hewe an holowe tree, 
And therof make hem hyves into stonde, 
But III foote high on stulpes must ther be 
A floor for hem, wel whited thou it se, 
8o made that lysardes may not ascende, 
Ne wicked worme this catell forto offende. 


Thyne hyves heer thou sette a lite asonder. 
Her entre toume it faire upon the southe ; 
No larger then a bee may trede in under. 
Wickettes two or three thou make hem couthe. 
That yf a wicked worme oon holes mouthe 
Besiege or stoppe, an other open be. 
And from the wicked worme thus saye thi bee. 



To bey thi been beholde hem riche and fulle, 
Or preye hem by thaire murmnre magnitude. 
Or Be the swarme and oarie hem yf thou woUe 
By myght upon thi bak, hem softe enolude. 
And towarde nyght hir yates thou reclude. 
But bey hem not too ferre oute from thyne eire. 
For ohaunge of ayer may putte hem in dispaire. 


Thre daies thenne it is to taken hede 
Yf alle the swarme oute atte the yates goo. 
And if thai doo, then it is forto'drede 
Lest thai purpoos in haast to ben agoo. 
Yit wene men that thay wol not do soo 

?Uull [Keren 

About her hoole an heifer calves thoste 


So that thou cleme, and this litel coste. 


It is not strange, if water wol suffice. 
An husbonde on his baathe to be bethought ; 
For thcrof may plesaunce and helthe aryse, 
Towarde the sonne on drie it must be wrought, 
Southwest and southe the sonnes ynne be brought, 
That alle the day it may be warme and light ;^ 
The celles suspensures thus thou dight : 


First floore it ii foote thicke, enclyninge softe 
The forneis warde, so that the flamme upbende 
The celles forto chere and ohaufe olofte ; 


And piles maade of tiles must ascende 
Two foote and half, and two foote wide attende 
Hem forto sette, and upon hem thou sprede 
A marble floor, or tyle it yit for nede. 



A myliair of lede, the bottom brasse 
Anende the feetes sette it ao withoute 
The foumeis, and the fire ther undre paaae, 
A conduite cold into it bringe abonte 
Make pipes water warme inwarde to spoute. 
The celles square oblonge as x in brede, 
As for XT in length is oute to sprede. 

For hete in streite is gretter then in large. 
But seetes make yfourmed as the list, 
The somer celles lightes thou enlarge 

qoatis (sic) 

Upon the north, but winter celles wist 

V. mUb (4c. 

From north ; the southern light is best, as wist 
Is well ; and all the wesshe oute of thi bathes 
The garden thorowe to go therto no scathe is, 

The chambres in the bathes may be wrought 
As cisterne is, but wol be well the stronger, 
And other waies fele, yf thai besought. 
As dene as it, but thai be yit unstronger. 
Thi winter hous to sette, eke studie lenger 
XTppon thi bathe ; for lo the groundes made, 
And hete of it thi winter house wol glade. 


Convenient it is to knowe, of bathes 

While speche is made, what malthes hoote and oolde 

Are able, ther as chynyng clifte or scathe is 

To make it hoole, and water well to holde. 

For bathes hoote ammonyake is tolde 


Right goode with brymstone resolute ypitte 
Aboute in eidy chynyng, clifte, or slitte. 


Or thus : hardde pitohe, and wex, take even weight, 

sbippan appoDe 

And herdde with pis liqoide herto eche 
An halvendele, and grounden Bhelles dight 


With flour of lyme : al thees comixt wol deche 
Every deiaute, and all the woundes leohe. 
While wez, harrde, pitch, remysse ammonyake, 
Thees three coniizt therfore is goede to take. 

Or thus : ammonyak remysse, and figges 
With pix liquide and herrde sore ygrounde 
To cleme upon right suffisianntly higg is ; 
Or floure of lyme in oil, yf thou eonfounde 

' fandam 

And helde it in, upheleth it by grounde. 
But kepe it drie awhile, eke boles bloode 
With oil and floure of lyme admyxt is goode. 


Eke oister shelles drie and alle to grounde 
With harde pitche and with fygges doth the same ; 
But malthes oolde in other crafte thou founde, 
Ox bloode with pitche and synder alle to frame. 
And make it like a salve, and overflame 
Iche hoole and ohene, or siften askes dene 
And seyum molten helde in eidy chene. 


And yf thi water come in abundance, 
As moche as may thi bathes overflowe, 
Thi bakhous therwith all thou maist avance, 
A water mylle herwith thou maist avowe 
To make, in sparing beestes that shal plowe, 
As hors and ox, and so with litel care 
Shal water cornes grynde and beestes spare. 



Make redie nowe iche nedeful instrument^ 
Lete se the litel plough, the large also, 
The rigges forto enhance, and uppe to hent 
Ther as the lande is moist, yit toles moo 
The mattok, twyble, picoys, forth to goo, 
The sawes longe and shortte, eke knyres crooked 
For vyne and bough with sithes, sides hocked, 

And croked sithes kene upon the bake 


Showe forth also the cannibe knyres lite 
In planles yonge a branch awaie to take. 
The hokes that the fern awaie shall bite. 
And billes all thees brerers up to smyte. 
Set rakes, crookes, adses, and bycomes, 
And double bited axes for thees themes. 


Here must be markyng yrons for cure beestes, 
And toles forto geldde, and olype, and shore ; 
Eke lether cotes us to were honest is, 

eaolta t at 

So thair ouculle aboute cure broUes were. 
And bootes, cocurs, myttens, mot we were : 
For husbondes and hunters all this goode is ; 
For thai mot walk in breres and in woodes. 

Falladii primus liber explicit : assit ut unus 
Alpha Tocatus et a det mihi Ghristus homo ! 


rt T. n a a a "D-jsl 


ited to make the following dight alterationi 




7 for fhdr read ihin. 


7 „ thir „ ther. 


8 „ ayem „ ayein. 


6 dele oomma at dede. 


1 for roiike read ronke. 


4 „ douged „ donged. 


2 „ upbe t, uppe. 


6 „ pod „ pose. 


8 „ n „ It. 


7 „ Bteidens ,, atridens. 


3 dele oomma at Me. 


6 for gluttenna read glutinosa. 


4 „ tilpanyng „ tUpayyng 


3 „ toU „ taa. 


6 dele oomma at end. 


6 for thl read the. 


1 „ neblua „ nebula. 


6 „ eeelee „ aoeles. 


8 dele comma at end. 


4 insert comma at '* ysprong." 


3 for havying read havyng. 


6 „ soercoB „ stercns. 


6 .. bTecen n bteree. 

ridge's "Glossary." 
Bbsily := busily, aimouflly. 
Betb s= beat. 
Bbthovoht ^ thoughtful. 
Bet = buy. 

Bico&NES, Lat. s= pitchforks. 
Blichentko = mildew. 
Bltvb = quickly. 
BOLB ssbull. 

BoxcHisF K= opposite to mischief. 
Btbayki «b shower. 

Clesb = close. 
Clock =« to duck as a hen. 
CocuBs s= leggings. 
CoLTTMBiNB s^ doTo-coloured. 
GoLTBB H0T7S = dovo-house. 
Cool as cole, cabbage. 
CooBS = corse, body. 
CoBMBL =» comer. 
CoTJTHB =» can, s. 151. 
CucuLLE, Lat. Bs hood. 
CuBB ae care. 



CnoDfT MB cement. 

Dbchb, ▼. SB ooTer, Oerm. deoken. 
Dbdb 8B9 die. 
Dbmb bs judge. 
DBXjnnia nuuiage. 
DbxtBss ten. 
Dbbb SB injurj. 
Dbkb, ▼. bb to injure. 
DisTOTNT B destroy. 
Do ^ make, b. 117. 
DoLTB as delved, dug. 
Doth sb decay. 
Doom sb judgment. 
Dbsbtbb, a. S. ^ dregs. 

EcHATB es Hecate, the moon. 
EoHB a add, B. 150. 
Eftb oi again, or after. 
Eooa B edge. 
EoHEN sae eyes. 
EmT ea every. 
EiTHBBBS ^ either. 
Ekb B=r also. 
Ekb <bs destroy, s. 87. 
Elbb&b ss Helebore. 
Enabmb ss embrace, protect 
Enolathb ^ to stick. 
Enmtnb, v. s sink or dig. 
EiTTBBB as intimate, fitvourite. In s. 40, 

dere entere ^ dear favourite. 
Erbb, v. s=b to plough, to ear. 
ExoN as oxen.. 
Etron SB eggs. 

Fblb, a. B. SB many. 
Fbnbstbll, Lat. s window. 
Fbb or Fbbbb =s &r. 
Fbbb, v. bs to remove, s. 147. 
Fbbnb s to cover with fern. 
Fbvbbbb =b February. 
Flbttb =s floor, flat, s. 68. 
FoNNB s= catch. 
FooTB Bs to found, to establish. 
Fob, in many places as against, as s. 74. 
FoBDoo » destroy. 

FoBTHi a therefore, for this. 

FOTTLB SB fowl. 

Fbotb ss rub. 


Gabth = garden. 

Gasbtn, s. 6 «s puddle. This, if not the 
same word with " Gteason" used by 
Spencer (vi., 4,) and our Author in 
subsequent books, seems closely allied 
to it. After falling into long disuse, 
it revived under the form gM in the 
days of Van Helmont. The root is 
A. S. gffissen ^ rare. 

GcRB a= gird, protect. 

Gladb=i gladden. 

Gbbob bb steps, s. 167. 

Gbotssino SB gritty. 

GouLDBS a endive. 



Halvhndblb SB half-part. 
Hblb ^ healthy. 
Hbmt = to follow. 
Hbbdb, adj. ss hard. 
Hbbdb, sub. as tow. 
Hbrvbst = autumn. 
Hbwb SB hue, colour. 
HocKBS = caterpillars. 
HoLB =s wholesome. 
HoLsux = wholesome. 
HusBONDB ss husbandman. 

Ilichb s= equally. 
Implatkb as playster. 
Inwith as within. 

EiBF = incision, cutting. 
EntTiLS » coats. 
Etttb as cut. 

Lboob b to lay. 
Lbib as lair, place. 
Lbbb bb leam. 
Lbsb s= lose, destroy. 
Lbvbb as rather, more desirable, s. 149. 
LnuKO SB aspect, &vour. 


Lm = little. 

LioiTH ss sifteth. 

LoNOBS ss lungs. 

LoNOB-woo ss lang-woe, consumption. 

Lux.B 3s lukewarm, tepid. 

Ltoob b= to lie. 


Malthbs ^ cements, stuccos, s. 169. 

Matnb =s vigour, main. 

Mb — ^This is not al¥ra7B the personal pro- 
noun, but seems to be an abbreviation 
of Men, and cozresponds to the French 
On. Thus in the first stanza : '< What 
mon me moost enforme," =s what 
man is to be instructed, or one has to 
inform : and so s. 127. 

Mbdbsstno =s medicine. 

Mbdlbd =1 mixed. 

Mbnb = middle, intermediate. 

Mbno SB mix. 

MiRT s= myrtle. 


Mtddtno =b dunghill. 

Mtliaib, Lat. = a vessel with pipes for 
supplying a bath. 

Mtbchbvb SB fiire ill. 


Naxblt 8= especially. 

Nath =a hath not. 

Kbet s= bull. 

Neldb ss needle. 

NoRiCB Bi nurse. 

NoTus, Fr. s noxious. 

Ntohtbbtalb, s. 180, three words joined. 

Ntl =:= ne wiU, will not. 


Oftbd S3S divided into cakes, offius. 

Ob ss ere, before, s. 20. 

Or SB o'er, i.e., over, s. 147. 

Ob long, in s. 26, seems to mean over- 

OsTB ss oven. 

Othbb ^ otherwise, else, s. 99. 

OuTBTAKB ss ^:cept. 

OriwiTH sa without, beyond. 

OvEBFLAicB -s Spread. 

OvBRWRBLVE, s. 112 s ovoTwhelm, as in 



Panb sss pain, malady. 

Pabobt ss plaister of a wall. 

Pasttntno, Lat. as preparing ground for 

PiooTS sa pickaxe. 

Pmynbnt occurs in s. 33 and s. 40. It is 
evidently an abbreviation, intended 
perhaps for prominent, used substan- 
tively for a President or Foreman. In 
each case it is the same word in the 
original, viz., Prsssul. 

PoBTULAKB, Lat. «* puTslain. 

PouBT sss muddy. 

P&ASOCOBiDB, Gk. SB a kind of moth. 

Pbofhanbd es revealed, made public, s. 121. 

PuLLBS BB pools. 

Ptzotb bb pain, ii\|ury, s. 144^ 

Q • 
QuBBNB B9B windmill. 

QvTSHT, 8. 109 n a recd-quest, avis pal- 

Raf 3s> rubbish* 

Rathb SB early. To bathb bbi too soon. 
Rathbst =a soonest 
Rembwb ss remove. 
Rbnb sa reign, jurisdiction. 
BBmrB Es run. 
RiooBS ss ridges. 
Right bt = dose. 
RvcuL, the animal ss cankerworm. 
RvcuL, the plant = rocket. 

Saddb ss firm, steady. 
Sauflt SB safely. 
Savb sss safe. 
Savb of bs safe firom. 
Savellbs, Fr. sable m sands. 
Sbdnbss bb sowing. 
Sboges » sedges. 
Sbxbblt S3 surely. 
Sswif , Lat. SB tallow. 


SsENT IB romed. 

Skewed a= variegated. 

Slb SB slay. 

Smsrt =a Budden. 

SouoH ss hock or pastern. 

Splay = display. 

Staphtsao&b =b wild yine. 

Btedb s=a a place. 

Sterte ss= die, Grer. sterben. 

Stewe be pond. 

Stondb bs a cup, B. 150. 

Stbanob «a strong, b. 16. 

Strb ^ straw. 

Stbstt ^ narrow, little. 

Stulpes bs stumps, b. 150. 

Styntb ss forbear. 

SxTMDBLB SB Bome portiou, somewliat. 

SwBBDB ss award. 

SwBBOB SSI sword. 

SwETE Bs sweat. 

Sykobbnb :b houseleek. 

• T 
Tablbs es garden beds. 
Taloh 8s tallow. 
Tb, s. 134, seems an error for Ihe. 
Thatbr, s. 15 es the water. 
These, Thbbb as = where (e.g., ** there 

as thowe casteth dwelle"ss where you 

resolve to live). 
Tho&lb, or Thttrlb «s bore, perforate, A. 

S. thirlian. 
Thostb, a. S. ^ dung. ' 

Thriddenbelb ^ a third part. 
Throut = thereout, outside, s. 128. 
TiBURTiNB = brought from Tibur, or 

TooooN, V. e= go to, adire. 
ToLB = tool. 

To SORB s= too sore, too decidedly. 
Tricltne, Lat. triclinium es dining room. 
T¥nrBLB = axe. 
Twtnnb = sepaiate, depart. 
Twib = twice. 

U V 
UoH Bs each, s. 65. 
UicyiBONNB ass surrounded. 

IJvlbbst *=s not least. 

UNLByE SB unlean, *.€., fat. 

Upsodownb aa upside down. 

Ure ss use. 

Ybbr =* spring. 

VoiDB «= depart. 

VuLTVRNTs, Lat. = N. E. wind. In s. 21 
the ord0 verborum is ** Yet if he let 
▼ultumus or other blasts to overset 
or bum a viae, &c.*' 

War =3 beware of. 

Wart = to curse, A. S. werigan. 

Wbob =s garment. 

Wesshb s: wash, dirty water. 

WiCTL = evil, wickedness. 

WiKOHB SB tank, s. 110. 

WiRCHB =» to work. 

Wist « direct, bend, s. 157. 

WiTB s» defend. 

WoDB — mad. 

WoMBB » stomach. 

Wonder ss adv., ss. 54, 67. 

WoNEB ss apartments. 

WoHTES = cabbages. 

WouoH or WowB «= wall. 

Wrie = to cover. 

Whie = to twist or bend, the root of awry. 

Wrote ss rot. 

Wrtnobs s= presses. 


Yates = gates. 

Yb = yea, s. 23. 

Yqomb = gone ; ygone aboute = sur- 

Yexb =s to care, to attend, the origin of 
yeman or yeoman. 

Yebdbs — twigs, virgas. 

Ybvb = give. 

Yo, A. S. ss clay, plaister. 

YoLOH ==■ yellow. 

YoRNB = often. 

YoTB = to pour. 

YsFRONOB » sprinkled. 

YwRiB = covered. 

YwBSH ss washed. 




(No 4.) 

By H. W. King. 

Early in the fifteenth century Sir John Montgomery, a 
renowned knight, supposed to have heen a native of Scot- 
land, ohtained the Manor of Faulkborne, but by what means 
is unknowa He was created a £night of the Bath at S. 
George's Feast held at Caen, was famous for many military 
exploits during the wars in France, where he was Privy 
Counsellor to the Eegent, John Duke of Bedford, Captain 
of the strong castle of Arques and other fortresses. Bailiff 
of Caux, and had the honour of being nominated in the 
scrutiny of the Order of the Garter 23rd Hen. VI. He 
is the first in the list of the Gentry of Essex returned by 
the Commissioners in 1433. His death happened in 1448 
or 1449, at which time he was possessed of the Manor of 
Faulkborne and other considerable estates in this county. 
By Elizabeth his wife, sister of Balph Boteler, Baron 
Sudley, first widow of Sir Eoger Norbury and secondly of 
Sir William Heron, he had two sons, John and Thomas, 
and three daughters, Anne, unmarried in 1489, Alice, 
wife of John Fortescue, afterwards of Eobert Langley, 
and lastly of Edmund Wiseman; another Alice wife of 
Clement Spice. Their mother (commonly called Lady 
Elizabeth Say) * died in 1464, possessed of the Manor of 
Faulkborne and the advowson of the Church. Her second 

 "By a &r-fetched couitesy," as Morant remarks, ""being only the relict of 
Sir William Heron, styled Lord Say by reason of his marriage with Elizabeth the 
daughter and heiress of the Lord Say." Sir WilUam Heron was summoned to Par- 
liament, j%ar9 uxotitf from 13 Nov., 1393, to 25 Aug., 1404, when he died s. p., but 
vas never styled Baron Say in the Writs of Summons. 



son, Sir Thomas Montgomery, then aged 30, succeeded 

A brief introductory sketch of the history of the family, 
derived exclusively from Morant, appears necessary to en- 
able the general reader to understand the references in 

The Will op Sir Thomas Montgomery, of Faxtlkbornb 
Hall, Kt., Knight Banneret, and Knight of the 
Garter, who Died in 1494. 

" He was," says Morant, " one of the most eminent men 
of his time ; bred up from his infancy in the Court of King 
Henry VI. ; one of the Mareschalls of his Hall ; Keeper of 
the Exchange and of the Money in the Tower of London ; 
and [held] the Wardenship of the Coinage of Gold and 
Silver within the kingdom." 

^^ Having the art of adapting himself to all changes, he 
became one of the greatest favourites, and of the Cabinet, 
to King Edward IV., who heaped upon him places of trust 
and profit : as Stewardship of Havering-atte-Bower, of the 
Castle of Hadleigh and of the Forest of Essex ; the Con- 
stableship of Bristol, and of the Castle of Caen, and the 
Treasurership of Ireland, all for life. Was created a 
Knight, a Knight Banneret, and at length a Knight of 
the honourable Order of the Garter ; and employed in 
embassies and affairs of the greatest consequence. In 
1477 he was one of the Knights of the Shire for this 
county. He appears to have been as great a favourite 
with King Eichard III. as with his predecessor, for 
Bichard granted him the whole estate of John de Vere, 
Earl of Oxford, in this county. But he was not much 
enriched by this gift; since, upon the Usurper's fall at 
Bosworth, the Earl of Oxford recovered his estates. He 
was likewise in favour under King Henry VII. He died 
11th January, 1494, aged 55 (61 ?),♦ and was buried in the 
Chapel of our Lady which he had made at Tower Hill, in 
the Abbey of S. Mary of Graces. He had two wives, but 
left no issue by either. His first was Philippa, daughter 

• Morant, citing an Inquisition (6 Edw. TV.) taken on the death of Lady Mont- 
gomery, says that hor tton Thomas was 30 years old in 146i, consequently he was 61 
m 1494-6. 


and co-heir of John Helion, of Bumpsted-Helion, by 
Editha, daughter and heir of Thomas Eolf, of Gosfield 
Hall, Esq. The second was Lora, daughter of Sir Edward 
Barkley, of Beverston, and widow of John Blount, Lord 
Mountjoy ; re-married, after Sir Thomas's decease, to 
Thomas, Earl of Ormond. The principal heir of Sir 
Thomas was John Fortescue, Esq., eldest son of his sister 
Alice, who became seated at Faulkborne Hall." * 

So much of the will of Sir Thomas Montgomery as is of 
more especial archseological and historical interest, I give 
in the orthography of the Eegister : — 

In Dei noie, Ahen. I Syr Thomas Mongomery, Knygbt, being at 
ffolkeborne in bcltb of body and reste of sowle, the xxTiij day of July tbe 
yere of oure lord god Mcccclxxxix and tbe iiij^ yere of kyng henry the 
▼ij*^, make my will and testament by good deliberacion and by the advice 
of my goode frendis and trusty in this manu' of forme following, ffurst 
I bequeith my soule to almighty god, to oure lady saint Mary, and to all 
the company of hevyn, and my body or bones, whersowyr I dye, to be 
buried in th*abby at towre hyll of london, in the chappell of our lady 
that 1 have late made 8uere,f and I bequeith to the garnishing of the 
said chapell ther xx li. Also I wyll that my said place called Bowre hall 
in mersy X in the countie of Essex goo to the said new abbey, soo that 
they be bounde to the meire of london and to the aldremen to keepe 
owre lady masse dayly by note in tlie forsaid chappell, to pray for me, 
my wyfes, my modyr, my brothur John, my uncle Thomas and Alyson 
Spice § and all my frendys sowllys ; and whenne masse is done to say 
deprofundis to say /'sicj aboute my tombe, and also to pay to the meyre 
of london that shalbe any yere whenne he comyth to the keping of my 
obite, and offerine for me and my wife x', and to the recorder y% and to 
the swerdberer iij' iiij^ and to ev'y thing that is specyfyde in a note of 
an indenture by my consayle and theirs late made ; and also to fynde 
iiij tapres, yche of them waying x li., to brenne aboute my tombe at owre 
lady masse, and a nother in the worshipp of saint John the Evangeliste, 
the thred in worshipp of saint Thomas of Cant'burey, and the iiij^^ in 
worshipp of saint Qeorge. Item, I bequeith my beste aulter clothe of 
golde with the fronteletts, my white Testament, my candilstyckes of 
silver, and my best chalice that s'veth for my chappell : my best masse 
booke to remayne in the forsaid chappell in the abbey of the towre hill. 
Item, I bequeith to iiij prestes of the same abbey x' so that they say xxx 
dayes aftjr that I am buried ther iiij dayes a masse and a dirige by note» 
and to pray specyally for the sowle of King Edward the iiij% my sowle, 

• Morant's " Hist. Essex" sub Faulkboumo. 

t The Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary Grace, near Tower Hill, commonly called 
New Abbey, founded by Edw. III. Sir Thomas Montgomery built the Lady 
Chapel there. 

J Bower Hall in West Mersey. 
Alice, sister and co-heir of the testator, and wife of Clement Spice, of Black 
Notley who died in 1483. 


my wjU sowljB, my fadres sowle* my modres Bowle, my snstres, and for 
the sowle of my uncle my lorde of Sadley, and my uncle Thomas Mon- 
gomery, and my snst' Ann Mongomery, and for the aowles of Alice 
Spice, for myn executors and for all my frendys that I am moste bounde 
to, and for all cristen sowlys. Item, I wyll that ev'y monk of the same 
abbey, beeing no preeste, y* to helpe to sing and say zxz masses and 
dirigis for the saia sowlys, and that ev'y clerk of the said abbey helping 
to sing in the qucre, have iij' iiij'. Item, I bequeith to ey'y pour man 
being at my burying, a penny to pray for my sowle. Item, I will that 
myn executors pay trewly all my detts, that can be of trewthe provyd, 
in all haste after my deceasse, and therto I pray them and require them. 
Item, I wyll that the p'sone of ffalkborne have for some certyn thing 
that is most necessary for the same church x li. Item, I wyll that ev'y 
prestc in Syon, Shene, Ilounston, and the Chartrehouse in London, have 
xx**, praiing them to remembre me according to their graunte of brother 
bode to me, * to say a masse and a dirige by note for me ; and also I 
will that suche as be brethcrn and in the abite of any of the said housis, 
being no preste and dwel ther, ev'y of them to have xij** for to say placebo 
and dirige for the said sowlys.f Also I will that cT'y preste being in the 
eoventis of Chelmysford, Colchestre, Maldon, Sudbury and Clare hare 
XX di. to remembre me and my said wyffe and for the forsaid sowlys in 
T masses, and that ev*y preest of the said howsis being, being no prest,^ 
have xij"^ for to say placebouz and dirigis § for the said sowlys. Item, I 
bequeith to ev*y of the said v housys xxi' so that they say masse and 
dirige for me, and for my wyfes, and the said sowlys, and to remembre 
me at ther masses as the custume ys. Item, I bequeith to ev'y preest of 
the bowses of Lazars || xiij' iiij"* to remembre me, and my wife, and the 
said sowlys in x masses ; and ev'y chanone of the said bowsing, being no 
preste, xx"* for to remembre the said sowlys in xij placebouz and diriges. 
Item, I wyll that ev'y preest dwelling wHn ▼ myle of ffalkborne have 
xx*^ to say t masses, placebo and dirige for my wife and for the said 
sowlys. Item, I wyll that ev'y preest of the orders of freres in london, 
ther dwelling, have xij"^ to remembre the said sowlys in three masses ; 
and ev*y youngc preiste, beiftg no preist, in the said howsys have vi** to 
say three placebouz and dirigis. Item, I will that Maist' Goddard th' 
elder, Maister hubbard, and the monk ancre of byrre regis, the ancre in 
the wuU by byshoppes gate, ev'y of them to have xx' to remembre the 
said sowlys in Ix masses, and to remembre my name and my wyfes in 
ther s'tnonys by a yere after my deceasse. Item, I wyll that the tionnes 

• Seo Note to tho Will of Sir Thomas Tyroll, jp. 81 anU, 

+ Placebo and hirige. The anthem " Placebo Domino in regione Tivonmi," with 
which tho vespers for the dead open : and the anthem to the first noctum in the 
matins of the oflSce for the dead, "Dirige, Domine Dens metis, in conspectutuo 
viam meam." The term Dirge is an ahhroviation of the Latin dUige. 

X 6ie in originali. Priest in the first instance is used very singularly, in a large 
sense, for a Religious or Eccleeiastic. The obvious meaning is, " Every member of 
the Convent not being in Priest's orders "—whether Deacon, Sub-Deacon, Acolyte, 
or Lay Monk. Further on wo find " Every young priest being no priest ;" and 
"Every Canon being no priest." 

§ Sie in crig, 

II Tho Lazar or Leper Houses near the metropolis were the Locke, in Kent Street, 
Southwark ; one between Mile End and Stratford le Bow ; another between Shore- 
ditch and Stoke Newingtcn ; a fourth at Knightsbridge, and a fifth near Holloway 
and Highgato. 


mynorez * at london have zx" that thej say a dirige and a masse by 
note for me and my wifes and the said sowlys. Item, I will that the 
p'son of Wedington. Maist' John Bretton and Doctor Stokys Iche of 
them to haye x' to remembre the said sowlys in xxx massis and ther 
s'mones a yere. Item, I beqneith to Maist' Kobert Walker xl% and to 
Maisi' William Qoodale xx' to remembre me and my wyfes and the said 
sowlys afore rehersed. Item, I bequeith to the Vicary of Coggeshale» 
the Vicary of Witham« the p'son of Chelmysforde, the Vicarie of branktre 
and the Vicarie of terlinge yche of them viij" iiij*** so that they or ther 
deputies remembre to pray for my soule and my wifes ey'y sonday, ij 
yere after my deceasse at the bedys bydding» f and to pray for me and 

* The Frandscan Noils, called Minoresses or Poor Clares. 

t Bidding the Beads (irom, the Saxon Siddan, to pray or desire ; and Biod, a 
prayer.) When the Priest read the Bead-roll or proclaimed the names of the dead 
and living for whom the cong^regation were invited to pray. 

After Henry VIII. had apostatized, hy setting himsdlf up as the head of the 
Chuitdi in £ngland, among other things he kept was the bidding prayer, for which 
he sent out the form following : '* This is an order taken for preaching and bidding 
of beads in all sermons to be made within this realm. First, whosoever shall preach 

in the presence of the King's highness shall, in the bidding of beads, pray 

for the whole Catholic Church of Christ, as well quids as dead Item, tbie 

preachers in all places of this realm, not in the presence of the King's said hiffhneos 

shall, in the bidding of the beads, pray first as above ordained 

and limited, adding thereunto in the second part for all arch-bishops and bishops, 
and for the whole clergy of this realm, and specially such as the preacher shall 
name of his devotion ; and thirdly, for all dukes, earls, nuirqmsses, and for all the whole 
temporalitie of this realm, and specially such as the preacher shall name for devo- 
tion : and finally, for the souls of all them that be dead, and specially for such 
as it shall please the preacher to name. — Wilkins, ** Condi.," t. iv., p. 783 : see 
also p. 808, ibid. — From " The Church of our Fathers, as seen in St. Osmund's rite 
for the Catiiedral of Salisbury, with Dissertations on the Belief and Ritual in England 
before and after the coming of the Normans." — By Daniel Bock, D.D., Canon of the 
English Chapter, Vol. II., p. 360. 

For giving out the names from the bead-roll, the custom was that the parish 
should allow a certain yearly stipend : hence we find, as the following, entnes in 
old church- wardens' accompts — ** to the parissche prest for the redynd of ye bede 
rolle on ye sondaiis, zijd. — {** Hist, of Sandwich," by Boys, p. 364.) Individuals, 
too, bequeathed money to have themselves especially remembered at the Sunday- 
beads: A.D. 1480. Avery Comburgh had written upon his grave in Bomford 
Church the following, among other verses : — 

** Moreover this call to yowr remembrance anon. 
That in the beadroll of vsage euery Sonday redd ; 
The sowls of this Avery, Beatrice, and John 
Be prayed for in speciall ; se that owr will be spedd 
And ibAt the Curate of this Church curtesly be ledd. 
And for his labour have in reding of that roll 
Forty pens to prey for them and euery Christian sowl." 

rS^eever's ** Funeral Monuments, p. 403.) It seems to have been in some places the 
Curate's office to read out the Sunday bead-roll, and the emolument arising from its 
discharge a "pait of his benefice ; sometimes may be met with a note of the money 
paid for this service, as for instance : ** To Maister Darby, for the bederolle for a 
yere, 28." — (Churchwarden's Accts. of St. Mary Hill, London, a.d., 1510, Illustrat., 
etc., by Nichols, p. 106) ; P^ to S' Robert for D'Beyd roylle, 2s."— IWd. p. 309. 
(Ibid. p. 363.) 

The Epitaph from which the Very Rev. Dr . Rock has quoted the above stanza, 
occurs at p. 648 of the Edition of 1631. It consists of eight stanzas, and contains 
particular directions for the election of the Chantry Priest, and the special duties 
he was required to perform. 

The formulary, called the Bidding Prayer, which the Church of England in the 
56th Canon directs to be used before all sermons, lectures, and homilies, is well 


my wifes oon day in the weke aftre the custume ys. Itm, I will that 
w4n ij monethis aftre my decesse, or also sone as it may be, that ther be 
disposed for me, w^ the masses above declared, iiiju^ masses so that I 
may have for ev'y iiij a masse w4a Essex, london, Suffolk, Norfolk and 
Cambridgeshire, and that I fayle not of iiij ii' massis with the said masses 
a bove declared, wHn ij monethes after my deceasse yf it may goodly soo 
be broughte a bought.* It'm« I wyll ther be found ij honest prests to 
goo to Rome and lohe of them to sing for King Edward, for me and 
for my wifes sowlys at scala ceely, f for xij monithis day, and goo the 
stacions ther } for owre sowlys, and my wifes sowlis, and the sowlys 
aforesaid, and they to have for their labour as myn executors can agre 
w* them. It'm, I will that iff an honest preste will take a ponne him to 
Bay, pray and faste the grete trentall for King Edward and my wifes and 
the sowlys a fore said, as Dame Elizabeth Walgravis prest dydde at 
burez, § he shall have xij m'ks. It*m, I will that the ancre of Carrowe 
by Norwiche, and the Ancre of lynne eche of them to bare x' to pray 
for me and for my wyffd, and for the sowlis a bove wrytten. It*m I will 
that w4n ij monethis aftre my decesse ther be disposed by myne executors 
to pou' people and to the power householders at falkborne theras I dwell, 
and in the townys that my lyvelodelyes in, in Essex, and in the townys 
next adjoining c m'ks in Recompence of my coomon doole, for I will no 
oomyn doole make. || It'm, I will that ther be disposed among the 
pou' people and householders at Chaulton to pray for me and the sowlys 
above said xx mc. It'm, I wyll that ther be disposed c li. and mor in 
amending noyous high weyes, by the discrecion of myne executors, 
w^n a yere aftyr my deceasse. It'm, I will that tho' that pay but viij"* 

* Great as was the number of Masses ordered, it was frequently equalled and 
sometimes exceeded by the directions of other Testators in the Idth and 16th cen- 
turies. Joan Beauchamp, Lady Bergavenny, by her will dated 14 Jan., 1434, 
ordered "that anon after my burying, there be done for my soul five thousand 
Masses in all the haste that they maybe goodly:" and the famous Cardinal Beaufort 
says, ** I will that ten thousand masses bo said for my soul as soon as possible after 
my decease, namely, three thousand of requiem, three thousand * de roraie eali 
deauper,* three thousand of the Holy Ghost and one thousand of the Trinity. Kobert 
Darcy, buried in the Church of All Saints, Maldon, 1469, ordered two thousand to 
be said within six weeks. I hope, however, to print a series of the Darcy wills 
hereafter, as well as that of Henry Lord Mamey, which is exceedingly rich in 
reference to religious rites and observances in connexion with the foundation of the 
almshouse at Layer Mamey. 

t Seala ealif adjacent to the church of S. John Lateran at Home. It is composed 
of twenty-eight steps of marble, sent, or reputed to have been sent, from the house 
of Pontius Pilate, in Jerusalem, to S. Helena the Empress. Known at Home as 
Scola tanta, 

X It need hardly be said, perhaps, that '* to go the Stations *' was to perform the 
devotion of the Via CrueU or Stations of the Cross. Vicarious pilgrimages and 
devotions were not unusual. 

§ Elizabeth, Lady Waldegrave, wife of Sir Thomas Waldegrave, of Bures S. 
Mary, in Suffolk, who was knighted bv Edw. lY. at the Battle of Towton. She 
was daughter of Sir John Tray, Chief Baron of the Exchequer. It must not, of 
course, be inferred that Lady Waldegrave's priest fasted throughout the Great 
Trental more rigourously than the rules of the Church ordinarily prescribed ; nor 
did he fast on the intervening Sundays or on any Holy Days which might have 
occurred. So that the fast, although severe, was possible. 

(I The indiscriminate distribution of dole at ^nerals often caused great scandal 
and disorder. The poor flocked in large numbers from the surrounding country 
and scrambled for the loaves which wore thrown among them. On this account, 
probably, the testator wisely resolved to miUie no common dole. 


and undre to the Kings taze in the townys that I have lyvelode in w4n 
Essex, that my executors pay for them, as for oone taxe, wherinne it 
eomyth next afire my decesse. It*m, I will that xyi li. be bestowed ia 
byinge of vestiments, ev*y vestement havyng my armes with my wyfes 
armes, pec. the vestiment xl" * to be geven to the churgis of Whight 
Notley, Moche Tey, Cressing, moche braxtede, Witham, ffayrestede* 
Terlinge, and Ryvonhalle, for a remembrance for me. f It'm, I give 
and bequeith to my sust' Alice Langley % ij ffetherbeds, ij bolsters, ij 
hanging beddes of course verdure, and that myne executors shalby as 
moche say as will hang ij metely chambours for the same beddys. It'm 
I give and bequeith to her ij basins, and viij ewers, and two pottys 
which I have at London, which, with a standing cuppe gylt, yi bollyp 
with a cover that I have at London, and l li. in money, in forme follow- 
ing, that is to say xxv li. anone after my deceasse, and other xxv when 
she decesith, to this entent, that she may be honestly buried, and to 
make a gravestone to lay on her for a remembrance, provided alwey that 
yf her husbonde or she vex or trouble my wif or myne executors of any 
poynt in my wylle or testament, that then all that I have above be- 
queithed her to be voyde, and myn executors to dispose it for the weale 
of my soule, It'm, I geve to Dame Lore my wyfe £ niarc in money 
and £ marcs in plate, wherof col marcs of my best gilt plate, after iij' iiij*' 
the one. and other CCL marcs of my white silver plate, at her choyse, 
after iij' iiij** the unc. It'ra, I bequeith to Dame Lore my wyfe, if she 
kepe herself sole and unmarried, all my beddyngs, shetys, napry and all 
stuffs of household, all sylver plate except, and my bedde of golde with 
th'angyngs of the same chambyr of custume, w^ the bed that hangyth in 
the same chambyr except, and if it fortune the Dame lore my wyfe be 
married agayne, then I wyll that all the goodes and stuff be devided in 
iij p'ties, and she to have one part and myn executors ij p'ts, and they to 
sell and dispose the money therof for the wele of my soule aftre the dis- 
crecion of myn executors ; and if I have any issue male, thanne I wylle 

* P^c. lYecium, for prelium. An interesting item as giving the cost of a 

t Although, as I formerly remarked, the Priest's vestments at this period were 
often enriched with secular ornaments, it must not be inferred that the direction of 
Sir Thomas Montgomery, that these chasubles should be embroidered with the arms 
of himself and his wife, was mere ostentation. As the donor he was entitled to 
remembrance in the prayers of the Church, and the arms denoted whose gift the 
vestments were. In like manner, in order that the Priests and people might re- 
member to pray for the good estate of the founders and benefactors, their arms were 
emblazoned in the Church windows; and in Chantries especially, as a record of 
those who, according to the intention of the founder, were to be commemorated in 
the appointed masses. With the same view were hatchments hung up in Church. 

X According to Morant Alice Montgomery married first to John Fortescuo, Esq., 
by whom she had John Fortoscue, who became seated at Faulkboume Hall, which 
his descendants retained till the year 1637 : secondly to Eobert Langley, Esq., who 
died 29 Aug., 1499, and was buried in Little Waltham Church : and that she married 
again 17 Jan., 1601, to Edward Wiseman, of Hivenhall, who died in Sep., 1508, and 
was buried in the Church of Faulkboume. Yet the Historian says that her husband 
John Fortescue died 9th Juno, 1518, for which he cites an Inquit. post mort. 10 
Hen. VIII., which certainly answers tiiereto. But this is impossible if he were her 
first husband, and he could not have been her third, as she waa 60 years old when 
her brother died (Inq. post mort. 10 Hen. VII,), and Robert Langley was then 
living. It is obvious, therefore, that John Fortescue, who died in 1518, was her son 
and saccessor, and not her husband. 


that tbe said bed of gold w* hangyngs and the said bedd with all the 
hangyngs of (custjm ?) remayne to him : if it ao fortune that I have no 
iaaue male or that all myn issue die, then I wyll it shalbe soldo be myn 
executors and the money to be disposed for the weaele of my soule and 
of my wyfes soule in werkys of charytie^ by the diserecion of m3ni 
executors, as in high wayes, makyng beddyn^, fyre and things uedefiil 
for pou' people, trustyng to my wyfe that if I have any issue male that 
she wyll depart w* hym, whan that he corny th to age, such stuff as I 
have geyen hyr as she shall thynk necessary for hyr child and myn. 
It'm, I wyll that all such bedding, hangyngs and household as I have 
in my place in London at the tyme of my deth, except my plate that my 
wyfe shalhave to her own use. I will that where I have bought the 
mariage of Wyllyam Blount, Lord Montioy, I geve it frely to my wyfe 
and she to marry hym as pleaseth hyr. It'm, I wyll that my said wyfe 
have all my catals longing to husbondry, as chariett, chariett horses, 
plough, ploughorses, w* all the harnes that belongeth to them, and all 
comes growing on the grounde aswele that w4n my places, as that which 
is owing me w^ut, w^ all my stuffe which longeth to my ketchyn, Buttre^ 
pantre, bakehouse and to myn other houses of householde, except plate, 
w* xij of my best horses to be taken at hyr owne choyse. 

For the sake of brevity a short abstract of the contents 
of the concluding portion of this testament, in modem 
orthographji will suffice. 

liVife to keep household at *' ffalkbome'' half a year after my decease : 
household to have wages to that time. Gire to wife of old Basaett of 
'' ChesehulP' £20. To Nephew Rafe Norbury,* my ^dson, £20. To 
my niece Ann, his sister, 20 marks. To my wife her raiment and apparel 
and such jewels as I have given her. My servants to be rewarded as 
specified in a bill annexed ; if any are dead their legacies to be void and 
my executors to dispose of the same for my own and my wife's soul. 
[Other directions follow of no historical import.] Qive the daughters 
of Cutting, sometime of Rayleigh, £5. To marriage of poor virtuous 
maidens, £40. To poor householders of London, considering that my 
body shall lie there, against my month's day, £40. To the making of 
** hollbrigge" £20 ; if it be not made before my death.f Residue to 
my executors, charging them to dispose it, as they shaH answer before 
God, for my soul, my wife's soul, my father's and mother's souls, and 
my friends' souls. Appoint Executors '' Dame lore my wif, Maister 
Pykenharo, Sir Thomas Tyrell, I Sir Edward Barkeley, Knyghts, John 
Clopton, § Geoffrey Yong." Beseech my Lord of Canterbury, || my 
Lord of Oxford, Sir Thomas Burough, Kt., that they will be supervisors. 
Give my Lord of Canterbury a covered cup and £5 for a remembrance 
of me ; Dame Lore £20 ; Doctor Fykcnham £20 ; John Clopton £20 ; 

* Son of one of the uterine brothers of Sir Thomas Montgomery, 
t This and similar references which 1 have met with seem to denote that there 
was anciently a bridge, most probably of timber, across the Crouch at Hullbridge. 

Sir Thomas Tyrell of Heron, ob. eire, 1510-12. 

John Clopton, of KentweU, Suffolk, ob. 1498. Buried at Melford. 

John Morton^ Cardinal, Archbiahop and Lord Chancellor, ob. 15 Sep., 1500. 


Geoffrey YoDg £10; Robert Rochester * £20, and a cup of silver gilt 
with a cover. Give Sir John Ramston £10; to his brother £100, to 
the intent to find them to school and learning. 

A Codicil is appended dated 20 Sept., 1492. All else 
that I need extract are the testator's directions for the 
foundation of a perpetual obit in the Abbey of S. John, 

As for my manors of Cookes and Nethersall w* ther appurtenances, 
and a tenement that I bought of John Kente, I wyll and require my 
feoffees that yf th'abbot of seiot Johannes of Colchestre and the covent 
there wylbe bounden by indenture in Ijke wyse as I shall send them a 
copy, that is to saye kepe myn obite for me and for my wyfe ev'y yere 
on the day of my deceasse, that is to say, on th'even a solemne dirige by 
note, and a masse on the morrowe by note, and to geve to xl pou' men 
to knele abowte my herse to pray for me and my wyfe iij* iiij**, and to 
ev*y of them a lof of brede of j^, and ij peny worth of fflesshe ; and to 
ev'y bayly of the seid borough, if they come and offer at my masse, xx', 
and to the p'sone of ffalkborne for the tyme being iiij marcs by the yere 
of lawful money of England for ev'more, to p' forme this aforeseid, that 
than they to convey it for ev'more or els it to be sold be myn executors 
and the money to be employed in mendyng of high weyes and other 
eharitablly dedys by the discrecion of myn executors, f 

Three more Wills of the ancient family of Tyrell may 
appropriately follow this. The first is 

The Will of Sib Eobert Tyrell, Knigut, dated 30™ 

Dec, 1507. 

He was the fourth son of Sir Thomas Tyrell, of Heron, 
by Anne his wife, daughter of Sir William Marney, of 
Layer Marney, and is described by Morant as of Homdon 
on the Hill ; but from his will he appears to have resided 
at Wyvenhoe. His first wife was Christian, daughter of 
John Harlston, by whom he had two sons, Thomas, who 
was a Priest, and Eobert, his successor, of Warwicks, 
in this county, who died 16 Oct., 1565, leaving issue ; 
and a daughter, Margery. His second wife, mentioned 
in his will, is said to have mamed afterwards to Edward 
Mackwell. There is scarcely any mention of Sir Eobert 

* Robert Rochester, Controller to the Household to John de Yere, Earl of 
Oxford, ob. 4 May, 1506. Buried at Terling. 

t The proposed endowment was the Manor of Nether-Hall, alias Cook*s Hall, 
in West Bergholt. I find no evidence that the testator's intention was carried into 
effect ; on the contrary, the Manor was in the possession of John Abell, Esq., at the 
time of his death in 1623. 


Tyrell in Essex History,  and I believe that the par- 
ticulars contained in his will are quite new information. 
Testator says, 

ffirst, I geve and eomende my aoale to almighbr god, to oar lady aeynt 
Mary the Tirgyn and to all the holy company of neven. And my body 
to be buried wHn the churche of the greyfriers of Colchester, by Dame 
Christian my vif. Also I bequeth to the high awter of the churche of 
"Wywenowe for my tithes and offerings negligently forgoten and not 
paid vi* & viij'. it I gere and bequeth unto iiij p'ysshe churches 
aboute to Downham, to either of them vi" & ▼iij'*, my souie among the 
p'yrohens to be praed for. Also I will that the said freers shalhaye paid 
Dy th'ands of myn Executors, or by their Executors or assigns, by the 
space of twenty yeres, of my lond T marcs yerely sterling, oondicionally 
that the Wardeyn, or his successours, shale appoynte a freere & broder 
of the same covent to syng for my soule and my sade late wif soule and 
for the soules that I am moost bounden to doo for, for the space of the 
said XX yere, that is to say iiij marc for the Preeste synging, and 
ziij* iiij** yerely for myne obite and my said wif keping. Item, I will 
that mjm executors shall make an arche of ffreestone in the wall wHn 
our ladys chapell ther as I and my last wif shall lye. And also I will 
have a stone of marbill to be laid on me and my wif in the said place ov* 
o' grave, and a Remembrance of my name and hirs in the m'balt stone. 
And I woU that Dame Elisabeth, now my wif, fro xi yeres next after 
my decease shall have during her life naturall such lands as she is now 
enfeoffed in. 

I am not aware that the place of interment of Sir Hobert 
Tyrell was before known. Of the remainder of his will I 
give an abstract in modem English. 

Wife to have her apparel and plate that was hers '* at our meeting and 
myn," and to deliver to my executors all my plate, jewels, bedding, 
and other stuff; if she do anything against this will my bequest to her 
to be void ; my executors to have all her plate and mine to pay my debts 
and all the moveable goods that she and I have, to be disposed for the 
health of my soul, except her raiment. Give to Robert my son all my 
lands and tenements. Remainder to my daughter Margery, except x 
marcs by the year that shall be sold for the health of my soul and all the 
souls that I am bound for. Thomas Tyrell,* my eldest son, to have an 
annuity yearly for life of x marks out of my lands and tenements to his 
exhibition at Cambridge, *' Oxenford," or any other place to the time he 
shall be preferred to a benefice of xx li. by the year, and alter he shall 

* An imperfect account of this branch of the Tyrell &mily will be found in 
MoTant*8 " Hist. Essex/' Vol. EE. p. 344 ntb Birdbrook, where the Historian erro- 
neously calls the testator Sir John Tyrell, of Homdon on the Hill. He is speaking* 
of Robert Tyrell, Esq., of Warwicks, who died in 1555, and whom he there calls 
the son of Sir John instead of Sir Robert, fourth son of Sir Thomas Tyrell of Heron. 
Under East Homdon he is correctly named. 

t In some MS. genealogies this Thomas Tyrell, who was a Priest, is enoneoualy 
called John. 


be beneficed the said rent shall go to Robert my son and hers. Margery 
my daughter to have cc marks at such time as her husband shall make 
her a sufficient jointure in lands and tenements of the value of zl marks 
sterling. Appoints Executors, ** Willm Alove, lemed man in the lawe, 
John DanyeU, Robert Teryll my son, and Walter Wyngfield and Willm 
Cooke, Doct', and give each 40*." These honest p'sones witnesses and 
records, Maister ffiibian p'sone of the Church of Wyvenow .and James, 
p*ysshe preest ther. Robert Rochester, Esquyer, Davy lewis, Vincent 
Baytt and, other moo'. 

The Will op John ^bff Movant erroneously called ThomasJ 
Ttrbll of Hebok, Esa.| who died S*" April, 1514. 

He was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Tyrell of Heron, by 
Constance, daughter of John Blount, Lord Mountjoy, and 
grandson of Sir Thomas Tyrell of Heron, who died in 1510 
^or 1512). Morant's narrative pedigree, sub East Horndon, 
18 very complicated and confused : he calls this John Tyrell 
ThamaSj and says that he served Sheriff of Essex in 1517, 
but it was evidently Sir Thomas Tyrell, his father, who was 
Sheriff that year, as the roll in Morant's Introduction to his 
History shews. 

John Tyrell married Anne, daughter of Sir William 
Browne, Lord Mayor of London, by whom he had two 
daughters, Catherine aged 7 in 1540, and Gertrude then 
aged 6 montha His next brother Henry, inherited the 
chief of his estates, and was afterwards knighted.* John 
appears to be the only head of the house who died without 
attaining that distinction; but he evidently died young, 
and had been but a short time in possession of the estates. 
His widow afteiwards married the celebrated Sir William 
Fetre, founder of the Petre fsonily in Essex, and was mother 
of John, first Baron Petre. 

As the will is comparatively of small interest, I insert an 
abstract only of its contents, chiefly in modem orthography. 

*' In the name of the Father, the Bonne, and the holly goste, Amen.'' 
To be buried in the Chorch of '* Este Hornedon." Giye '* to the High 
Altar for tithes forgotten 30"." ** I bequith to the reparaoons of the 
ohurche yarde pale of Thomedon aforescdd ten shillings. To my brother 
harry a complete hames such as he will chose, and his chose hadde, I 
will an other complete hames to my lord mountyoie such as he will 

* Sit Henrv IVrell lies inteired under a plain slab in the chancel of Downham 
Churdh, with the rollowing insmption engrayen on a braw ^ate, in Boman letters: — 
" Here lyeth bmied good Sir Meniy Terrell, Knight, & l)aiae Thomasin his wife, 
who deceased the 20 of May in the yeore 1588." 


ohose." * [Small legacies to servants.] To each of my brethren Sir 
William Tirell, Knight, f Thomas Tirell, Charles Tirell and George 
Tirell, 40*. To Charles and George all my wearing apparel equally.^ To 
my lady, my mother iiij marks. To sister Keble and sister Knight each 
40*. To Roger Bexwell my farmer my best horse, and such duty as he 
owes me except rent. To Anne my wife and Katherine my daughter 
my term of years in the Manor of ** Dounton" which I hold of the 
President and Fellows of King*s College, Cambridge, and the manor of 
Sampford, which I have on lease from my mother for 30 years. Goods, 
chattels, and household stuff to my wife and daughter equally. Appoint 
executors my said wife, and Vincent Mundy, Citizen and Goldsmith of 
London, and give him £6 13s. 4d. Give £6 13s. 4d. to repair the high- 
way by my park pale of Heron. Whereas I have been at great cost and 
charge for obtaining and saving certain great and '* mayne*' woods which 
Sir Thomas Tyrell, Knt., my late father (whose soul God pardon) was 
purposed to have felled and sold away, and which by my means have 
been kept as well at Heron as at divers other places ; and whereas I 
have been at liberty after the decease of my said father to dispose of my 
inheritance at pleasure, yet have always so favoured my brother Harry, 
or him whom it shall please God to make my heir, trust that my brother 
Harry, for that my own time has been but short, and therefore I am not 
of such substance in goods to set forth and advantage my said daughter, 
will favourably look upon her, and for my sake, considering these pre- 
mises, will give her some honest sum of money for her advancement. 
Witnesses Charles Tyrell, my brother, John Blake, Gent., George Bex- 
well, Thomas Mundy and divers others. 

The following portion appears from its tenor to have 
been nuncupative : — 

The testator about 20 days after the execution of the above will ap- 
pointed John Browne, of London, Gent., co-executor with the said Anne 
and Vincent, and gave him a like legacy. Granted to his brother ** George 
Turreir' the lease of a farm called '' Crease" for 21 years, and gave to 
Katherine Tyrell his daughter all his lands, tenements and leases (to her 
and her heirs), as well by him purchased of his father, or any other 

* The armoury at Heron must have been extensive and well furnished, the 
bequest of these two suits of aimoiir (probably two out of many) is the only men- 
tion I have yet met with of the military equipment. 

t Sir William Tyrell was a Knight o^ Ehodes, otherwise a Knight Hospitaller 
or Knight of S. John. He is sometimes assumed to have been a brother of Sir 
Thomas Tyrell, and consequently unde to the testator. Morant has in this instance 
correctly called him a son of Sir Thomas by Constance Blount, as the will proves, and 
the date of his death corroborates. He outHved the dissolution of his order m Blngland 
and was interred in the Ch\ux2h of S. Martin, Ludgate, as appears by the following 
entry in "Machyn's Diary :" — " 1667 the xyj day of the same moneth [Nov.] was 
bered at Sant Martens in Ludgatt Master .... Terrell, Captayn of the Galee 
and Knyght of Bodes sumtyme was ; with a cote, penon, and ij baneres of emagcs, 
and iij haroldes of armes and ^ whytt branches and zij torchys and four grett 

I The bequest of raiment by and to persons of high rank is not remarkable, 
considering the rich description of apparel worn, its great cost, and the scarcity of 
money. And the outer garment was a loose and ample gown. 


person or persons. But if any of the heirs male of the said John should 
offer to buy the same, they to have pre-emption. Witnesses, Anne 
Tyrell, George Tyrell (brother), Thomas Mennes, Roger Bexwell and 
others. Proved 18 Nov., 1640. 

The Will op Annb, Lady Tyrell, op London, Widow. 

Dat. 1552. Proved 1562. 

This Lady was the Widow of Sir John Tyrell, of Little 
Warley Hall, Knight, who died in 1540-1. According to 
Morant, this Sir John Tyrell married Anne, daughter of 
Edward Norrys, by whom he had five sons, John, William, 
Stephen, Ealph and Maurice ; and one daughter, Gertrude, 
who was the first wife of the famous Sir William Petre. 
But assuming that Sir John Tyrell had only one wife (and 
we find no mention of a second), it is manifest from his 
will, that, at the time of her marriage with him, she was 
the widow of John Hopton, by whom she had a daughter 
Elizabeth ; and that Sir John had also a son named 
Humphrey, and three daughters Friswith, Margaret and 
Mary, who had been a Benedictine Nun in the Abbey 
of Barking, none of whom are mentioned by Morant. 

Lady Tyrell is described in her will, dated 16th July, 
1552, as " Dame Anne Tirrell, of London, Widow." 

To be buried where it shaU please God. Give to Morres Tirrell my 
son all my plate, *' that is to saye xij silver spoones with postells ; * 
iiij fetherbeds, iiij bowlsters and y pillowes, iiij coverletts whereof one is 
lyned, iiij paire of fustian blanketts and all my shetes and other lynnen 
now beinge in the said house wherein I doe now remaine. Item, ij 
chestes of Cipresf and one cheste bounde with Jron, ij chestes of wainscote 
and the other of fur, and ij basketts. Item, I ^ive to Morres my said 
Sonne xx li. which Richard Crayford of Dover) fsicj in the County (^ 
£s8ez doth owe unto me, and x li. which William Lukkens dwellinge 
in Chancery lane neere unto Lyncolne's Inne doth owe unto me, and all 
the brasse and pewter now beinge in the said house where I doe now 
remaine. To my daughter, Elizabeth Perryn, a flat piece of A unicomes 
hom.| To the poor people of the Hospitalism xl*.'' Give residue of 

* The well-known "AposUe Spoons/' so called from the handles tenninating 
in fignres of the Twelve Apostles. See note p. 187. 

t Chests of cipress used to keep linen in are frequently mentioned in old wills. 

X The value of this apparently trifling bequest will be duly appreciated by those 
who know that the "Unicorn's horn" was supposed to be a preservative against 
poison. Baine, in his " Hist, of North Durham, says that it was the tooth of the 
monodon or sea unicorn that was imposed upon the world as the horn of the unicorn, 
and was sold at an extravagant price on account of its supposed virtue. John 
Notyngham, grocer, of Bury, in his will dated 1437 bequeaths " Par cultellorum 
quorum manubria sunt de comu unicomii." — (Bury WiUt^td, Samuel Tymm$y FJB.A,^ 
Camd, Soc, Fub,) The trenchers upon which meat was served at table were dJloo. 
" flat pieces," but a section or small tablet of the horn or tooth is here meant. 


plate, goods, jeweU, &o., &o., to Morres my son whom, with my cousin 
Guy Crayford, I make executor. FroTed 26 Nov.* 1562. 

Other wills of the Tyrells may perhaps find a place in 
our journal hereafter. Some, of which I possess full 
abstracts, contain valuable information for County and 
Family History, but as they do not subserve the especial 
object of these papers, previously indicated, I will extract 
a few testamentary directions and bequests by other Essex 
folk, which may prove of more general interest. 

The Will op Eustacb Stjltaed, op Flemtngs in Eunwbll, 
Esq., Dated 1" Enw. YL, and Proved in 1547, 

Is a valuable instrument as it contains a description of 
the family plate, the state bed, and mention of the armoury ; 
and a schedule annexed gives the prices of various house- 
hold utensils, bedding, napery, &o., in the reign of Edw. 

The Sulyards of Flemyngs were of an ancient Suffolk 
family ; and the manor came into their possession by the 
marriage of Edward, eldest son of Sir John Sulyard, Ent., 
one of the Justices of the Eing's Bench temp Hen. YII., 
with Elizabeth or Mirabel, daughter and heir of Thomas 
Copdowe, Esq., by Anne his wife, daughter and co-heir of 
Sir Thomas Flemyng, Kt. The Flemyngs had been seated 
at Runwell from the year 1327, and from them the mansion 
and manor derived their name. Edward Sulyard married 
secondly Anne, daughter of John Norrys. By his first 
wife he had Sir William Sulyard, his eldest son and heir, 
and three other sons. By his second wife he had Eustace 
Sulyard, the testator, and one daughter. Sir William 
having died without issue his half-brother Eustace in- 
herited Flemyngs, and his descendants resided there till 
the decease of Edward Sulyard, Esq., unmarried, 7 Nov., 
1692, at the age of 72, who is described upon his monu- 
ment in Eunwell Church as ^' the last of his House and 
Family." Morant states that Flemyngs descended to his 
two nieces, Anne and Dorothy, therefore it probably passed 
under an entail, as it is not mentioned in his will, in which 
the name of Anne does not occur, and the rest of his landed 
property in Bunwell he bequeathed to Dorothy. The 


present representative of the family is Sir John T. Tyrell, 
Bart, the descendant of Dorothy Sulyard. 

Flemyngs was one of the largest and most stately man- 
sions in Essex. It was apparently a quadrangular building 
enclosing a courtyard, and was defended by a deep moat. 
Only a small portion of the edifice now remains, which 
seems to belong to the Elizabethan age, but probably may 
date as early as the time of Eustace or Sir William Sul- 
yard. Wright Bscys in his " History of Essex," " that a 
great part has been pulled down or destroyed by a fire that 
demolished more than thirty rooms and a large chapel. 
Before this accident, we are informed that the house con- 
tained above fifty spacious apartments." The Bev. Alfred 
Suckling, however, states that there were above one 
hundred apartments, and a large chapel finely vaulted with 
stone. The right of sepulture formerly belonged to this 
chapel, as appears by human remains and fragments of 
coffins frequently thrown up by the plough. It may be 
inferred from this, that part of the mansion was consider- 
ably older than the time of the Sulyards. We are further 
told that there were some fine ancient portraits of the 
Sybils and Ceesars ; and that some very good paintings on 
glass have been preserved.* The mansion was sur- 
rounded by a spacious park and had a large warren ; and 
the site is one of the finest in the county, commanding an 
extensive view of some parts of the county of Kent, in- 
eluding more than thirty parish churches, and a good 
prospect of the sea. 

Eustace Sulyard died on the 1st of Feb., 1546-7, and 
lies buried in Bunwell Church. There is a monument to 
his memory in the north wall of the Chancel consisting of 
a niche composed of alabaster and marble, inlaid with the 
effigies of himself in armour and bareheaded, his wife, 
three escocheons of arms, and an inscription engraven in 
brass. The figures are kneeling at desks. From his will, 

* SackHng says that the interior fittings oorrcflponded with the magnificence of 
the stmctnre ; stained glass in great profoision, tapestry, and paintings by eminent 
masters, sparkled in the windows and adomod the walls. Many of these decorations 
have been removed by the Tyrells and are said to enrich the apartments of their 

f resent residence. — " Suckling's Memorials/' p. 62. The preservation at Boreham 
Louse of the decorations brought from Flemyiigs is also mentioned in the '' Essex 


which is very prolix and full of repetitions of his property, 
I present the following extracts. 

Testator gives to his son Edward, when twenty-one or 
married, these parcels of silver plate : — 

" One basin w* an ewer of silyer, parcel! gylt, waing iiij iij ounces. 
Two quarte potts of silver, parcell gilte, wainge Ixxij oz. Three bowles 
of silver, parcell gilte, w^ a cou'r, waing xx oz. One dozen spones, 
wherof iij gilte, waing xv oz. k one q'. One old casting bottell,* 
parcell g^lte, which was my mother s/' I will and bequeath unto everj 
one of my daughters, for a benevolent token and natural remembrance, 
** Three parcells silver plate. To eV of them one salte w* cover parcel 
gilte, w^ mine armes and my wives theruppon engraven, and J[ enamyled. 
waing xvi oz. and also ev'y of them vi silver spones having my Sipher 
engraven uppon them," when 18 or married, to be bought by my execu- 
tors out of the profits of my lands and farms.- 

Give unto my nephew Thomas Comwales f ''my grete horse called 
grey Rouse. To my nephew Henry Comwales my other young grey 
horse, a gowne of black damask guarded w^ velvet, a dublet of cryrosen 
satten, and a paier of hose clocked with crymsen satten, and xl* for the 
translation and making of such garments as I have given unto hym. I 
will that Mr. Thomas Mildmay % ^^^e the bedde which I owe him at his 

I bequeath unto Edward, my eldest sonne, or to whom god shall make 
heyre of flemynges, all my harnes, Bowes, Arrowes, Billes, pykes, pole- 
axes, Swerdcs, daggers, gonnes, and other myn Abilyment of War, 
chargeing myn exeoutours to see the same stowed and kepte clenne 
until! suche tyme as my said heyre or heyres shall come to his or her 
full age. . . . 

Item, I give unto Edward my son, or whoever shall be my heir, &c., 
after the death of my wife, " one Sparvo' § of crymsen velvet and Tyssue 
of gold, pyrled, and one other of tawney damaske and yelowe damaske 
w^ the curteyns of sarsenet belonging to the same." 

The following interesting schedule, of which I give the 
title in brief, is annexed to the will : — 

The particulars of such implements and utensils of household as I have 
willed to be bought for the use of Edward my son and heir apparent (or 

* OeiBting Bottle. ' A bottle naed for casting or sprinkling perfiimeB, said to have 
been introduced about the middle of the 16th century ; hut evidently earlier. 

t GomwalliB. Sons of Sir John ComwalliB who married Mary, sister of Eustace 

X Thomas Mildmay of Moulsham Hall, eldest son of Thomas Mildmay, Auditor 
of the CJoiixt of Augmentation. 

§ Sparver v. Sparvour. Strictly the canopy or wooden firame at the top of the 
bed ; out frequently applied to the bed itself. Lect. de Farament, a bed of State or 
great Sparver bed that serves only for shew or to set off the room. Ootgravty in voce 
Farament. "A canopie or Sparver for a bod."— " Florio," p. 349. "The third 
Chamber being my bed-chamber was apparellod with rich cloth of Tyssue raised, 
and a grete Sparver and countcrpointe of the same." — "State Papers," I. 239. 
^" HalliweU Arch, Diet.") The tents in the arms of the Upholsterers' Company are 
aesoribed in the patent as Sparven. 


whoever shall be my heir) with paroel of the said £100 given by my 
will : also such parcels, utensils, &c., of household at my house at Flem- 
yn^ so willed to the said Edward or my next heir. 

Firste, one hole gamishe of pewter vessells w^ a charger xxx*. one 
chafing dish of latten new v*. one basin w* an Ewer of pewter vi* yiij^. 
iiij brasse potts fourtie shillings, iiij pannes zx*. iij kettells ziij* yiij''. 
iij spitts eyery of them meaner than the other x*. Item, for other utensils 
for the ketohen yi' viij<^. Item, for veessells, kilderkins and other neces- 
sariea Tubbes yi' xiij*. iiij'. 

Sm xxuj. xij. yiij. 

Apparell for beddinge, yis.. Tikes, fethers, fustians, couletts, shots, 8ayes« 
w^ table clothes, napkins, towells and carpetts. Two brussel Tykes of 
one yarde and iij quarters brode, price fourtie shillinffs. xx stone of 
lyying fethers, yidelioit iiij li« p' e^y stone, price Iiij* iiij**. ten yerdes of 
blanketts, newe, out of the pece at xyj*^ the yerde. two couerletts of 
yerdure, iyne, mete for such beddes, at xxiij* iiij*^ the pece, Ixij* yiij'. 
iii] pillowes of iiij yerds of fustyan at yiij' the yarde yi' iiij'. Six 
pounde of downe price x' the pounde for the same pillowes y*. Shetes 
tenne paire conteyning yiij ells in ey*y paier, at xyj' the ell, jijj ells a, 
cvi' yiij'^. iiij Tykes countrepont, Brussell, for bedd and bolsters conteyn- 
ing a yerde and iij quarters brode, at xij' le pece, xxxyi'. xxi stone of 
lyving fethers for the same at ij' yiij' le stone i.xi'« Tenne yardes of 
fustyan for pillowes at yiij' the yarde, vi' yiij'. xij pounde of downe to 
fill the same pillowes at x pens the pounde, x". iiij cou'letts for the 
same beddes, price le pece xvi" — xlyiij*. xy yardes of blankett out of 
the pece for the same iij beddes, at xiiij' the yarde, xyij* yj'. ooxx ella 
of good lynon clothe, at xiiij' the elle, to make tenne paier of shetes for 
ev'y bed, eVy paier to conteyn yij elles, xij^ vi* yiij'. pec' of beyond the 
Saye, red and yellowe, at xyi' the pece. iiij peces of Englysse say, of 
the best, at xx* le pece, iiij^* Item, my new thrombed carpet. . • • 
Lynnon doth for table clothes and cupbourd clothes iiij". Towells and 
napkyns Hij' iiij'. 

8m. lu« X*. x'. 

The particulars oontained in the preceding schedule, 
albeit somewhat dry, perhaps, iu the detail, are still, I 
hope, of considerable yalue. It is by the collection of 
such items and inventories that we ^adually and com- 
pletely refurnish the old mansions of the country, and 
present an accurate picture of their interiors centuries 
ago. In the schedule of ^^ utensils and standards of 
household" at Flemyngs, the items are not given, and 
they comprise merely the fittings of the fabric, briefly 

The Will op William Harris, op Southminster, Esq. 
Dated 12 Sept., and Proved 14 Nov., 1556, 

Is a very lengthy document, consisting of eight closely* 



written, equivalent to about sixteen ordinary, folios. I 
shall extract from it only a few passages. 

The Harris family were originally of Prittlewell William 
Harris of that place married Anne daughter of — Jernegan 
and had Arthur Harris, also of Prittlewell, who by Joanna 
his wife, daughter of Thomas Percy, second son of Henry 
Earl of Northumberland, had Wilham Harris, the testator. 
Morant gives the date of his death 21"^ Sept., 1555, a year 
too early, which his will, as well as Machyn's Diary, cor- 
rects. Machyn, who most probably performed the office 
of undertaker, thus records his burial : " 1556 the xvi 
day of September was bered in Essex, at Southmynster, on 
Master William Har[ris], Sheriff of Essex, notable ryche 

bothe in landes and fermes, with a penon 

and oott armur and iiij baners of emages * of armes and a yj 
dosen of skoychyons and mony momers, and a grett doUe.'' 
His will contains very precise directions for the construc- 
tion of his tomb and the celebration of his obsequies, and 
shews, as Machyn remarks, that he was a man of great 
wealth and had large possessions. He describes himself 
as of Southminster, in the county of Essex, Esq., and some- 
time inhabiting in the parish of Eochford. 

Mj bodJT to be buried either in the parish church of Southminster or 
Prittlewell, in such place of the church as heretofore bj mouth I have 
partly declared. 

A Tombe of marble to be set upon my place of burial, to be closed 
with barres of iron of convenient height for the saving of the said tombe, 
and to be colored with redd color sett in oyles, wher uppon I will that 
they shalbestowe twentie poundes of currant money of England, and 
more if that be not sufficient, by the discretions of myn ov*8eers : upon 
the tombe ther shalbe mencion made of me and all my wyves and 
posteritie and our names, and the names of every child that I had 
aeverallyo by every wief for thavoyding of contention hereafter for title 
of my landes, for that 1 had my said children by severall venters ; and 
also I will that these wordes followinge shalbe set either upon my tumbo 
or upon the wall next my tumbe— -7<?rra terram tegaU demon* peccata 
retumat^ mundtu res h^eai, sptritus ab*ta petat.jf My executors to dis- 
tribute to such poor in Essex as they shall see fit £10; and besides 
other miserere obsequies and dirige, according to the order of the 

* Probably two banners of images and two of arms. Banners of images were 
banners with flgoros of saints depicted upon them. 

t Terra terram tegat^ demonium peeeata reeumaiy mundue ret habeat, epirUue ahdita 
jpetat The Rev. O. 0. Berkeley, Vicar of Southminster, in reply to my enquiries, 
informs me that this lomb is totally destroyed. 0%q escocheon plate only, engraved 
with the arms of Harris which formerly belonged to it, is preserved in the Church. 


Catholick Church ; and likewise to distribute other ten pounds at my 
month's day, and other ten pounds at my year's mind. And ailer my 
year's mind be passed, I will that always a yearly obit shall be kept in 
the parish church where I shall chance to be buried during the term of 
four score years, if the laws of the realm will it so long permit* [Tes- 
tator's four sons Vincent, Arthur, Christopher and Edward and their 
heirs to pay to the Churchwardens 20s. yearlv during the said term 
out of the farms assigned to them under the will, and to give bond to 
the churchwardens to pay the same towards the obit.] ike curate of 
the said church shall have, to pray for me in his prayers, making mf 
name* yearly l^\ and the residue two parts to poor people, and the 
residue to priests and clerks, and towards the necessary ornaments of the 
church. The churchwardens to have yearly for their pains 8^ ; and my 
executors shall yearly, for the space of ten years, pay to the poor of 
Prittlewell, SouUiminster and Bumham every year £6 8* 4**. To the 
parish of PrittleweU every year 5 marks, Southminster 84* 4\ Burnham 
84- 4^ 

Testator next gives to Alice, his wife, for life, certain 
manors, lands, tenements, &o., and sundry plate and house- 
hold stuff, and among the exceptions enumerated we get a 
description of some of the plate, &o., that he possessed. 
" To AUce, my wife • . ." 

*' My twoe amblinge sommer nagges which I always called her nagges, 
and all my plate except the followinge, my greate neste of gobletts, all 
gilte, with the cover, my best standing cupp, all gilte, with the cover, 
my salte, all gylte, with the cover, my pott gylte with the cover, my 
chaleys with the paton therto belonginge all gilte ; and also except one 
goblet, gilte, with the cover, beinge made after fisshe scales, and also 
except two grete masers, and two silver spones, wherof thone is all gilte 
and thother with a vyce ;" f and all my household stuff in my house at 
Eochford and in my house at Southminster, ** except twoe fetherbedds 
in the same house, next the best, with couerletts, blanketts, sheets, 

Sillowes, pillowbeys, and all other necessaries to them belonginge beinse 
kewise next the beste'; and also beside twoe sewer brasse potts next tne 
best, and also except another bed honestly furnished, beinge a fetherbedd 
mete to lodge gentlemens servauntes in witb honestie ; and also except 
half a gamysshe of pewter next the best, wherof to be eight platters, y x 
dessert, ti sawoers, and also two coppill of candlestickes next the best, 
a chafyng dysh and two other small oanstioks of the meaner sort, whether 
the worst or the best." 

Then follows the devise of his manors, lands, leases, &o., 
at great length ; sundry legacies to servants and others : 

** To my son Arthur all my apparell and household stuff in my chamber 

* The testator appears to have anticipated the probability of a second Refonno- 
tion : and of course after the accession of iEUzabeth the oel^ration of his obit 

t Device. 


at Lynoolnennne My son Arthur shall have the nse and 

oocupyinge of my oheyne of golde conteyning sevenscore and ti links 
for life.'^ Bemainder to son ^wurd for life, remainder to their heirs. 

Thb Will op Anns Pointz, Widow of John Pointz, or 
D'oBTH Ogebndon. Pboyed 18™ Mat, 1654, 

Is very rich and interesting in the bequests of plate, 
jewellery and personal ornaments. These legacies are, in 
fact, almost its whole contents. For an account of the 
Pointz £Eimily the reader will consult Morant. Anne 
Pointz^ according to Morant, was the sister and heir of 
Isaac Bibley, of Buckinghamshire. John Pointz, her 
huslMmd, he says, died 16^ June, 1558. This date is 
erroneous, inasmuch as his widow died in 1554, and The 
Will of John Pointz bears date May the 30**", and was 
proved June the 30**", 1547. It is very brief and devoid 
of interest, except in that he desires ^^ To be buried under 
the ardh between the Chancel and the Chapel of our 
Lady,'' which determines the dedication of the North 
Chapel, hitherto, I believe, unknown, as well as the place 
of his own sepulture** 

The following is an abstract of the Will of Anne Pointz, 
with excerpts in the orthography of the Begister : — 

Give to my daughter Frances Asteley's children, now the wife of 
John Asteley, of ** Cnnstahle Melton," in Norfolk, to the men children 
when 21, and to the women children at the day of *' the solemnnization 
of their marriage." To Bridget Asteley eldest child and daughter, ** a 
browch all of golde with this scripture aboute it, Miex swfi hoeage 
quetoy daHlac€Lg§^^ and a woman enamyled white and a cage hanging on a 
ragged staf wiUi a bird enclosed in it. A standing boole of silver w^ cover, 
all gilte, poiz zzxvij ouz. quar., more, two saltes of silver, parcell gilte, 
with cover poiz. zix oz. quar. dd. and money xx"/' To Aiine Asteley 
second child and second daughter, *< a tablet of gold with Adam and 
Eve tempted by the Sperite figured over their hed&, one on thone side, 
and this scripture aboute it. Come forth TrowghU thoughe fahehoode be 
forowthe; } and on thother side, a man holding a brawnche of flowers in 
his handCy and a woman holdinge a harte in her hande, and this scripture 

* There is a remarkable series of alabaster tablets Bculptnred in relief represoni* 
ing the anoertry of the Points fEunily, in Kortk Ockendon Chnroh. The figures axe 
in annour of yarious periods considerably anterior to the date of the sculptores, 
soggeetiBg the probability that some have been copied either ftom painted guus or 
that the sculptor represented some portions of ancient armour then remaining in 
the fiunily mansion. I append this note from recollection only, after a lapse of some 

t Mieux aui h^eage qu$ U4 dans la eag$, 

X Oom$ forth truth, though faiwhood b$ wroth. 


aboute them, Taks you here my harte with love and love more. A ringe 
of golde, a Turkeys * in y^ ; more fiftene score and xxiij links of my own 
cbayn of golde fsLsioned Uke the lynks of a cote of male and not much 
bigger, but some what thycker then they comenly be ; more, an eye for 
abiUyment of zl garnet stones rounde like beddes and zliiij peaces of 
golde betwen them, enamyled blewe in the mydest ; more, a playne salte 
of sOver with a couer gOte, poiz by estimaoon, xxiij oz : more two 
standing potts of silver, all gilte, with drawen stiypes, playne, poiz ujj'zij 
oz. more, a dozen silver spoones with the zij apostells, parcell gilte poiz 
. • . • oz. dd. more, a gilte spoone with Christ at th'ende, f poiz by 
estimacon one oz. dd, and in golde of half soverann of Henry theights 
coyn three score pounds.'' To Isaac Asteley '* a hoope of golde, my 
fint husbands weddinge ringe, sometyme. To Jacob Asteley, the saide 
Fraunoes fyveth child alive and her seconde sonne alive in birth, Maister 
Pointz chayne of gold sometyme of tenne score and fyve lynks, fasioned 
rownde. To Cheny Asteley sixthe child alive and in age the thirde 
Sonne in birth, a lady assumpted all in golde with her sonne in her armes 
and setting on the half mono with a ruby stone in y^ ; ]: and a ringe of 
gold with a ruby in y^ ; a standing boole of silver with a cover graven 
aU over w**^out, poiz xxxiij oz.^' To Rebecca, daughter of the said 
Frances Asteley *' a broche all of gold with a woman sitting upon a 
wheale and slawinge a lyon by the backe ; § a ringe of gold w^ a stone 
in y* of a redd stone graven with an old croked man ; a gilte goblet with 
a cover graven with Pointz armes and my owne in the topp, xxxj oz. dd. 
Dated 1550. 

SxcoND Will.— [After commendation of her soul to Gk)d] '< and my 
bodv I will to be buried in holy buriall according to the orders of the 
Gatnolicke Churche with such honest obsequies and Rites as to my stata 
and degre shalbe thought convenient by my executors." [Testator re« 
cites a certain deed, dated 6 June, 1550, '* under my marke and scale" 
by which she has covenanted to give certain effects to the children of 
IVances Asteley, and now gives them over and above as follows,! unto 
Anne Asteley daughter of the said Frances, *' Item, my paire of beades 
made of the gametts given her afore by my deade with small golden 
beades between the garnetts, and all manner gamisshing longing to them. 
Item, a nother billiment of pearle gamissed with the gold that was 
aboute the said gametts given her as afore conteyning Ivij peeces. Item, 
an upper biUyment of gold, poiz two ounces quar. whiche the Queues 
highnes gave me at her coronation. Item, a nother upper billiment of 
golde and pearle, conteyning cit pearles and xxxij peeces of golde given 
me by the Queues highnes for my new yeares gifte. Item, a ringe of 
golde with a ruby given me also by my Lorde of Cumberland. || Item, 

« Turquoise. 

t A complete set of thirteen Apostle Spoons, the handles finished with figures of 
our Ix>rd and His Apostles. They were fireqnently given by Sponsors at fiaptisoi 
to the child. WealUiy persons gave a full set ; others one, two, four or more, 
according to their means. These elegant and artistic spoons are again brought into 
use and some very good sets have bcfen manu&ctured. 

{ " A lady, &c" A clerical error, no doubt, for ** Our Lady : " the well-known 
representation of the Assumption of the B.Y.M., derived from the Apocalypse, oh. 
xii., V. 1. Brooches and earrings of the Assumption were common. 

(Perhaps St Catherine. 
Henry Gli£ford, Baron Clifford and Earl of Cumberland, died in 1569. 


a hoope of golde enamyled blaoke, poiz about an angell. Item, in gold 
fourtie pounds ; and more, one sovereigne of xxx*, a double duckett of 
xxiT', a Rjall of xt", a duckett of xit*, an angell of x*. Item, besides 
one louse gowne of blacke damask and a round kcrtill of blacke 
satten • • • ." 

** I will also to the said Anne Asteley for service done me at corte 
and diligent attendance used towards me in my sicknes, and I will that 
these said purcells shalbe delivered to the said Anne on the day of her 
nuurryage as thother things given her." If she die before, they to be 
divided between her brothers and sisters. [Other small legacies of 
money and apparel to servants, &o.] Dated 16 May, 1554. Proved IS 
Uay, 1654. 

One or two extracts from 

Thb Will ov Thohas Hastblek, o? Bawbeth, Daiteb 
22*^ Jan., and Photbd 4" Fm., 1527-8, 

Are introduced chiefly on account of the singular order 
given in the directions for his funeral, as well as for the 
purpose of shewing what religious rites an opulent yeoman 
of the time thought proper to ordain should be performed 
for his soul's hedth, 

Thomas Hasteler at the time of his decease held the 
lease of the Manor of Bawreth Hall, was owner of a farm 
called BurreUs, divers tenements, which he divided among 
his sons, and possessed sufficient personalty to leave four 
of them 20 marks apiece in money, and to three others 
£6 13s. 4d. each. A brass plate with the following in- 
scription to his memory, engraven in old English, exists 
in Eawreth Church : — 

®f BO* tf^ante ptas fot t^t Sboules of ^6oms l^astekr, 
^Igs Xlgnote ^ %otm ^\% togf to!)tcjb tlTjboms Heces^eH p' xA 
tmp of ^anuats s' s^^' ^^ o' I^^^ mb'xMi on fofios soulcs ^lu 
j^abe metcp. 

A rubbing of this brass (preserved, I believe, with others 
in the parish chest) was sent to me in the year 1847, 
several months after I had visited the church. No mention 
of the family of Hasteler, or of* this inscription, occurs in 
Essex History. To me it has been the key to a repository 
of a great deal of parochial and family nistory that has 
been concealed for at least three centuries, and which 


eoUaterally leads to the disoovery of more. I venture to 
Bay that no other key nor any other olue was in existenoe. 
Yet, after all, valuable as this solitary memorial is, it is of 
minor importanoe in oomparison with others whioh are 
irrecoverably lost. If the reader have visited many Essex 
Churches^ with the recollection only of those inscriptions 
recorded by Salmon and Muilman, he must have been 
surprised at the amount of monumental destruction whioh 
has happened since they wrote, and even within our own 
recollection ; and equally surprised to find so many monu- 
mental brasses detached from their slabs, with no friendly 
hand to secure them in their places.* 

We deplore the sacrilegious violence of political or 
religious fanatics in past ages which deprived us of so 
many monuments of ancient art; but the deliberate, 
thoughtless, or capricious aggression of the modem Church 
Bestorer upon sepulchral memorials, surely deserves severer 
censure, and is equally fatal to the pursuit of historical 
and arohsBological research. 

It has become a very recent practice among Church 
Bestorers to bury sepulchral slabs beneath the pavement. 
The morality or the legality of this practice it is not our 
business to discuss. It is, however, exciting the serious 
attention of ArchaBologists.t We may countervail the 
ravages of time by transcription, but are foiled by this 

* I ha^re on sereral ocoasionfl feen monumental braases ezhiMted at «ntiqnaHB& 
meetingB in London ; and I know of others in private poaseanon. They have nsually 
been purchased of doalera, but the ChnrcheB fiiom which they have been abstraoted 
are unknown. Bubbings of aome hurge eacocheons in braas, bought in London, and 
bolieved to have come from a Church in Essex, were sent to me from Cambridge- 
ehire ; but I have not been able to appropriate them. Not lon^ since I endeavoiwed 
to purchase some small effigies of the 16th century, exhibited b^ a door-plate 
engraver in my own neighbourhood, who, however, declined to part with them, as he 
kept them for ** shew plates." I gave an account of the robbery of brasses from the 
ruinous Church of Chin^ord a few years ago. Also, in the ** C^ntleman's Magazine,'* 
I published an inscription from, a brass from a Church in Norfolk, purchased by a 
friend in London. It recorded the endowment- of a parochial charity by the person 
commemorated. The Church to which it belongs was discovered, ana its restoration 
proposed : but so little interest was api)arently felt about it there, that I believe it 
IS considered safer, at least pro torn., in private hands. Mr. Suckling informs ua 
that the inscription plate upon the monument of John Tanfidd in Margaretting 
Church was wrenched off and sold by a late parish clerk, temptod thereto by the 
trifling value of the old metal. 

t ** On the Preservation of Sepulchral Inscriptions," by T. W. King, Bouge 
Bragon, "Arch. Journal," Vol. I., p. 135. 

"Itaaiarks on the Desecration and Robberies in Sacred Edifices," by Vice- 
Admiral W. H. Smyth, F.R.S., F.S.A., &c., &c. 

" Collectanea Antiqua," VoL V., p. 248, by C. Roach Smith. 


newly devised species of yandalisin as effectually as if the 
slabs were totally destroyed.* 

Church Bestorers and Church Officers are too often 
neither acquainted with, nor interested in, their parochial 
history, and are, therefore, incapable of judging of the 
value of a name, a date, or a sculptured escocheon which 
might open to the antiquary a volume of past history. 
ThjB is not their fault ; we have not all the same tastes ; 
do not possess the same acquirements; cannot all adopt 
the same pursuits. But ignorance becomes culpable when 
it is mischievous, and the spirit of destructiveness must 
be restrained. If there be no competent authority to 
check or to control the spoliators, Archadologists, at any 
rate, will not cease to bear witness against them.f 

To the historian, the antiquary, and the genealogist, 
sepulchral inscriptions are invaluable, and now that the 
Public Beoords have been rendered more generally acces- 
sible, the epitaphs have acquired a more practical value as 
a ready index, and often the only references to documents 
among the national archives.:): 

In his will Thomas Hasteler says — 

I bequeath my soul to Almighty Qod, the Blessed Mary, and all the 
Holy Company of Heaven, and my body to be buried in the parish 
church of S. Nicholas, Rawreth. Give to the high altar of S. Nicholas 
Rawrethy for my tithes negligently forgotten 6*. 8<^., and a '* wedcr sheep 

* When I took Ohnioh-notefl at Low Lejton, I sooglit in Tain for the tomb of 
the celebrated historian and anti(^uajy the Bev. John Strype. I addressed the 
Editor of the *' Gentleman's Magazine " on the subject, bnt no information respecting 
it wua obtained. Only recently I hare been informed that the slab has been interred 
beneath tiie pavement of the Sacrarimn. Strype was a great bene&ctor to Low 
Leyton ; he rebuilt the Parsonage and executed extensive repairs upon the CSiurch, 
in great part at his own cost. He was studious to preserve sepulchral remains. 
Tute his great work, " Strype*s Additions to Stow's Survey." The fiite from which 
he studied to preserve the mscriptions of others, has in brief space fiUlen upon his 

t Thus, at Leigh, where a good deal of monumental destruction was accomplished 
in 1837-8, the earlier register being lost, and no records relating to a parochial 
charity being in the possession of the parish, the Church authorities, in their united 
wiBMiom, threw down the only tomb which gave me, last year, a clue to the complete 
elucidation of the History of the Moyer Charity, which was the result of three 
several testamentary bene&ctions at long intervals, proving at the same time that 
Morant's account is both confused and erroneous. The Keport of the Commis- 
sioners for Charities, whatever may be considered its legal value, is, in my 
judgment, a happy illustration of "the blind leading the blind/' as well as a 
standuig record of official incompetence. The destruction and interment of sepul- 
chral slabe of course renders such investigation daily more difficult, if not impos- 
sible. I had copied the inscriptions in that Church, fortunately^ a few years before 
the hand of the BeMtwer t had passed over it. 

X Liscriptions frequentiy pronounced illegible, are often perfectiy legible to prac- 
tised eyes ; and there are several ways of bringing a fiunt and detrited inscription 
into dear and prominent relief. 


to be afore droove to goo before my bodie to the church at the day of 
my burialL" To Sir William my Curate to pray for my soul 2*. 

The wether sheep was clearly an offering in kind to the 
High Altar. 

With respect to the celebration of his obsequies, the 
testator says : — 

An honest priest to be found to sing mass for my soul, the souls of my 
friends and all christian souls, for two years in Rawreth Church, with 
dirige and commendation twice a week, taking yearly for his salary 
£6 13s. 4d. ; and immediately after my decease my executors cause to 
be sung at Scala Ccsli * at the freres of London and Essex as many 
trentols of mass for my soul, my friends souls and all Christian souls, 
as shall amount to £6 18s. 4d. Also that my executors bring me 
honestly to the earth with dirige and three masses by note, and do 
honestly for me, and keep a solemn month's mind and a year's mind ; 
and half of my goods not bequeathed to Thomas Hasteler, the elder, and 
JFohn Hasteler, the elder, [two of testator's sons] whom I make mv ex- 
ecutors, my executors shall dispose for the health of my soul» ana the 
other half to my executors and other children if alive. 

John Hasteler, no doubt one of the testator's sons, was 
tenant of lands in South Bemfleet, under Henry Appleton, 
Esq., in 1545. I find also the Will of John Hasteler, of 
Fiittlewell, yeoman, proved in 1599. He was probably 
grandson of Thomas Hasteler of Rawroth and left issue, 
male and female. His will, though it enumerates many 
of his household utensils, is of no special interest, but it 
shews that the family still maintained a good position as 
well-to-do yeomanry. 

An opulent class of yeomanry was fast rising in the 
latter part of the 15th century, many of them destined in 
one or two generations to take rank among the landed 
gentry and become " gentlemen of coat armour." Thomas 
Cocke, of Prittlewell, was a wealthy yeoman in the reign 
of Hen. VIII., and also a man of very ancient lineage. 
One of his nephews and successors wedded a daughter of 
Thomas Lord Wentworth, Chamberlain to King Edward 
VI. Two members of the family obtained distinct grants 
of arms, and acquired the rank of gentlemen.f 

* A representation of the Seala eaUy at Home, at which the same devotion wm pre- 
scribed and practiced. The altar was at the top of the seala. 

t A giant of aims was made in 1587, by Sir William Dethicke, Garter, onto 
*' John Cocke, of Prittlewell, son and heir of John Cocke, of Shopland, Esq., and 
Elirabeth, his wife, one of the daughters of the Rt. Hon. Thomas Lord Wontwoith, 
Lord Chamberlaine to King Edw. Yl., which John was the son of Richard Cocke, 



I insert several extracts from 

The Will of Thomas Cockb, of Prittlewbll, Dated 
21" July, 1544, and Pkoved 7" Feb., 1544 (i.e.. 

giying the precise date of some extensiye reparations 
on the north side of Prittlewell Church which are very 
distinctly marked by the masonry, and affording some 
particulars relating to the Confraternity of Jesus in that 

The testator describes himself as ^^ Thomas Cock, yeman 
of the Kings Majestys most honorable Guard, late 
of Prittlewell, in the county of Essex." He dates his 
will at " Cales," 21 July, 1544 ; but the attestation shews 
that it was read at Prittlewell in the presence of witnesses 
and subsequently formally executed at Calais by the sign 
manual of the testator. The attestation runs as follows :— » 

Read in the presence of John Smith and Thomas Bjrch, yeomen of 
the Kings Majestys honorable Guard, Thomas Salmon of Lye,* and 
WyUyam Salmon of Prittlewell and others, but also subscribed the same 
with mine own hand at " Gales,'' the day and year aboye written, per 
me, Thomas Cocke. 

Thomas Cocke held the lease of the farm called Shelford 
and Bredworth in Foulness, well stocked with sheep and 
oxen ; owned a farm called Beynolds in Shopland ; oyster 
layings in Little Wakering ; many houses and shops in the 
town of Prittlewell ; and other houses, woods, crofts, and 

the son of John Cocke the elder, and anciently defloendedbv P>oof of sundry evi- 
dences (from one Ranulphus Gocus) dated in reu^ of Hen. Hi., Edw. m., Hen. IV., 
Hen. I., &e." Then k>11owb the blazon : " Sables and goiild indented per pale. 
Oeet a tmioom's head ooop^ per pale, gould and sables upon a chapeau BoTall gules, 
lined ermine." — ^Harl. M.S., 1607. A grant also appears to have been made to John 
Cocke, of Little Stambridge, in 1588, " Sa. three bends arg.," bv Cooke, darenoeux. 
Both coats are quartered on the monument of Maiy, wife of Kichard Davies, and 
^est daughter of John Cocke and EHsabeth his wifSe, daughter of Lord Wentworth. 
Mary Davies died 2 Sept, 1623. 

* Leigh. Thomas Salmon, of an ancient fiunil^ resident there for three centuries. 
He died 6 Auff., 1576, aged 70, and was interred in the Chiurch with an inscriptioB 
in brass, now loist. Other sepulchral memorials of the fiunily, however, remain, 
including a mural monument of Bobert Salmon, Esq., Master of the Trinity House 
in 1617 ; one of his sons, Peter Salmon, was an eminent physician in the 17th 
century ; educated at Etcm and King's College, Cambridge ; and a graduate in 
Arts and Medicine of the Universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Padua. CPed, 
pen$$ me. Dr. Monk's '* Hist, of the Coll. of Phjrsicians.") Several valuable and most 
interesting monuments in Leigh Church were destroyed or removed during the 
restorations about the year 1837. Iconoclasm and vandalism are not confined to 
I7th century Puritans. 


sundry parcels of land in the parish. He mentions his 
brothers William and Richard ; and three nephews Thomas, 
John and Bobert Cocke. 

Without regard to the order in which they occur, I will 
first notice those passages in the will that have reference 
to the Jesus Guild. All that has been hitherto known of 
it is what is mentioned by Morant, that in ^^ King Edward 
the lY^ reign, lands and tenements were put in ifeoiSment 
here, by two wardens, one master, one priest, and certain 
brethren, to find a priest called Jesus Priest ; which 
chantry was worth at the suppression 7^ 17*' 0^, and in 
the Certificate it is said that this waa a populous town, 
haying 300 houseling people."* 

At the east end of the south aisle of th& Church is a 
large chapel, measuring 24ft. lOin. by I9ft. 3in., which 
was most probably the Jesus Chapel. It has an east 
window of four lights and two triple light windows upon 
the south. 

On the south side of Frittlewell street there is a house 
still called ^^ Jesus House," but presenting no marks oS 
antiquity.f It is now occupied, as I am mformed, as a 
beershop, and has a garden attached. That it stands upon 
the site of the ancient Guild House, and is the same pro- 
perty described in the will of Thomas Cocke as ^^ my house 
that I bought of the Brotherhood of Jesus Guild," cannot 
be doubted. In another part of his will he says, ^^ The 
Brothers of Jesus owe me £S 10s. sterling, I will that my 
executors receive it of them, and of the same I will that 
they shall employ and bestow y marks in table cloths and 
other necessaries for their feast." The Beformation had 
yery probably caused a laxity in the management of their 
affairs ; the brethren were largely in debt to Thomas 
Cocke, they had sold to him some of their property, per- 
haps anticipating that they might not be able to retain it 
long, and in the next reign all the residue of the endow- 
ment was seized by the Crown. In 1575 it was in the 

* HonfieUn^ People, i.e., Beoeiyers of the Sacrameiit of the Altar, (Anglo Saxon. 
Soutel y. SuwlJ, which, down to the reign of Edward YI., undoubtedly compriBed 
the whole of tiie adult population; so that an eetimate maybe formed of the 
approximate number of inhabitants at this date. 

t I am informed by the proprietor that in a title deed^ dated 1799, it is described 
as "Jesus HaU." 


possession of John Cocke, of Little Stambridge Hall, 
nephew of the testator, who had married the daughter of 
Lord Wentworth, and to her he left it for life, by will 
dated 1674, under the title of ^^ Jesus Hampstalls." 

Thomas Cocke also leaves to his nephew, John Cooke, a 
tenement described as ^^ my house next the Church gate." 
This ancient tenement is still standing and from its position 
(abutting upon the grave yard) may possibly have been 
the dwelling of the Jesus Priest. He gives also ^^ towards 
building the north part of the Church of Prittlewell 40^" 
This work is very distinctly marked. Nearly half the 
length and about two-thirds of the height of the north 
wall of the chancel towards the nave are six inches thicker 
than the rest, and a plinth of the same projection is also 
continued to the eastern extremily of the wall. The 
thicker portion seems to define the limit of the reparation, 
which probably consisted of the rebuilding of the eastern- 
most part, setting the new wall on the old foundation, and 
leaving that as a plinth. One half of a constructional arch 
of brick may be seen in the thicker part of the wall, the 
other half having apparently been cut away by the altera- 

The following is testator's legacy to the poor : — 

My executors shall caase three bushels of wheat to be baked and made 
into penny loaves, and a bullock to be killed and distributed to the poor 

?eople yearly at Christmas even, as long as the lease of Shelford and 
Iradworth do continue, in whose hands soever they shall be.- 

John Cocke, of Little Stambridge Hall, in his will, dated 
12 December, 1574, and Proved Jan. 27, 1675, orders the 
same benefaction to be continued in these words, ^^ My 
executors to distribute yearly one ox and half a quarter of 
wheat, baked, to the poor of Prittlewell, according to the 
gift of my late uncle, Thomas Cocke." And the following 
bequest refers to a structure of which I cannot learn that 
any record or even a tradition exists : ^^ To the building of 
the Market Crosse of Pritwell 100'." He gives these 
small legacies : " To the E*. Hon. Thomas Wentworth, 
K*., Lord Wentworth, my wife's brother, one Portegue of 
gold.* To Mr. Henry Wentworth, my lord's brother, 

* Portaffae, a Foituguese gold coin worth about £3 12b. It waa madi esteemed 
in England, but waa not unfrequently of base metal, gilded. It 10 a very oommon 

legacy in old Wills. 


Mr. William Wentworth, my lord^s eldest son, and to his 
brother, Henry Wentworth, each 20% To Mrs. Margaret 
Wentworth, my wife's sister, my nag called " Button." 

These are the chief points of interest in the two pre* 
ceding wills. With some extracts from 

Thb Will .op Babtholombw Avbrbll, op Southminstbr, 
Gentleman, Dated 1 Mat, and Fboyed 29 June, 1562, 

I will conclude this paper. The first of this family 
mentioned in Essex history is Henry Averell, of London, 
goldsmith, who died 13^ ICov., 1540, and was succeeded 
by his son John, who deceased 20^ Sept., 1554. His 
cousin Bartholomew Ayerell, the testator, nephew of 
Henry, was his heir, then aged 42. The Ayerell family 
had considerable estates in Warley, Bainham, Thunders- 
ley, Great Stambridge, Canewdon, Fambridge, South- 
minster, &c. 

The testator givQS the following directions for his 
burial : — 

** I win to be buried in the oburch of Southminster aforesaid, before 
my pue, betwene it and the ehauncel, and one marble stone to be laied 
upon me, with the pictures and names of my wives and children to be 
graven upon the same. Item, I give and bequeath unto the poore walk- 
ing people that resorte to my burial vi^ xiij' iiij'^, and also those at my 
month's day V* xiij* iiij**.* To ev'y poor parishioner of Southminster 
and Althorne, that have neither lands nor cattals, vi' viij**." ... 

Give *' to Henry Hall all my cotes of clothe of what col' soever they 
be, and all my hose and dubletts of fustian : and all myne other apparell 
I give to my brother Will'm Averell, whensoever he requireth after my 
decease. 1 give to every of my cov*nant 8*vauntes a blacke cote of vi* 
the yerde." • • • • 

Omitting the devise of his manors and estates, though of 
value for the purpose of county history, I extract a list 
of sundry articles of plate bequeathed to his wife and 
daughters. He gives to '^ ffelise," his wife, 

** zij silver spoones called slippes, one salte p'cell gilte of silver, a 
grete square salte of silver parcell gilte, ij booles p'cell gilte with a oou'r, 
and a silver goblet, parcell gilte, a white silver pott, with a haunche and 
a haunche and a lidd, thre ecu's all gilte." . . \ Residue of plate 

• It IB noteworthy that the oTMervance of the " month's mind'' still lingered. It 
may be doubtfal how it was obseryed. Probably by on Eucharifitic celebration as 
pescxibed in the Latin prayer-book of Queen Elizabeth. " Celebratio QoQD» Donuni 
in Fonebrilms," (si amici et vicini defoncti oommunicare veUnt). 


not bequeathed to f^ to my three daughters, in which division to be 
made Qraoe and Elisabeth shall have ** two great gilte saltes and ij dos. 
silver spones th'on dozen with maiden hedds, th'other Mrith rounde 
knoppes." fMentions a legacy of his uncle Henry to be given to poor 
maidens to their marriage, stiU in his hands, which he orders to be dis- 
posed as his uncle desired.] 

Testator left three daughters eo-heirs,. vis., Mary, wife 
of John Sammes, aged 19, Oraoe aged 11, and Elizabeth, 
8 years old. He mentions three brothers^ William, Ben- 
nett and Harr^ Averell, and his brother-m-law, Yinoent 
Harria Appoints Arthur Harris, his son-in-law, executor. 

It will have been noticed that the few. Wills from which 
I haye abeady printed extracts have corrected many errors 
of Morant. Others, of which I have either copies or ab- 
stracts, rectify many more. The errors in date, and the 
confusion of persons are, in fetct, more frequent than I 
could have anticipated, while his genealogies are often 
defective and inaccurate.* This is becoming daily more 
apparent by mj own limited researches, and the more 
extended investigations of others. Every Essex Historian 
who has succeeded him has implicitly followed his text, 
and consequently repeated his errors; but no one has 
hitherto supplied his omissions. 

Of the learning and industry of Morant I would speak 
with the most profound respect. When he had access to 
original documents he is undoubtedly trustworthy, for his 
ab^Oity as an historian and topographer, and his skill as a 
paleographer, cannot be questioned. Numerous errors were 
inseparable from so great a work begun and completed by 
one man, who for the most part was obliged to trust to 
transcripts of records made by others, and to collections 
formed at various periods, whose accuracy, with all the un- 
usual facilities which he possessed, he could not always 
verify. At the present day liberal access is afforded to 
students to almost every Department of the Public Becords. 

* Take, #.^., one illufltration which I have at hand, where Moxant, voL 1., p. 263, 
mokes Sir Roger Appleton to haye died 26 Feb., 1567, miHtaking him for his grand- 
son, and giving him the possession of considerable estates which were not acquired 
until the next generation. I had recently prepared an elaborate genealo^ of this 
fiamily, perfect down to the extinction of the ]£ftronetage ; but my labour is brought 
to an abrupt termioation by information lately recdyed, that ttte sepulchral me- 
morials of the descendants of the family haye just been buried beneath the paye« 
ment of Shenfield Church. Do Chuxch Bestorers bury their own iainily monomoits 
or only those of other people P 


Few, however, possess the leisure, fewer still, perhaps, the 
taste to endure the tedious and solitary occupation of trans- 
scribing Wills and Inquisitions, with the definite object of 
thoroughly revising the County History. But that it does 
require revision throughout is certain, and I have scarcely 
touched a Will which does not rectify some inaccuracy. 
In truth, a History of Essex is yet to be written. But 
such a work is almost the labour of a lifetime, and the 
present generation is hardly likely to witness its accom- 
plishment. The labours of the Essex ArchcBological Society, 
and the MSS. of Private Collectors and Annotators, may, 
however, furnish materials which will enable some future 
Historian to fulfil the task. 



By H. W. Enra. 

Many of the more ancient families of the nohility and 
gentry bore a Badge or Cognizance in addition to^ and 
distinct from, their armorial bearings, which was used 
almost with as much frequency as the armorial ensigns 
themselves. It was embroidered upon the habits of their 
domestics and retainers ; it decorated their furniture and 
apartments, and appeared in painted windows ; it was 
sculptured upon the walls of their mansions, and is often 
seen among the architectural embellishments of the 
churches of which they were the founders, patrons, or 
benefactors ; but mo1*e especially was it conspicuous in 
its profuse repetition upon their military standards. 

The Badge must not be confounded either with the 
Crest or the Device. The Crest is invariably set upon 
a torse^ or a chapeau, or issues from a coronet. A Device 
was adopted upon some special or particular occasion, such 
as a joust or tournament, and was accompanied by a motto 
or legend containing some covert or significant allusion to 
it Dallaway ascribes the origin of Devices to ^* about the 
year 1460, during the Neapolitan wars, when the use of 
coat armour was relinquished in a great measure by the 
Italian chiefs, who caused certain emblems or symbolical 
devices to be painted upon their shields, illustrated by 
short classical allusions and quotations, descriptive either 
of the particular enterprise or of the general character of 
the bearer ;" and defines the Device or impress as, " a 
painted metaphor or rather an enigma inverted."* 

* Dallaway's ''Inquiriee into the Origin and Progress of the Science of Hentldxy 
in England," p. 391. At a solemn tourney between the Earls of Leicester and Ozford* 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, these impresses and mottoes were displayed. 1. 
An ostrich holding a key in her mouth. " Spiiitus durissima ooquit." 2. A rock 
in the 8ea. ** Conontia frangere firang^unt." 3. An urn with incense. " Sic tua 
nos Tirtus." 4. An unicorn dipping his horn in the sea. " Venena pello." 5. The 
sun bursting through a doud. " Obvia nubila solvont." 6. A rock in the sea. 
« Natures non artis opus." "MSB. Dugdale Ck)ll. Arms." Note ibid. 392. In 
reference to the 4th device and motto, see note p. 179 anU, ** Ancie&t Wills/' on 
the supposed power of the unicorn's horn to dispel poison. 


It may, perhaps, sometimes have happened that a device 
assumed for the occasion was subsequently adopted as the 
household Badge in commemoration, for example, of a suc- 
cessful encounter in the lists in which it was first borne. 

A Badge was sometimes selected from a charge in the 
coat of arms, but much more generally it was adopted as 
containing some allusion to the name, office, estate or 
circumstances of the bearer, and was, perhaps, almost in- 
variably a kind of rebus, though that term seems more 
applicable to the Device. We have one notable example 
of this, when Thomas Moubray, Duke of Norfolk, appeared 
against Henry, Duke of Hereford (King Henry the IV^), 
in the celebrated joust at Coventry, upon a horse covered 
with trappings of velvet, embroidered with lions and mul- 
henry trees intended to typify his name. The badge of 
Marguerite of Anjou, was a Daisy ; that of Thomas of 
Woodstock, the Stock of a Tree ; Catherine of Arragon 
bore a bundle of Arrows. Similar examples of allusive 
badges might be adduced, and although the derivation of 
others is involved in obscurity, yet, were the circumstances 
known, the majority would probably be found to have 
originated in a pun or rebus. A few certainly owe their 
origin to some memorable achievement and are conse- 
quently badges of more honourable distinction, such as 
tiiose of Felham and De la Warr, which had the following 
origin, as related by Collins : —  

^^ John de Felham was a person of great fame in the 
reign of Edw. III. He attended that victorious monarch 
in his wars with the French, and was a competitor in 
taking John, King of France, prisoner at the battle of 
Foictiers, on Monday, Sept. 19^, 1356. Froysart gives 
an account that with the King were taken, besides his son 
Fhilip, the Earl of Tankerville, Sir Jaques of Bourbon, the 
Earls of Fonthieu and Eue, with divers other noblemen, 
who being chased to Foictiers, the town shut their gates 
against them, not suffering any to enter, so that divers 
were slain, and every Englishman had four, five or six 

 CollSns's "Peerage," Vol. H., p. 87, edit. 1768. JacoVe " Peerage," Vol. I., 
p. 342. Sir John FVoioaart mentions neither de Pelham nor De la Wair in con- 
nection with the (»pture. He is very circumstantial in his relation that the sur- 
render was to Sir I^enys de Morbeque. " FroiMart's Chron.," Vol. 1., p. 223, Smith's 



prisoners, and the press being great to take the King, 
such as knew him cried ^ Sir, yield or you are dead I ' 
Whereupon, as the Chronicle relates, he yielded himself 
to Sir Dennis Morbeck, a Knight of Artois in the English 
service, and being afterwards forced from him, more than 
ten Knights and Esquires challenged the taking of the 
King. Among these," adds Collins, '^ Sir Boger la Warr, 
and John de Pelham were most concerned ; and in memory 
of so signal an action, and the King surrendering his sword 
to them, Sir Boger la Warr, Lord la Warr, had the Orampet 
or Chape of his [, the King's] sword for a badge of that 
honour, and John de Pelham, afterwards knighted, had the 
Buckle of a belt [i.^., the King's] as the mark of the same 
honour, which was sometimes used by his descendants as a 
seal manual, and at others the said buckles on each side of 
a cage, being an emblem of the captivity of the King of 
France, and was therefore borne for a crest, as in tibiose 
times was customary." 

The Tyrell Badge seems to have escaped the notice of 
all the Essex historians, and I know of no publication 
which mentions it. My object in this paper is, first, to 
shew that temp. Hen. YIIL one branch of the Tyrells bore 
as a Badge ^^ three bows," which are represented as three 
bows of riband, and then to shew that this is either a cor- 
ruption of an earlier Badge of three Long Bows interlaced, 
or a variety adopted by the Gipping branch in which the 
allusive meaning of the original Badge is completely lost. 

I have long known that Thomas Tyrell, of Gipping, 
in Suffolk, in the reign of Hea YIIL, carried upon his 
standard a peculiar badge, namely an interlaced and end- 
less knot, and I have been accustomed to designate it the 
" Tyrell knot."  By the courteous consent of G. H. 
Hogers-Harrison, Esq., F.S.A., Windsor Herald, I am 
enabled to present to the Society an accurate etching of 

* Sereral fiuniliefl uBed a Knot for a household badge ; 0.g,, the Lacy Knot, the 
Btaffoid Knot, the Bourchier Knot, the Bowen Knot, and the Wake Knot, all of 
which are either aUasiye, or form the initial letter of tiie bearer's name. The firatted 
bows have quite as doee a &ndfal resemblance to the initial letter "T, There are 
also the Heneage, Harrington, Hungerford and Dacre Knots. The Hungerford 
Knot unites their own badge of a sickle with a garb the badge of the PeTorells ; 
and the Dacre Knot connects their own escallop with the raggeii staff of the NeviUs. 
The Dacre badge may be seen on an old chair, Drought from BeUiTU, which stands 
at the north end of the altar in Ayeley Church. 



the Standard of Thomas Tyrell, of Gipping, copied from 
the original in a MS. volume of Standards of TTnights and 
Nobili^, temp. Hen. VIIL, in the College of Arms.  

It is unnecessary to describe a standard to archaeologists, 
but as there is an almost universal popular ignorance of 
what a standard is, I venture to describe it here for the 
sake of others into whose hands this Journal may chance 
to Mly trusting that my antiquarian readers will pardon 
the digression.t 

Firstly, then, a standard is invariably of the shape in- 
dicated in the engraving, but it differs in length according 
to the rank of the bearer. Every standard must have the 
cross of S. George in chief, that is next the staff. It is 
usually crossed diagonally by two or three motto bends, in 
which is inscribed the cri de guerre^ war cry, or motto ; 
but occasionally the cri de guerre or motto runs lengthwise 
across the upper part of the standard, and sometimes the 
motto bends are omitted.^: The crest is placed in the first 
division, next the cross of S. George, and the remaining 
divisions are usually filled with repetitions of the family 
badge, or with charges taken from the coat of arms. But 
the coat of arms is never emblazoned upon a standard. 
The field of the standard seems, to depend, as a rule, upon 
the tinctures of the arms ; but probably the field was 
sometimes of the liveries of the house, when those liveries 
differed, as in some instances they did, from the colours 
of the family esQocheon ; for the Percy standard was 

* The etching is a redaced /m iimil$, half the size of the Qriginal draidnf . 
Vide "Excerpta Historica" for a descriptive account of the standards in thia 
volume which, inter alia, contains ten standards borne by knights and nobility in 


t For example, that which is popularly known, and invariably called by the 
newspaper press, the '' Boyal Standard" or the '* Standard of England," is not a 
Btandara, hot the ** Hoyal Banner of Aims." 

X The prime origin of the motto was nndoabtedly the eri d$ gv$rr$. The more 
recent " mot," or sentiment came in with the custom of devices. It is plain that it 
could never have been borne beneath the shield as at present displayed. Its proper 
place was npon the standard. Some few familifiH retain their ancient batue-crj 
vrith a more recent motto. 

§ In early times the standard was so large that it could not be borne in battle^ 
but travelled upon wheels, and was set in the centre of the field where it Ibnned the 
rallying point for the army. In later times the size was redaced and regulated. In 
the reign of Henry YIII. the prescribed length of the standard, according to rank, 
was as follows. The King's Standard, set b^ore the Pavilion or Tent^ not bome^ 
11 yards ; borne, 8 or 9 yards. A Duke's standard, borne, 7 yards ; an EarVs 6 
yards ; a Banneret's 4j^ yards ; a Enight*8 4 yards. (HarL JiS. 2358.) MS. 


The standard of Thomas Tyrell, of Gipping, is charged 
as usual with the cross of S. George ; the crest a boar's 
head erect, out of his mouth a peacock's tail ; six repeti- 
tions of the Tyrell Badge in the form of three bows of 
riband forming an interlaced and endless knot| and the 
motto inscribed in the bends in old French^ Taut pour U 

I have now to demonstrate that the Tyrell badge, 
instead of three bows of riband forming an interlaced and 
endless knot, was originally three Long Bows fretted or 

In a former paper I have adverted to the miserable and 
pitiable destruction of Heron Hall, of which every his- 
torical memorial seems to have perished in its fall From 
the Powell MSS, ("Addl MSS. 17460-1 B.JU.J I extract 
the following interesting memorial relating to the Tyrell 
Badge : — • 

'^ Dunton. Proceeding we came to another large farm 
house ; in one of the rooms we found an ancient wainscot- 
ing of oak with several shields of the arms of Tyrell, and 
the badge of the three bows; in the window, a shield lozengy, 
were the escallops of Coggeshale, and another badge of that 
eminent family likewise, &c., &c. They were removed 
from Heron House. 

" Note. My cousin, the Rev. Harry Powell, Bector of 
Homdon, told me (1828) that he had lately visited this 
place and house, and informed me that not a single panel 
or piece of carved wood remained there, nor could he learn 
what was become of them." 

We might have been uncertain from this description, 

Lanfld. 256, t 431, containB the following Btatement : King's sfandard, not bomey 
11 yards ; borne, 8 or 9 yards : Duke's 7| yards ; Marquess's 6| yards ; Earl's 6 
Tards ; Visootint's 5} yards ; Banneret's 44 yards ; Anight's 4 yards ; all to be 
borne. Standards were appointed for Enignts, and were not borne by persons of 
lower rank. The Gnydon, which resembled the Standard, but was only m>m 2} to 
S yards lonf^, was allowed to Esquires. Banners were restricted to Bannerets and 
ouers of higher rank. 

* For the reference to this notice of the Tyrell Badge in the Powell collection, I 
am indebted to our associate, Mr. Thomas G. Archer. In July, 1860, 1 noted in tiie 
east window of the chancel of Dunton Church, the arms of Tyrell t™p«iK«g Borgatt 
or Burgate, denoting the match of Sir Edward Tyrell with Maud or Anne Burgate 
in the middle of the 14th century ; a coat barry erm. and ga. impaling de Cogges- 
haU ; another oriffinally bendy of eight, impaling ar. a cross gn. quarter-pierced az. 
The whole, I think, must be refeifed to the time of Edw. III. They may haTe 
been brought firom Heron, or else belonged to a former window in the chanoeL In 
some obscure nook in Ghxuxh or hall the fretted bows may yet, perduuicei be found. 


with only the Tyrell standard to refer to, what kmd of 
bows these were ; bnt Mr. Powell has fortunately pre- 
served a drawing representing an escooheon charged with 
three long bows fretted in triuigle.* 

It seems to me beyond doubt that the Badge was sug- 
gested by the assonance between Tyrell and the French 
Tirailler and TiraiUmrj in exact conformity with the usual 
allusivei punning mode of deriving these distinctions. 
Next unite the ends of the long bows and the figure of 
the interlaced and unending knot is formed, which, in my 
opinion, is not an intentional variation, but an accidental 
transformation and corruption of the original badge. Witih 
the exception of the Lord Braybrooke, who carries among 
his heraldic additamenta the badges of the rose and port- 
cullis, I believe there is no other funUy extant in the 
county (speaking under correction) entitled to o&rry this 
ancient species of heraldic decoration, a Badge or Oogni- 
zancat The standard of the House of Tyreu has been oft 
displayed in centuries gone by in many a well-fought 
field, and beneath its ancient crest and cognizance many 
a stalwart Essex and Suffolk yeoman has rallied and 
charged to the Tyrell war cries — ^^ Sana Dieu rein /'' ^^Twt 
ptmr le mieuxP^ — while their leaders, true to the latest 
motto of their House, have ever proved themselves ^^ Sans 


* BtncQy, the hadge should not be borne npon an eseodieoii; bat in arehiteotnral 
decorations badges, and other emblems whicA are not annonal, are '^m*f"ii*p^y set 
in shields. 

^ t Sir William Petre, fitther of John, first Baron Fetre^ had, howerer, speoial 
licence to assune a Badge or OognizEmoe under the following ciroomstances : In 
86 Hen. VIII., the King declaring his intention of InTading^ue IVenoh dinmnions 
for the reooyery of his right to the Grown of IVance, he appointed Sir Vi^iUiam 
Petre (one of the prindpid Secretaxies of State) one of the Oonnoil to be aiding and 
assisting to Qneen CSatherine, his consort, i n the administration during his absence : 
and, bemg so aggrandized, he, in 87 Hen. VHI., obtained special lirance to retain 
twenty men, besides his own menial serrants, and to give them liTeries, badges, or 
cognizances. (Jacob's ** Peerage," VoL II., p. 408.) I haye neyer mei, howerer, 
with a badge assigned to, or borne by, this fiEunily. 
t The mottoes of the Houses of Henm, GKpping and BoKeham 




By Gso. H. BoGERS Habbisok, F.S.A»» 

Wmdaor Herald, 

The Monumental Brass Effigy represented in the 
illustration was recently taken from a drawer in the 
Vestry of Great Parndon Church, where it had probably 
lain detached many years, by George Edward Adams, Esq., 
M.A., &o. His brother, the present Rector, the Rey. 
Henry Willoughby Adams, has since caused it to be 
re-laid in a slab within the altar rails. This was, no 
doubt, its original place, as Muillman, in his ^^ History of 
Essex,'' published in 1771 (Vol. iy. page 46), mentions this 
inscription as being on the floor within the Communion 
rails (where it remained to the present year), but as he 
makes no mention of the bralto figure, it is possible that 
eyen then it had become separated. 

The first of the Rampston family whose name we meet 
with in Essex history is Roland Rampston, who, on the 
16 of June, 1644, became possessed of the Manors of 
Gowers and Buckerells, in the parish of Chingford, 
apparently by purchase from Geoffrey Luckyn, who had 
obtained a grant of it from King Hen. YIII. in the same 
year. He was succeeded by his son, Robert Rampston, 
Esq., Yeoman of the Chamber to King Edward VI., 
Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. He died possessed of 
it, as well as of Stone Hall, in the parish of Little 
Canfield, on the 8 of August, 1685. Stone Hall appears 
to haye been preyiously in the possession of one Thomas 

Robert Rampston and his wife were interred beneath an 
altar tomb at the east end of the south aisle of Chingford 
Church, upon which were inlaid their efiBlgies, engrayen in 

• Morant'8 " History of Essoz/' sub Chingford and Little Canfield. 

Herb ltbth btbysd the body of Itowi.Ain> Eaup^iok late op 


EsoYiEX W" ICaby di bhise rbhxmbbaroe of HBB LOVINOE HTS : 






brass, and the following inscription : — ^^ Here under lies 
buried the bodies of Robert Bampston, Gent, who departed 
this mortal life the 3 of August, 1585, and Margaret his 
wife, 29 daye of Oct., 1590." On the wall over the 
Monument was a brass plate, with an inscription describing 
his office, and recording his benefactions to Chingford and 
nine other parishes.* A similar record seems to haye 
been placed in other churches, and one still remains in 
East Ham Church. When Chingford Church was dis- 
mantled the altar tomb was taken down, and the slab, 
with its brasses, laid in the chancel, from whence they 
were stolen in 1857. Morant, citing an Inq. P. M. 27 
Eliz., says that Bobert Bampston's heir was Boland 
Bampston, son of his brother John,'f who, very soon after 
his uncle's death, sold the Manors of Gowers and 
Buckerells. The Stone Hall estate Bobert Bampston left 
to his wife for life with remainder to her son, Nicholas 
Blencoe, Esq.^ by a former husband. 

Bowland Biampstqn, the nephew of Bobert, is the person 
evidently commemorated in the accompanying effigy and 
inscription ; the reason for his being buried in this Church 
was, doubtless, on account of his intermarriage with the 
family of Turner, who at that time were resident at 
Cannons in this parish. Although a late work of art it 
is not without its value as an example of costume and an 
historical record; on thh account, partly, Mr. Adams 
caused it to be engraved, and now presents it as an 
illustration to the Journal of our Society. % The military 
effigy of Bobert Bampston, and that of his wife, are gone 
for ever ; this one has been timely rescued from impending 
loss, and is now, it is to be hoped, rendered permanently 

 Ogbome'fl" History of Essex." 

t The Aims of this «iohn Bampston, of Chingford Hall, Go. Essex, were Arat a 
Cheveron' bet. 3 Ginquefoils Sable, as shewn by the fimeial certificate of Thoa, 
Bympson, Cit. and Qoldsmith of London, dated 9 Nov., 1631, who marrd. to his 
second wife, his daur. Eleanor, W"'. of Capt. Thompson, of Friondsbmy, Go. Kent 
(I. 23 fo. 45 Coll. Arms), there is no doubt but that he was the same John Bampston 
who married Joyce, daur. of Edmund Bardolph, of Haipenden, Co. Herts, as shewn 
in the Visitation of that county A^. 1572. The Arms of Bardolph are a Cheyeron 
bet. 3 Cinquefoils, but the field is <' Azure^" and the charges are *' Or." 

t The block from which it has been engrayed is now deposited in the Society's 
Museum at Colchester. 











M.]>OOC.LXIX.£,/$^^b -^ ^ Aj 



L Ancient Wills (So. 5>) By H. W. Kim ... ... I 

^VC/CC? ••• ••• «•• ••• ••• ••• mi^ 

Corrigendum ... ... ... ... ... 24 

n. The Descent of the Manor of Horham, and of the Family 

of Cutis. By H. W. Kim ... ... ... 25 

An Abstract of the Lord Cutts, his Debts given in by his 
Majesty's comm/cmd, Mar nth, 1698 ... ... 42 

Pedigree of the Family of Cutts v. Cutte of Horham and 
Arkesden Co, Essex, By G. H. Bogebs-Habbison, 
F. 8. A., Windsor Herald ... ... ... 43 

m. The Ancestry and Descent of the Bev. Philip MoraiU, the 

Essex Historian. By G. H. Bogebb-Habbison^ F.S.A., 
Windsor Herald ... ... ... ... 48 

17. Notice of a Wall Painting lately exposed in West Ham 

Church, with some Notes on recent alterations effected 
there. By the Bev. B. H. Gluttebbuok ... ... 45 

V. Report on the Excavation of a JSoman House at Colchester, 

By JosiAH Pabish .. ... ... ... 53 

Further Report on ditto ... ... ... ... 67 

Errata to Ancient Wills ... ... ... ... 62 

VL On some of the Artistic Features of the Essex Cottages. 

By the Bev. E. 8. Oobbib ... ... ... 63 

Vn. Notes of Recent Excavations at HadUigh Castle. By H. 

W. King ... ... ... ... ... 70 

VULl. A Description of St. John's Church, Clacton Magna, By 

Edwabd C. Hakewbll ... ... ... 82 

Timber Work in Churches ... ..^ ... ... 89i 

Antiqttities recently discovered in the County ... ... 120 

Z. On Old Houses, with reference to some Eoeamples in the 

Neighbourhood, By the Bev. C. Lbsingham Sioth, 

JXL. J\m ... ... ... ... ... X^A 

XI. On the Brass of Sir William Fitz Ralph, c. 1323, in Peb- 

marsk Church, Essex, By John Pigggt, Jun. ... 132 



Xn. NotiB on the Polychromatic Decoration of Churches, teith 
special reference to a Wall Painting discovered in Ingate- 
stone Church. By Johk Piggot, Jon. ... ... 137 

Xm. Memoir of the Roman Remains, and Discoveries made, at 

Fit^ohns, Oreat CanfUUL By Mra. Mabtoh Wilbon ... 144 

XIV. Ancient WiUs (No. 6.) By H. W. Knro ... -. 147 

XV. Ancient WiUs (No. 7.) By H. W. Knro ... ... 164 

A Sketch of the Genealogy of the Purchas Famify . ... 183 

Annual Oeneral Meeting at Great Dunmow, $Oth July, 

XoDf ••• ... ••• ■•■ ... xo4 

XVI. Essex Families and Nomenclature in New England. By 

Colonel JosBPH Lexubl Ghsbtsb ... ... ... 189 

XVn. Inventories of Church Goods, 6M Edw. VI. By H. W. 

ajkg ... ... ... ... ... 197 

XVnL Report of a Lecture on Hedinghann Castle. By J. H. 

It ABKSk ... ... ... ... ... £osf 

XIX. On the Plan of Hedingham Castle, as disclosed by recent 
Excavations, and cmnpared with a survey made in 1592. 
By Lewis A. Majenbib ... ... ... 240 

E^ to the Plan of Excavations of Hedingham Castle ••• 240 

Letter of Miles Corbet the Regicide, dated from the Tower 
of London, \%1h of April, 1662, the day before his Ex- 
ecution, and addressed to his Son, John Corbet. By 
H. W. KiHO ... ... ... ... 244 

Ornamental Fruit Trenchers inscribed with Posies ... 25S 

XXIL Notes on Sepulchral Remains found at Colchester ••• 257 

Annual General Meeting at Brentwood, 28M July, 1868 ... 269 

Special General Meeting at Hedingham Castle, 2^th August, 

loDO ••• ... .«. ••• ... lii u 

Recent ArchcBologiccd Researches ... ... 276 

Antiquities recently discovered in the County ... ... 279 





I. Groimd-Flan of Boman House, North Hill, Colchester . • 53 

n. Boman Pavement, ditto (Fig. A.) . • . . . . 54 

m. Boman Payement, ditto (Fig. B.) .. .. •• 55 

IV. Antiquities found in the Boman House, ditto . . . • 60 

y. Ground Plan of Apartments ezcayated at Hadleigh Castle, 

looo •. •• •• •• •• iO 

VI. Great Clacton Church, Essex . . . . . . 82 

VII. Plan and Sections of Stock Church . . . . . . 100 

Vm. Plan and Sections of Margaretting Church . . . . 102 

IX. Stone Hall .. .. .. .. ..127 

X. Interior View and Section of Window in Stone Hall . . 127 

XI. Mural Painting — Ingatestone Church^'* The Seren Mortal 

Sins" .. .. .. .. •• 140 

Xn. Heueningham Castle in Esiz, as it wa» in 1605 . • . • 236 



1. Greendtead Church, Norlih Side 

2. Mountnessing Church, West End 

3. Phin of Mountnessing Church, Essex 

4. Section of Mountnessing Church 

5. Hutton Church, West End 

6. Bowers Gtifford Church Tower. . 

7. Margaretting Church Tower .. 

8. Blaokmore Church Tower 

9. Blackmore Church, Flan of Tower 

10. Blackmore Church, Section of Tower 

11. Tower Arch, Willingale Spain 

12. Chancel Arch, St. ICartin's, Colchester . • 

13. Timber Arch, Bayleigh, Essex 

14. Finial of Spire, Shenfield, Essex 

15. Arcade in Shenfield Church . . 
Sir William Fits Balph, o. 1323, Febmarsh Church 
Tile Tomb, with Sepulchral Vessels, Fig. 1 



Sepulchral Vessels 

Pig. 2 
Fig. 3 
Fig. 4 
Fig. 6 
Pig. 6 
Fig. 7 
Pig. 8 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 



























1. Hedingham Castle .. 

2. Ditto, 1592 

• • 







Acoonnt Book (Ancient), Dnnmow .... .... •••• 185 

Acion •••• .... «.•• .... •••• «^ 

Adams, Sir Thomas .... .... .... .... 245 

•^•^O ••«• .... t.a* •■.• •••• £X£ 

Almack, B., exhibited an Origioal Leittfir, written by John, 16th Earl of 

Oxford .... ..•• .... •••• 274 

Alms House, founded by Lord Mamey .... .... .... 150 

Almsmen, Religious OfBlces performed by, at Layer Mamey .... 150 

Altar Tomb (wooden) in Salisbury Cathedral .... .... 119 

•AJ^ice .... ■••• .... •••• ..a. 212 

Anker (Anchorite) of Norwich •••• .... •••• 6 

Anthonie .... .... .... ,,,» .... 43 

Antiquities recently discovered in the County .... 120, 187, 279 

" Exhibited at the Dunmow Meeting .... .... 184 

(Roman) found at Colchester .... , . , , .... 60 

(Roman) found at Great Canfield .... .... 145 

^^ton .... .... .... .... •••. 218 

Archaeological Researches (recent) .... . . . • .... 276 

Archer, T. C, Ancient Deeds exhibited by • • . . .... 273 

Arcien, de .... .... •... ••»• •••• 2o 

Arkesden Church, Monuments and Liscriptions in .... • . • • 37 

Armour and Weapons of John, Lord Mamey .... .... 157 

Wom by Sir W. Eitz-Ralph, description of .... .... 134 

Arms of de V ere .... .... .... .... 275 

of Fibs-Ralph, in Pebmaxsh Church .... .... 134 

of the Mamey Family .... .... .... 155 

Arundel, Sir John .... .... .... .... 154,161 

Asshendon, Inyentory and Assignment of Church Goods at .... 215 


• • • 

Aston ... 

Aubin . . . 

Awdeleye . . • 


•... ••.• .... •... 

•••• •••. •••• .... 

..•• •••• •*.. •••• 

.... .... ..«> .... 

.••• •••• •■•• ..•• 

•••« •••• •.•• •■•« 






Ayloffe, William .... .... .... .... 208 


Baker, Sir John .... ..•• ..•• .... 160 

•DftUfiUb •••• •■•• •••. .... »••• 1 wO 



Barling Church, Statuettes found in .... . . . • .... 120 

Barlynge, Inventory and Assignment of Church Goods at .... 216 

Barnard •.,» ..•• ,••• .... •••• 130 

- Mr. G., Antiquities exhibited by , , , , .... 184 

Bamston Eectory, Ancient Panelling at ... . .... .... 125 

Barrett of Bclhus .... .... 245 

Battell, Andrew, of Leigh, Strange Adventures of .... .... 169 

Bath, Thomas Bourchier, Earl of • . . . .... .... 8 

Beads or Oracles (see Koaaries) .... .... .... 10 

Beast of the Apocalypse, symbolises the seven deadly sins .... 141 

Bedingfelde .... .... .... .... 163, 162 

Bellarmine, a vessel so called found at Great Wakering .... 280 

Bell Cage at Wiz, Legend relating to the .... .... ltd 

Bell Cote at Button .... 

at Bowers Gifford.... 

Bells, Inscriptions aa, at Clacton Magna 
 at Margaretting 

 at Wickford 


Bemfleet (South), Defeat of the Danes at . . . 
Bendall, Edward , . . • 

Bendeville «. Bendaville .... 

Bendysh .... . . , , ... 

Benson .... .... ... 

Bemers, William .... 

Bockyng, de . . . . .... 

Bonam .... . . , . , , , 

Bondville .... .... , . . 

Bonner .... .... ... 

Bos Longifrons, Skull of, found at Great Canfield . . . . .... 146 

Bourchier Family, The, Grants of Arms to .... .... 23 

Henry, Earl of Essex ... .... .... 273 

Sir James, Will of, 1636 .... .... .... 21 

Familyof .... .... .... 21 














163» 162 


169, 229 

Bowers Giflford Church, Tower of .... , . , , .... 99 

Boynton, de . • . • ... .... .... .... 278 

Blackmore Ohurch, description of, with Plan, Elevation, and Section of 

the Tower .... .... .... 106, 107, 108 

Blencoe .... ... .... .... .... 129 

Blyth, Mr., Coins exhibited by .... .... .... 184 

l^liss. Ancient Seal exhibited by ... , .... .... 186 

Braintree Church, Wall Painting in .... .... .... 138 

Bramston, Bev. John, exhibits impression of Ancient Seal found near 

Dunmow .... .... 279 

Brass of Sir William Fitz Ralph; c. 1323 in Pebmarsh Church, Essex, on 

the, by John Piggot, Jun .... .... 132 

Monumental, at Bowers GiSbrd .... .... ... 99 

Brasses, Monumental, cast into Weights and Measures, by the Cor- 
poration of Yarmouth, in 1551 .... .... 132 

Monumental, exhibited by A. H. Brown .... .... 269 



Brasses, Monumental, If umber of, remaining in England • • . • 132 
remaining in Essex .... . . , , 133 

» Sold at Leicester .... .... , , , . 132 

Brazted Church (little). Wall Painting in .... .... 138 

Brentwood, Annual General Meeting at, in 1868 .... .... 269 

»"^"» vy napei .•«. .... ...« .... £j i 

Brettenham ...■ ••.. .... ... •••. 42 

Brewster, William .... .... .••• •••. 195 

Bnttndge .... •«.. .... •••• .... lol 

Broadbent •••* .... •••• ..•• •••. 1^8 

DTOGJS.QXi ...• ..a* •••• •••• ••*• TCM 

Brodbury ••.• •••• .«.• .••• •••• 42 

Bronze Object found at Thundersley .•.. .•,. .... 279 

JtSrOWU .••• a... ••.• •••• •••a AW 

A. H., Rubbings of Monumental Brasses exhibited by .... 269 

Browne, Anthony .... ...• ..*• •••• 208 

Sir Anthony .... .... .... .... 42 

Buildings, Old Domestic, types and characteristic features of .... 66 

Burgh, Hubert de, takes Sanctuary in the Chapel at Brentwood .... 271 

Burgoine .... .... .... .... .... 12 

Butler, Cornelius, description of Elizabethan Fruit Trenchers presented by 263, 270 

' Mr., Coins and other Antiquities exhibited by ... . .... 185 


Cade, Thomas, Parson .... .... .... .... 223 

Candlesticks (Altar) .... .... .... .... 213 

Canfield (little), description of Stone Hall in .... .... 1 27 

— — — — Decorated Windows in the Church of ... , .... 130 

— ^— ^ Extracts from Kegisters of .... , , , . 129 

Canfield (Ghreat), Boman Remains found at .... .... 144, 184 

Cannondon (Canewdon), Inventory amd Assignment of Cliurch Qoods at 217 

Oapel, Sir Arthur .... .... .... 245 

Capes, H., exhibits Lease granted by Edward de Yere, 17th Earl of 

Oxford .... •••• .... .... 273 

CareCloth . .... .... .... .... 208,214 

Carving (Oak) at Hedingham Castle, Remarks on, by R. Almack .... 275 

Celt (Bronze) found at South Shoebury .... .... .... 120 

Celts, Du Noyer's Classification of .... .... .... 120 

Cemeteries (Roman) at Colchester .... ••.. .... 257) 265 

Centurion, Monument with Effigy of a, found at Colchester . . . 279 

onaLKO •*.. .... •••• .... ...a ^ V 

Chamberlayne, Sir Robert .... .... ... .... 136 

Chancellor, Mr., Plan of Foundations of Hedingham Castle, by .... 240 

Chantries founded by the D'Arcy family .... .... .... 9,14 

Chantry and Guild Priests, duties of .... .... .... 14 

Chapel and Tomb at Layer Marnsy, directions for building .... 160 

Chaure Street .... .... .... 27 

Church of, given to the Knights of S. John .... ... 26 

Chaureth v, Chaure .... .... .... .... 25 

v^nester .... .... •••• •••• .... xoy 


Chester, Ool. J. L., Ebbcx Families and Nomendatore in New England, by 
disoovers new evidence relating to the Purchas 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

I • • • 

Ghimnies, Ancient 
Chimney Money 
Cholmeley, Sir Bichaid 
Chrismatory • . . . 
Christopher (Saint), Mural Painting of, in Ingatestone Church 
Churches, Decay and Dilapidation of, soon after the Reformation 

- built of timber .... •••• ..•• 
Church Gbods, Commission for the Survey of .... 
— Inventories of, 6th Edw. VI., by H. W. King 

Plate, Embezzlement of, temp. Edw. YI. 


• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

Churchyard Crosses of timber • . • • 

Ciborium (see Pyx) .... .... 

Clacton Magna, a Description of S. John's Church, by Edward C 
jiaKewLU .... .... ...• 

, (hx>und Plan and Details of the Church of 

Clare (de) Family • • , . .... .... 

Richard de, Earl of Hereford and Gloucester .... 

v/iarK ••.. ••*• ••.. •••• 

Clifford, Sir John 
Clopton . . • • 

Sir Walter 

Qutterbuck, Rev. R. H. Notice of a Wall Painting lately discovered 

in West Ham Church, with some notes on recent alterations 
effected there .••• ••«• .... 

Cockayne, Mr.^ Antiquities Exhibited by • • • • 

vX)CK6 •••• •••• •••• •••• lOV', 

Loggesiiale *.«• ■.•• •••« .*•• •* 

Coggeshall Church, description of Wall Painting in .... 
Coinage, The, depreciation of, by Hen. Ylil. and Edw. YI. • • 

Coins (Roman) found at Great Canfield .... . • • • • • 

— (Roman and English) found at Dunmow . . • • • • 
Colchester, Holy Trinity Church, Wooden Arch in .... 

St. Martin's Church, Timber Arch in the Chancel of . . 

Roman Leaden Coffin found at .... 

Sepulchral Effigy of a Roman Centurion found at 

Notes of Sepulchral remains found at . . . • 


- Discovery of a Roman House at 

- Discovery of Roman Pavements at 

v/Oiias .... ••*■ ..•• 

Collier, Jeremy, on the Plunder of Churches in the reign of Edward VI 

Commissioners for the Survey of Church Goods 

Concrete (Roman) . • . • .... 

Consecration Crosses in Essex Churches .... 

v/ope •••• ...• •■•• 

v^oroei; .... ••*. ...» 

Miles (the Regicide), Memoir of .... 

. • • • 

• • •  

• • • • 

• . • . 

• • 

• • 





203, 209 

5, 6, 11 


184, 185 

233, 234 





184, 185 


















Corbet, Milee (the Regicide), Letter of, dated from the Tower of London, 

and addressed to his son, John Corbet ; 

edited by H.W. King.... .... 244 

__^ Some occasional Speeches of .... 251 

Comburgh, Avery, Will of, 1436-7 . . • • .... • • . • 15 

Chantry founded by ... . .... .... 16 

Combureth .... .... .... .... 273 

Corrie, Bey. E. S., on some of the artistic features of Essex Cottages .... 63 

Cottages, The Essex, on some of the artistic features of, by the Rev. £. 

o> Lorrie .... .... .••• .... 63 

Crane, Bobert ... . .... ...• .... .... 193 

Crimble v. Crimyille . . • • .... .... .... 224 

Cromwdll, Oliver .... .... .... , , , . 21 

Cutte, account of the Family of .... .... .... 33 

of Arkesden, Family of .... .... .... 37 

- f . Cutts, of Horham and Arkesden, Pedigree of, by G. H. B. 

Harrison .... ..•« .... .... 42 

Sir John, Will of ... . .... .... .... 33 

built Horham HaU .... .... .... 30 

—^ his bequest for founding an Almshouse and Chantry at 

Thaxted .... .... .... 34 

of Childersley, Will o^ 1664-6 .... .... 36 

Cutts, John Lord, abstract of the Debts of .... .... 41 

his Memorial concerning his Debts ... .... 41 

Bev. E. L., on Mural Decoration in Coggeshall Church .... 139 

W. W., his MSS. and Books relating to John, Lord Cutts .... 39 


D* Acre v. del Acre .... ..•« ••.. •.., 26 

Danbury Church, Sepulchral EflBgy of Wood in .... .... 118 

— bequest of Vestments to .... .... 9 

Danes Encamp at South Shoebury .... .... .... 120 

Defeated at South Bemfleet .... .... .... 120 

Darcy Family, the .... .... .... .... 1 

 Monuments of, at Maldon ... . .... .... 13 

Sir Arthur .... .... .... .... 42 

Elizabeth, widow. Will of, 1608 .... .... 8 

Thomas, of Maldon, Will of, 1666-8 .... .... 12 

Dame Margaret, Will of, 1489-90 .... .... .... 6 

Sir Bobert, Will of, 1469-70 .... .... .... 11 

Boger, Sepulchral Liscription for, 160& .... .... 8 

Thomas, Will of, 1484-6 .... .... .... 8 

JL/ay .... ..•• .... .... .... * o V 

Deadly Sins, The Seven, Mural Painting in Ingatestone Church 

representing ••.. .... .... .... 140 

Deeds (Ancient), abstracts and description of, by T. C. Archer .... 27^ 

Denham, Lord .... .... .... .,.. 11 

Donations to the Society .... .... .... .... 187,281 

-^-— in aid of the Journal .... .... .... 188, 281 

Doom painted over the Chancel Arch at Great Waltham .... 140 



xJorowftrd ■••• •••• ••#• 

Drewry, Sir John . t . • • • • • 

Dunmow (Great), (General Meeting at . • • • 

' Antiquities found and exhibited at 

Dymock, Sir Bobert 
Dynhami Baron 

•• •  

• • • 

• • • 

•  • 

• • •' 


Earthworks at South Shoebmy 

at Hedingham Gastle 

Easter Sepulchre .... 

Easton Church (Little), Hural Painting in 
 Lodge, Ancient Panelling at 

' Specimens of Wrought Brick Ghimnies at . • • • 

Eastwood, Samuel Pnrchas, Vicar of .... .... .... 

- Ancient Seal found at • • . • .... • . . . 

Edinburgh, Inscriptions upon Old Houses in • • . • . . . • 

Edmund, the King and Martyr (Saint) • • . • • • . • .... 

 Translation of the Bemains of .... 

Jininesoro •..» •••• •••• ••.. ••.« 

Effigies, Sepulchral, carved in wood . • • • .... .... 

Eliot, John, "Apostle of the Indiana" •••• .... .... 

Elnngton .*•• .... .•«. .... .••. 

Emigrants (early) from Essex to New England, account of some of the 

most celebrated ••.. ...« .... 

England (New), (see New England) • • . . .... .... 

Erpingham, Sir Thomas .... ••.. .... ..•• 

Essex Families and Nomenclature in New England, by Col. Joseph L. 

Chester . • . • 

Estwyke, Boger de .... 

• • t • 

t • •• 


f auo .... ...« •••• .... 

Fambridge (South), Inventory and Assignment of Church Qoods 
Fane • • . • • . 

Feen atte .... • . 

Feering Church, Wall Fainting in 
Ffetherstone .... • • 

Ffrazmer .... • • 

Filbragge, Sir George 

Filleul • • . • 

Findeme • . • • . • 

Firmin, Rev. GKles 

f^tch, Rev. James 

Fitzlowes, Sir Richard 

Fitz Ralph, Sir William, Brass of .... 

Military Services of 

as .... 

. • • • 

• • • 

• • • * 

• a . • 


Family, The Grants of Free Warren to 

• ••• 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • . 

• • • • 

. « * a 

• • •• 
. a • • 
.  « • 

• • . . 
a • . . 

. • • . 























• • • 

in the po6868aioii of 

Fitz waiter. Lord •••• •••• •.•• ••• 

Flues (Boman) .... .... .... • • • 

Font in dacton Magna Church, The, representationB and emblems on • 
T orth, John •••• ..«. .... .... ••• 

Foulness Island, Boman Pottery found in .... 

FouUies (Foulness), Inventery and Assignment of Church Goods at . . . 
French, William .... .... .... ... 

Fresco Painting (early), remarks on .... .... 

Fruit Trenchers (ornamental), inscribed with Posies, presented to the 
Society by Cornelius Butler.... .... 

Funeral Bites at the Interment of John, Lord Mamey .... 

— — at the Interment of Henry, Lord Mamey 


Galleries, wooden, used externally to protect the Towers of Fortresses 

Gawds, the large Beads of Bosaries, so called 

Godsalve .... 

Godesbury, Bell Cage at 

€kx)dlad .... 

Graves, John . . . • 

Gray, Sir Beynold 

Greenstead Church, description of 

Ghrosvenor .... 

George, Letter of Miles Corbet 

Guild and Chantry at Thaxted 
Guilds and Chantries, Bemarks on 

 at m^don 

Gundolph •••• ...• 

Gwillim .... .... 

Hacqueton •... •••• 

Haddock ...• «... 

Hadleigh CasteU, Inventories and Assignments of Church Goods at 

' Castle, Notes of recent Excavations at, by H. W. King 

 Antiquities discovered at ... , • . . . 

-^— ^— — Ghx)und Plan of Apartments at .... 

' Park Keeper's Lodge near • • • • 

' Warrants relating to the repairs of, temp. Edw. HI. 
HakewiU, E. C, a description of S. John's Church, Clacton Magna, 
Hakluyt Papers .... •••• .... .... 

Hakwell (Hawkwell), Inventory and Assignment of Church Gtoodsat 
Hale, a Tent or Pavilion .... .... ...• 

Hall, general description of a .... .... 

Ham (West), Church, notice of Wall Painting and alterations at 

 Church of, Wall Painting in •• • • .... 

xiare .... .... ..•• •••• 

xianns .... .... .... »..• 

Harrison, G. H. B., Pedigree of Cutts, by . . . . .... 

The Ancestry and Descent of Philip Morant, 


• • 

• • . a 


































• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

Harlakenden, Boger .... .... 

xl&8t6i6f •••• •••• •••. 

Haukins (Priest) .... .... 

Hawks ring .... .... .... 

Hawte, Richard .... ■. . . .... 

Haynes, John, Governor of Maasachusefct's Colony 
Hearth Money ••,. ••.. .... 

Hearths, Ancient ..•• .... 

Hedingham Castle^ Report of a Lecture on, by J. H. Parker, M.A. 

 on the Plan of, as disclosed by recent ezcavations 

and compared with a Survey made in 1692, by L. 
A. Majendie • • . . .... 

as it was in 1666 .... . . . • 

Plan of Foundations of . . . . .... 

— — — ~ position and state of Buildings at, in 1692 
^— ^— — — Antiquities found at .... .... 

Special General Meeting at .... 

Henry YI., King, regarded as a Saint and Martyr .... 

Heron HaU, note of the existence of Drawing and Ground Plan of 

xierse • • . . 

Herse Cloth .... 

Heygate .... 

Rev. W. E., exhibits an ancient Seal found at Eastwood 

xlXLiB .... .... .... •••• 

JjLODSOn •.•• .*•• ...I .... 

Hockly, Inventory and Assignment of Church Goods at. . . . 

Horham, Descent of the Manor of, and of the Family of Cutts, by 
W. King •••• .... ...I 

 Hall, Chapel at .... .... 

— — ^— Bay "Windows at .... ..., 

Horkesley (little) Church, Sepulchral Effigies of Wood in 
Horn Book •■•. .... ••.. 

Homdon (East) Church ..•• .... 

Houros «... .••• •••• 

Hours, Book of, MS., exhibited by John Piggot, Jun. 
Household G^ods of John, Lord Mamey .... 

Houses (see Old Houses) 
Howard of Bindon 
Howe, James .... 

Howland ..*• •••« •••• 

Hullbridge, Mounds at ; supposed Military Defences 
xLunte, 16 .... .... .... 

Hutton Church, Elevation of West End of . . . . 

Hynde, Sir John .... • . •  

• • • . 
• . . . 

. . . . 

• • . • 

• . a • 



• • • • 

• • • • 


Ingatestone Church, Wall Painting in ... • .... 

Hall, Bell Cote at .... .... 

Ligle, The, description of, and supposed derivation of the word 
ingoli ..*• ••«. ••.• ■... 

• • • • 
•• • • 


• • • • 




208, 214 




178, 182 


















187, 140 

181, 182 



Inscription of Texts of Scripture or Iforal Sentences upon Old Houses 130 

Inventories of Church Goods 6th Edward VI., by H. W. King .... 197, 316 


Jesse Window in Margaretting Church .... .... .... 186 

Joslin, G^rge, Discovery of a Sepulchral Monument of a Roman 

Centurion by .... .... .... .... 279 


Keeps, Norman .... .... .... .... .... 236 

Kelvedon Church, Wall Painting in .... .... .... 138 

Kemp, Sir Thomas .... .... .... .... 31, 42 

Ken, Bishop, supposed Entries by, in Little Easton Register .... 187 

King, H. W., Ancient Wills .... .... .... .... 1, 164, 147 

— — — The Descent of the Manor of Horham, and of the Family 

of Cutts .... .... .... •••• 25 

- Notes of recent Excavations at Hadleigh Castle .... 70 

Inventories of Church Gbods .... .... 197 

— — — Letter of Miles Corbet (the Regicide), edited by .... 244 

Klein, Professor, of Mayence, remarks on an Ancient Seal by .... 270 

Knight, Mr., Antiquities Exhibited by .... .... .... 184 

Knox, John, Inscription on his House at Edinbuigh .... .... 131 


Lake, Durkin de. . . . .... .... .... ..•• 26 

Langdon Church, Timber House at the West End of « . . . . .... Ill 

■L«njjiX}n .... .... .... ..•• .... Ho 

JLiBlgw .*•• .... .... .... .... ^«r 

j-Ai rnam .... .... .... «... .... io3 

i latnum ..a. .... .... .... .... 42 

Leighs Church, Wooden Sepulchral Effigy of a Priest in .... 118 

Legh (Leigh), Inventory and Assignment of Church Ghx>ds at .... 228 

Libraries Burnt in the Reign of Edw. VI .... .... 202 

Limbery .... .... .... ..•• ...• 249 

Liveing .... .... .... .••• .... 178 

JLX)an6 .... .... .... •••• .... 22 

JLA)ClkWOOCl .... .... .... ...a ..a. 4^ 

Log Churches^ (Saxon) .... .... .... ..•• 90 

Longchamps, Sir Henry .... .... .... .... 278 

Loucerus, Eulogy of Purchas by • . • • .... •. . • 171 

Lovell, Sir Thomas .... .... .... .... 33 

liOvering, John . . . . .... .... ...a .•••• 192 

Low Side Windows, Remarks on the use of .... .... 159 

Window in Greenstead Church .... .... a a . a 92 

Ludgate (S. Martin's), Samuel Purchas, Rector of • a . . .... 167 

Lute, The Great, description of .... •••• ••.. 161 


Majendie, L. A., on the Plan of Hedingham Castle, as disclosed by 

recent Excavations, and compared with a Survey 

made in 1692 .,,, ,,«• •••• 240 




Majendie, L. A., Survey of the Manors •of Hedingham in 1592, 

Exhibited by .... .... 

Antiquities Exhibited by ... • .... 

DIaldon, Bequest of Vestments to the Church of All Hallows at 

Manors and Estates of Henry, Lord Mamey .... 

Margaretting Church, description and Elevation of the Timber Tower 
and Spire of .... 

Mamey, John, Lord, his Bequest of Eucharistic Vestments, AltarVessels 

and Church Ornaments 

Will of, 1625 

Henry, Lord, Will of, 1623 
Family .... 

• • • • 

Marks Tey Church 

Marshall .... .... 

Marshall, William (Parson) .... 

Martin, Christopher .... 

Marton Church, Cheshire, built of Timber 

Maryon Wilson, Mrs., Memoir of Roman Remains, and Discoveries 

made, at Fitz John's, Great Canfield 
Mason, John (Parson} .... .... 

Masses (Mortuary) .... .... .... 

to be said by Chantry Priests at Layer Mamey .... 

Mendicity punished by Slavery and Death by Statute, 1 Edw. VI. 
Messing Church, Monumental Effigy of Wood formerly in 
Minot, George .... 

Montgomery, Sir Thomas 

Monuments, destruction of, at Maldon .... .... 

Morant, the Essex Historian, Descent of, by G. H. R. Harrison 
Morley .... «.•• .... .... 

Morton, Cardinal .... •... .... 

Mountnessing Church, Elevation of Bel£ry of .... 

— — ^— — Timber Work in .... .... 

 ' * Ground Plan of .... .... 




Newburgh, Sir Roger 
Kew England, Essex Families and Nomenclature in, by Col. J. L 

v/uesiier .**. .... .... 

 Names of Essex Towns and Villages in ... . 

 Emigrants (early) from Essex to .... 

Newton Hall, Ancient Panelling at .... .... 

Neville, Sir Geo., Lord Bergavenny .... .... 

Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart., on the Mounds at Hullbridge 





 • • • 
• • • • 


Old Houses, On, with reference to some examples in the neighbourhood 
(of Dumnow), by the Rov. 0. Lesingham Smith .... 













181, 162 













164, 161 







Ongar, the Remains of S. fidmond, the King and Martyr, halt for the 
niguv aL •••• >•«« •••■ •••• 

v/nyon ■••• •>•• •••• •••• •••• 

Ormond, Sir Thomas, Lord Ormond .... .... .... 

Oxford, Letter of John, 16th Earl of, addressed to Lord North .... 


Page, Abraham • . . • .... .... .... 

^^"^~" V onn .... ..•« .... .... 

Pagelsham, Inventory and Assignment of Church Gbods at 
Painted Windows, destruction of, in the Beign of Edw. YI. 
Pamphilun .... .... .... ..•• 

Panelling of the Interior of Booms .... .... 

Parish, J., Report on the Excavation of a Roman House at Colchester 
Park Keepers at Hadleigh, Rayleigh, and Thundersley .... 

Parker, J. H., M. A., Report of a Lecture on Hedingham Castle by ... 
""""""•" cLugii le .... .... .... ... 

Patron Saint, The, Figure of, to be painted on the Wall of the Church 
Pavements (Roman tessellated) discovered at Colchester. . . . 



^^- The, description and use of 
Paxton, Thomas (Priest) • . . . 
Pebmarsh, Rectory of .... 

Pecocke, Ellis (Parson) .... 

Poke • . . * .... • • 

Perry .... ..•• .« 

Philips, Rev. G^rge, an Eminent Minister in New England 
Pickering .... ..•■ .... .... 

Piggot, John, Jun., Notes on the Polychromatic Decoration of Churches, 

with special reference to a Wall Painting lately 
discovered in Ingatestone Church 
 Drawings and Book of Hours exhibited by 

" on a Monumental Brass of Bir William Fitz Ralph 

Pilgrimage, The, by Samuel Purchas .... .... 

Pilgrimages to Rochester and Walsingham .... 

Plate bequeathed for the use of the Chantry Chapel at Layer Mamey . . . 
Poingdestre .... •••- .••• .... ... 

Jl oin bZ .... .... .... .... ... 

Jl oiay .... *•.. 4... *•.• ... 

Pollexfen, Rev. J. H., Drawings of Antiquities found at Colchester, 

Exhibited by ... . .... .... .... 

Polychromatic Decoration of Churches, Notes on the, with special 

reference to a Wall Painting discovered at Ingatestone, by 

John Piggot, Jun. 
Jrope ...» .... ... 

Portative, The, description of . . . . 

Pottery (Roman) found at Great Canfield . . . 
Poynyngs, Thomas, Lord .... 

Pridmore .... .... . • . 

Pkyttelwell, Inventory and Assignment of Church Goods at 














165, 182 




Purohas, Samuel, B.D., Will of, 1625-6 .... 

—————— Author of the " Pilgrimage," Memoir of 

■' Portraits of .... . . • • 

•—--———— Additional &cts relating to .... 

Pyx, The 

Bev. Samuel, the younger, Will of, 1658-9 .... 
Bev. Thomas, Yicar of Eastwood, Will of 1657-8 
Family, The, Pedigree of .... .... 







xCampsvon ■•*. *••. .... .... ••«• 

JDUvwCUU .••• .... .... ■••• ...a 

xLauncne .... .... .... .... •*.. 

xcaven .... .... .... .... >«•* 

xtawiinB .... •... ..•* .... .... 

Bayleigh Church, Timber Arches in .... .... .... 

xcayner .... ...• .... .... .... 

£eade, Edward ••.. .... .... .... ...» 

XmJOCL .... .... .... .... .... 

Begisters of Childerditch Church .... .... .... 

x(enout ...a .... .... .... .... 

xuLkedozi .... .... .... .... .... 

Bochester (S. William of). Pilgrimages to the Tomb of ... . .... 

Bochet, The «... .... .••• .... .... 

Bochford, Market House at, description of . . . • .... .... 

Church, Cross Slab found in .... .... .... 

Bogers, Bey. Ezekiel ••.. .... .... •••• 

John, 5th President of Harvard College .... .... 

*<■ Bev. Nathaniel ...» .... .... .... 

' Bev. Bichard .... «... .... .... 

xCoKeie, cLe la .... .... .... .••• .... 

Boman Antiquities found at Colciiester .... .... .... 

House at Colchester, Beport on the Excavation of a, by J. Parish 

— — — — Plan of the Foundations of, at Colchester. ... .... 

. Materials in Clacton Magna Church .... . . . • 

 Bemains and Discoveries made at Fitz John*s, Ghreat Canfield, 

Memoir of, by Mrs. Maryon Wilson .... , . . • 

— ~- Bemains and Antiquities found at Fitz John's, Great Canfield.... 

Sepulchral Vessels found at Colchester .... .... 

Pottery, &c., found at Dunmow .... .... .... 

Bomford, Avery Comburgh's Chantry at 
Boodes • . . • • * . > 

Bya, Hubertus de • > * . 

Booft of Old Houses .... 

Bosarios (see Beads or Orades) 
Buggies, John .... • • • • 

• • * • 

.. * • 

. . « a 

• « . • 


178, 182 









184, 185 









• • • 


Sacring Bell, The, description and use of ... . 

Salmon •.•• •••< ..•• ••• 

William, of Brentwood, Will of, 1504-6 

Sazton .... ■••• •..» ••• 

Scala CobU *••- .... .... ..• 

Scott, Rev. W. L., exhibits Ancient Parish Account Book, 
Scrope, Lady .••* •••• ••.• 

Seal (ancient) found at Eastwood «... 

found near Dunmow Priory .... 

of Silver, found at Little Dunmow 

found at Great Dunmow .... 

belonging to Mr. Majendie .... 

of Fitzwalter .... .... 

ocuxie .... .... .... 

Sepulchral Remains found at Colchester .... 

Sepulchre (Easter) .... .... 

Shenfield Church, l^ber Work in • • . • 

' Finial of Spire of .... 

Timber Arcade in ••.. 

• • • • 

• • • 

Sherman, John r« • • 

— -^— — Edward .... • . • • 

Shoebury (North) Church, Cross Slab found in 
Sisley, Clement .... .... ...• 

Smith, Rev. C. Lesingham, on Old Houses with reference to some in 

Neighbourhood of Dunmow 
Smijth, Sir William .... 

Sparhawk, Nathaniel 
Spearhead (Roman) 
Spearman • • • • 

Spice •... 

Spur (Roman) 

Stacey, W. U., Spear Head and ancient Seal, exhibited by 

Stafford, Sir Humphrey .... .... 

——Sir William, Seizes Church Bells .... 

• a. tf 


• »•• 

••* . 

Stage Players at Rayleigh .... 

Stambridge (little) • • • • • • • • 

Staple ..•• •••■ •••• 

Statuettes discovered in Barling Church .... 

Stebbing .... ..*. •••• 

Stephens ••*. .... •.•• 

Stifford, Roman Sword of Bronze foxmd at ... . 

Stock Church, description and elevation of timber tower and spire of 
Stone Hall, Little Canfield, description of .... 

 View of interior of 

Window of 


— Possessors of 

• . •• 

• • • • 

Strutt, Sir Denner .... • • . • 

 Family, Monuments o^ at Little Warley 

• • •• 
^ . • • • 
t ••• 


169, 229 






187, 270 

112, 116 




184, 185 


201, 202 



100, 105 



Sackaled Qreen .... .... 

Sulyatd .... .... 

Surcoot «••• .••• ■•• 

8ttiplic6 •.•• •••• ... 

Sword (Roman) of Broxuie, found at Stifford . 

SymondB, Samuel 


. a • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 


!Fcbloott| John ••*• •••• ••■• «... 

Tapestry generally used before the introduction of panelling 
Terra Cotta, moulded, found at Hedingham Castle .... 

Texts, &c., inscribed on Old Houses .... .... 

Thames, The, Defence of the Coasts of .... .... 

Thaxted, The Property of Samuel Purchas in .... 

Theatre of Political Flying Insects, A, by Samuel Purchas the youngor 
Thomas, John (Vicar) .... .... .... 

Thomdon Church, Bequest of Vestments to . - .... 

Thome, Mr., Horn Book, Exhibited by .... .... 

Thornton .... .... .... .... 

Thundersley, Bronse object found at .... .... 

Tile Tombs (Boman), with Sepulchral Vessels, at Colchester 
TQtey Abbey, Grants to .... .... .*>• 

Timber Churches represented in Illuminated MSS 

 Work in Churches •••• 

Tindal, Sir John .... 

Toke, Rev. Mr., of Bamston, Ancient Panelling coUocted by 
Tokens, Abbey and Nuremberg .... .... 

Tomb of John, Lord Mamey, Directions for Constructing the 
Towels for the Office of the Mass . . • • .... 

Trenchers (Elizabethan Fruit) .... .... 

jiTentais ••.. .... ••.• ■... 

XVUBBOU ...a •*.• .... .... 

Tumulus at Hulbridge, Account of the Opening of a, by Sir Charles 

Nicholson, Bart. 
Tunstall, Bishop of London .... 

X 'wiscien ...a .... .... 

Tyrell, John^ Correction of the Date of his Death 
 Sir James • • • • .... 

Sir Thomas .... .... 

— — Martha, Lady, Correction of error with respect to her age, by 

Col. Chester .... 


Urns (Roman) Found at Little Canfield 

at Great Wakering. 



Vassall Family 



153, 160 

154, 160 













259, 260 









253, 270 








11, 273 





INDEX, 15 


Vere, John de, I3th Earl of Oxford .... .... •• .. 241 

Sir John .... .... .... •••• .... 161 

John de, Earl of Oxford .... .... .... 273 

Vestments, Colours of .... .... .... • • • • 9, 10 

Ecdeeiastical, Description and Antiquity of . • • • • • . . 21 

(Eucharistic), Colours of the .... .... .... , 210 

Bequeathed to Chapels, Chantries and Churches at Maldon, 

Danbury, &c .... •••• -••• 9 

and Plate, bequeathed for the use of the Chantry Chapd at 

Layer Mamey .... .... • • . • • * • • 149 

Virginal, The, Description of . . . . .... .... . • • . 160 

Virtues, The Seven, Mural Painting of, at Arundel, Sussex •••• 140 

V ivian .... .... .... ••«• .••• vw 

Vyntener, Abbot of S. Osyth.... .... •••• ..•• 164 


Wade, Mr., Antiquities, Exhibited by .... •... .... 184 

Wafers for Holy Communion, ceremonies connected with the preparation 

Ol .... ..*. ..*• .... .... ««o 

Wafer Irons .... .... .... .... .... 226 

Wakering (Great) Roman Urns found at ... . .... .... 279 

Earthen Vessel found at.... .... .... 280 

Waldegrave, Sir William .,,, .... .... .... 164 

Waldryan .... .... .... .... .... 9 

Wall Painting lately exposed in West Ham Church, Notice of, with some 
notes of recent alterations effected there, by Bev. R. H. 

Clutterbuck .... .... .... , , . , 46 

Early Christian examples of ... . .... .... 187 

at Qacton Magna Church .... .... .... 86 

in Little Easton Church .... •••. .••• 186 

in Ingateetone Church ,.,. .... .... 187» 140 

 (Homan) .... .... ,,,, .••• 68 

in various Essex Churches, Notice of .... .... 188 

Wanton de (see Wauton) .... .... ..., •••• 27 

Waleton (Wanton or Wanton) . , .,., «... .,,, 27 

I Walsingham, Lament for (poem) ••.. ,..• •••• 7 

' ' — Pilgrimages to.... ,,,. .,,, ,,,, 6 

i Treasures in the Chapel at .... ,,., •••• 7 

Way, The Gkdaxy in the Heavens so called . • •• .. 7 

I Waltham (Oreat) Church Wall Painting in .. ...• •••• 188 

Walton ...a ..*• .... ...• .*•• 29 

'^ Warburton, Sir Roger .... .... ,,., ,,,, 162 

|! Ward, Rev. Nathaniel .... .... •••• •••• 192 

Warley (Little) Church .... ••.. ..•• .... 271 

""~~"~"~~~~"^~^^~ ria ii .... .... •••• ..•• * 1 1 

tV au bOn •*•• ..•■ ...a •■•• •••• At 

Weald (South) Church, Building of the Steeple of .... .... 20 

W eiu .... ag.. a... a.aa 9 • «^ 

Wentworth, Sir Henry .... .... .... ••.. 8 

Wheel of the Seven Deadly Sins .... .... .... 140 

16 INDEX. 


Wickfopd Ghurcli, Timber Work in .... .... .... U2 

Inacriptiona on the Bells in .... .... 112 

Willingale Spain Church, Description of Timber Work in the Belfry of 113 

Will of Sir James Bourchier, 1634-6 . . ., .... .... 21 

— Avery Comburgh, 1436-7 .... .... •... 16 

r- Sir John Cutte, 12 Hen. Vni .... .... 32 

— Sir John Catte, 1664-5 .... .... .... 35 

— Elizabeth Daroy, 1508.... .... .... ..,, 8 

Margaret Darcy, 1489-90 .... .... .... 6 

Sir Bobert Daixsy, 1469-70 .... .... .... U 

Thomas Darcy, 1484-6 .... .... ,, ,. 3 

Thomas Darcy, 1666-8 .... .... .... 12 

Henry, Lord Matney, 1623 .... .... .... 148 

— John, Lord ICamey, 1526 .... .... .... 154 

Samuel Fnrchas, B.D. 1625-6 .... .... .... 171 

Samuel PurchaSy 1658-9 .... .... .... 179 

^^ Thomas Purchas, 1657-8 .... .... .... 177 

William Salmon, 1505-6 .... .... .... 20 

Wills (Ancient), by H. W. King .... .... ....1,147,164 

Wilson, J. Maryon, Antiquities Exhibited by .... .... 184 

—— (See Maryon Wilson).,.. .... .... .... 144 

Window in Stone Hall described .... .... .... 128 

Windows of Old Houses .... .... .... .... 126 

Winthrop, John, Goyemor of Kew England .... .... 195 

Wisenum .... .... .... ••.. ••.. *■* 

Wiz, BeU Gage In the Churchyard at .... .... .... 109 

Inscription on Bell at ••.. .... .... .... 110 

Wood used in Fortifications .... .... .... .... 237 

Wooden Effigies (Sepulchral), List of remaining examples of .... 117 

Worxin, Mr., Signet Exhibited by .... .... .... 186 

Wrabness, Bell Cage at .... .... ••.« .•*. HO 

Wyatt, Sir Henry .... .... ••.. .... 33 

Wyndowte .... .... .... .<•• .... 7 


Tardley, de .«.. .... .... .•*• *••• 29 



^ssn %xc\mUiial ^0cietg. 


(No. 6.) 
By H. W. Kino. 

One of the most ancient and opulent families in Essex 
was that of D' Arcy. Though their pedigree, as recorded 
by Morant, is visibly defective, I do not purpose, in 
the present paper, to give a particular account of their 
history and lineage, which would involve long, labori- 
ous, and careful investigation. The pages of the County 
History will serve for ordinary reference ; and a brief 
mention of the origin of the family will sufl&ce for the 

Purpose of introducing here some of the D'Arcy wills, 
'he Essex D'Arcys deduced their descent from a 
common ancestor with the Barons D'Arcy and the Earls 
of Holdernesse, namely, from Norman de Areci, or 
D'Arcy, who lived at the time of the Conquest.* The 
D'Arcys of Essex, says Morant, sprang immediately 
from Norman D'Arcy, Baron D'Arcy, to whom King 
Edw. I. granted the marriage of . . . D'Amory, of 
Little Maldon ; and had by her Henry D'Arcy, Sheriff 
of London in 1327, and Mayor in 1337, the first of 
the family that had lands in Essex — ^namely, the Manor 
of Great Yeldham. His descendants, in after times, 
founded four notable families, seated respectively at 

* For an account of the Baronies of D'Arcy see Dugdale's ** Baronage ;" and 
Sir N. Harris Nicholas's " Synopsis of the Peerage." Two of these Baronies are 
presumed to be in abeyance. 



Maldon, Danbury, Tolleshunt D'Atcy^ and St. Osyth, 
where they had great posBessions.* 

The once magnificent Church of All Saints, Maldon, 
" dives pictai vestis et auri/' the pious gifts of the 
D'Arcys, was their chief place of sepulture ; and in 
the spacious chapel whicn they there founded and 
adorned, and in which their remains rested, three priests 
Bung daily and said daily orisons for the souls of the 
departed D'Arcys and all Christian souls. Thither the 
wills of the D'Arcys lead us, to find, however, but a 
solitary and defaced memorial left of all the costly 
monuments which once enshrined their relics or pre- 
served their names. This monument may, with 
perfect certainty, be appropriated to Thomcw D'Arcy, 
who died in 1485, and whose will I shall present to the 
reader. It is a beautifully executed mural monument, 
on the south side of the chapel, consisting of a canopied 
niche formed by a wide ogee arch, with crockets and 
finial. and having buttresses on each side terminating 
in pinnacles, all delicately wrought and enriched. It 
was originally inlaid with brasses. In the niche were 
the effigies oi a man and his wife, with scrolls issuing 
from their mouths. Between them is a small square 
indent, probably for some religious device. Beneath is 
the matrix of the inscription plate. Over each effigy 
was an escocheon, and between the two shields is 
another small plate for some religious emblem. In the 
head of the canopy is an escocheon still bearing the 
arms of D'Arcy and Fitz Langley quarterly. In the 
dexter spandrel another of D'Arcy, impaling four coats 

auarterly, with an inescocheon, blank, surtout ; and in 
le sinister spandrel, D'Arcy alone. 
We have here a striking exemplification of the value 
of heraldic insignia, as upon this evidence alone, which 
is all that remains, I have no hesitation in appropriating 
this monument to Thomas D'Arcy, whose epitaph is 

£ reserved by Weever. He was the eldest son of Robert 
TArcy of Maldon and Danbury by Elizabeth his wife, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Tyrell of Heron. On the death 
of her husband she re-married to Richard Hawte. 

* See Moxaat's ** Hist. £bs6z/' under the reepectiye pariahes. 


Thomas D'Arcy would be entitled to quarter the coat 
of Fitz Langley, which appears at the top of this 
monument, nis grandfather, Robert D'Arcy, having 
married Alice, daughter and heir of Robert Fitz 
Langley, and widow of John Yngoe.* He married 
Margaret, daughter and co-heir of John Harlston, of 
Suffolk, by Mary Bardwell, and would therefore impale^ 
as the general usage then was, the arms of Harlston 
(for they were rarely borne in pretence), and would be 
the first and only D Arcy who could impale them. His 
successor would quarter them. Now upon this monu- 
ment D'Arcy does impale the Harlston arms, though 
Bardwell is marshalled in the first quarter and Harlston 
in the fourth, which must certainly be an error of the 
engraver or in the design, for Harlston should occupy 
the first quarter. But as no other D'Arcy could impale 
Harlston and Bardwell, and the style of the monument 
appears to accord with the date of Thomas D'Arcy's 
death, we may safely appropriate it to him, and the 
foUowmg mscnption to it : — j 

Orate pro anima Thome Darcy Ar. corporis Begum Edwardi 
quarti et Henrici sexti, et nuper unius Justiciar, ad pacem in Com. 
Essex, ac filii et heredis Boberti Darcy, miUtis. nee non pro 
anima Margarete consortis sue imius filiarum et heredis Johannis 
Harleton in com. Suffolk Ar. qui quidem Tho. obiit 25 mens. 
Septemb. 1485. 

I insert here a few notes from his Will, in modem 
English, with some excerpts in the orthography of the 

The Will op Thomas D'Arct, Esq., Dated 5 March, 

1484-5. Proved 16 June, 1486. 

In the name of God Almighty the v*^ day of the moneth of 
March in the yer of our Lord God MCCCCLXXxiiij, I Thomas Darcy 
Esquier, son & heir of S' Robert Darcy, Knyght, beying in good 
and bole mynd, thanked be all myghty god, make, ordeyn, declare 
and dispose this my p'nt testament of my goods &c. [commends 
his soul in the usual form] and my body to be buried if, it may be, 
in the He where the bodies of my graundfader and my said ffiider 

• See Tngoe Pedigree, " Eseez Arch. 600. TransactionB,*' Vol. m., p. 100. 
t Sec WeeTer's " Fun. Mon.,*' p. 600, edn. 1631. ' 


lyen buried, in the p'ysh chirch of alhalowes of Haldon, and that 
myn enterment and moneihes mynde be kepte honestly according to 
my degree, beying ag'te making any greate dyn' or oomen dole at 
the same for pompe or pride of the world, but I wole that myn 
executors underwreten spend my goodes in rewarding of p'ests, 
clerks, and child'n helping to do dyvine S'vice atte seid ent^ment 
and moneth mynde, and to pou' people praying for my soule atte 
same, and in wex, ringing of beUs, and other costs accoostomyd to 
such enterment and monethis mynde, x poundis staling : and I will that 
my seid executors within moneth next ensuyng cause |J| masses and 
ijl tymes placebo and dirige to be songen or seid for my soule.* . 

Item. I will that my executors of 

my best cheyn of fyne gold, weying abowte xxx unc. of troy 
weight, and of cupp of gold that sumtyme was my seid ffi&ders, do 
tobe made another cupp of gold w^ a coVing of gold w^ the armes 
of me and my wiff ana my auncesteres that my urelod [came byl 
most be graven in the botom and coVyng of the same cupp, ana 
that cupp w^ the coVing so to be made to be delyy'ed unto myn 
heire male of my body (when 21) & his heLres.t Remainder to 
Bobert Darcy my brother ; remainder to my undo John Darcy and 
his heirs. In defaidt, to be sold, and the mouey to go in masses 
for my soul, finding scholars to Oxford and Cambridge, i^e 
marriage of poor honest people in Essex, mending foul and noyous 
ways and bridges, and in other works of piety and charity. 

A few brief notes from the remainder of this Will 
will suffice. 

Appoints executors. Sir Nicholas Saxton, Sir John Sholdewell, 
Sir Kobert Broke, Clerks, and Henry Tey, Esq.J Orerseers, my 
right especial good lords Thomas, Bishop of London,§ and John Lord 

* Doubts have Bometimes been expresBed whetber mch great nomben of muaea as 
were sometiineB ordered, namely, m>m 1,000 to 10,000 and more were ever said. 
Considering tbe number of Priests, Secular and Beg^ular, among wbom the masses 
could be distributed, the sa^g of even 10,000 masses within a yery short space of 
time presents no practical difficulty. It was obviously a religious duty to say them 
as speedily as possible, and was held to be an injustice to the souls to delay their 

" Sung or said/' In liturgical or rubrical language, in the Homan as in the 
English Church ** to say," invariably means to intone. Thus, to sing Mass would 
imply, if not a High Mass, at least a *' Missa cum cantu," in contradistinction to 
a mass where the service was simply said with an intonation of the voice. 8o the 
anthems refeired to by the testator might be simply intoned by t^e Priest or sung 
by the Choir. 

t A very interesting mention and order for the manufacture of a memorial 
standing-cup to be maintained in the £Eunily as an heir-loom. It reminds us of the 
ancestral goblet called for by Dido, 

Hie Regina gravem gemmis auroque popoecit, 
Lnplevitque mero patemam ; quam Belus, et omnes 
A £elo soliti. 

1 Vide Morant, tub, Ardley, Vol. I., p. 432. 

§ Thomas Kemp, formerly Archdeacon of Middlesex and Ghanoellor of York. 
Appointed Bp. of London 19 Aug., 1448. Died 22 Maith, 1489. 


Denham,* Sir James Tyrell Kn*,t my father Bicliard Hawte,J 
and my uncle John Clopton Esq.§ My wife Margaret to enjoy 
my manor, lands and tenements in Maldon, my lands and tenements 
called Salyhous lying beside Maldon, and my manors of Pudsey 
and North Pitts for me. She to have charge of my children, &c. 
Mentions son and heir apparent and daughter, but without naming 
them. Proved by Henry Tey, one of the executors named ; power 
reserved to others. 

The Will of Dame Margaret D'Arcy, Dated 19 
JuLY^ 1489 (no date of Probate but J Proved in Jan. 

She was the widow of the last mentioned Thomas 
D'Arcy, by whom, according to Morant, she had three 
sons, Roger, John, Robert, who died 28th April, 1514, 
without issue, and a daughter Margaret. Roger D'Arcy, 
of Danbury, Esq., the eldest son, was Sheriff of Essex 
and Herts in 1506. Both Salmon and Morant record 
his death on the 3rd of September, 1508, but the 
inscription preserved by Weever says that he died on 
the 30th of September in that year. I present the Will 
of Lady D'Arcy almost in its entirety. 

In DEI nomi'e amen, the ix day of July the yere of our lord 
god MooocLxxxix. I dame Margarete Darcy, wydowe, late wyfe 
of Thomas Darcy Esquier, being at Bardwell in the Dioc* of 
Norwich, hoole in mynde and of good Eemembran«e being, make 
my testament vnder the forme followyng, flurst I bequeith my 
sowle to allmighty god, to our lady seint Mary and to the seints 
of hevyn, and my body to be buried in the church of alhalown at 
Maldon by the body of my seid hnsbond ; and I will that I be 
caned hens and that a dirige and A masse be done for me here in 
the church so that the vicary may have his offering as he should 
have if I had be buried here ; and I well that tibe vicary have 
iij' iiij** ; more also, I bequeith to the said vicary for my lythes 
forgotten vj* viij*. Item I woU that all my detts that can be dewly 
p'vyd be paid w*out any abridgment. It'm I bequeith for a pix 
to be at Bardwell Church xl" ; also I wiU that v marcs be disposed 
to somme remembraunce by the advouyse of my executors to^ the 

* John Dynham, summoned to Parliament from 28 Feb., 6 Edw. lY., 1446, to 
16 Jan., 12 Hen. YII., 1497, as " Johanni Dinham de Claxe Dinham, Chl'r/' K.G.^ 
Lord Treasurer ob. circ. 1609, -when the Barony is presumed to haye become 

t Sir James Tyrell of Gipping, in Suffolk, beheaded upon Tower Hill, 6 Hay, 

Bichard Haivte, Testator's step&ther. 

Of a Suffolk iamily but possessed of considerable property in Essex. 



higli awter ther myn hnsbond lieth at Maldon. Item. I beqneith 
to the church at Hampton xx" in lyke forme. It'm to the church 
of Knuttysule xx' in lyke forme. It'm to the church of Enottyshule 
XX' in lyke forme.* It'm I bequeith to the anker in Norwich to 
pray for me and all my frendes xl*. It'm I bequeith to the freres 
of Norwich to sey for me a trentall xl' [small legacies to serrants]. 
[To Dorothie Calthorp my goddaughter vi' viij'*, and to ev*y other 

to Thomas my son my tablett w* the flower w* the safir/ (if he die, 
to Roger). I will that Elizabeth my doughter have my flowre for 
her nek, and ij gilt gyrdels. It'm, I will that my doughter have 
when she comyth to thage of xiiij yers mj and the tothe 

fike of gold w* my Ktle cheyne (if she die, to her sister Elizabeth.) 
t*m, I bequeith my profession Rjmg to our Lady of Walsmgh'nLt 
t Money, chattels, com, debts and profits of 'livelode' to my 
urying.] Household stuff which I had of my husband to son 
Thomas when 21, if he die before to my two daughters. To Amy 
Montgomery x marks. To my good cousin ' Eateryn ffi*axmer x 
marks ; if my son and daughter cue, then all to be (usposed for the 
wealth of my soul.' Appoints executors, John Clapton, Esq., 
Robert Crane, Thomas ffoxm' Esqrs., and Edward Clopton. [Give 
John Clopton for his trouble x marks, Richard Crane v marks, 
Edward Clopton x marks.] ' And I wole that Margarete Stamford 
my s'vaunte shall goo at my gost a pylgrymage to our Lady of 
Owtyng,} Seint Willyam of Rowchester, § and to Kyng 

* This repetition is no doubt an enror either in the original or the tnuucript 
88 it evidently refers to the same church, although the orthography TBiies. 

t See note below on Walsingham. 

X I know not whether I am right in supposing this to be Houghton le Bale in 
Norfolk, where there is a small and beautiful chapel. 

} ^fhe tomb of 8. William of Rochester in the cathedral was a fiunous place of 
Pilgrimage. He is said to have been a Scotchman who had been induced to under- 
take a pilg^rimage to Jerusalem ; but when on the road to Oanterbury, a little 
beyond Kochester, he was murdered by his servant and plundered of his property. 
This event happened in May, 1201. His remains were brought to Bochester and 
interred in the diurch. The sepulchre of the murdered pilg^rim soon attracted great 
crowds of visitors, and the oblations made by them became a source of considerable 
affluence. The whole expense of building the choir from the north and south 
transepts is recorded to have been defrayed by the riches thus acquired. The 
fiune of William was at length completed by his canonization in 12iS4 throuffh 
the solicitation of Bishop Lawrence de St. Miutin who was then at Home. At the 
same time the Pope, Innocent IV., granted indulgences to all who should visit and 
make offerings at the shrine of the new saint. This occasioned a great influx of 
devotees ; many pilgrima^ were made to the tomb and S. William maintained his 
reputation till a late penod. In the Register of the Cathedral " De datoribos 
beneficorum ecclesisB Boffensi," the fact of the cost of the building referred to 
having been defrayed frt)m the offerings at S. William's shrine is thus recorded :— 
** Willelmus de Hoc sacrista, fecit totum chorum a predictis alis [t.#. ala borealis et 
ala australis] de oblationibus sancti Willelmi." ** Regist Roff./' p., 1 25. Mr. Ashpitel 
however has shewn that the work actually erected by Wiliam oe Hoc waa the eoutlk 
transept. (" TftaoB. Brit. Archl. Assn.," vol. IX., p. 271.) 


Henry,* and to our Lady of Walsingh'm.'t Witnesses Thomas 
Skoll p'son of Westonj Sir John Wyndowte my gostly fader, & 

* Henry the Sixth of England, though never fomiaUy canonized, was popularly 
regarded as a saint and martyr. His day in the Kalendiur is 22nd of May, the day 
of his deposition. 

t Walsingham in Norfolk was a Priory of Augustinian Canons. At the dissolu- 
tion, the aTiTiual revenues of the Monastery were valued, according to Speed, at 
£446 14s. 6d. " That its wealth," says Brayley, " should have been immensely 
^eat, is not surprising, when the fame of the Image of The Lady of Wokingham 
IS taken into account ; for it was as much frequented, if not more, thaji the shrine 
of S. Thomas k Becket, at Canterbury. Foreigners of all nations came hither on 
pilgrimage : many ELing^ and Queens of England also paid their devoirs to it ; so 
that the number and quality of the devotees appeared to equal those of the Lady of 
Loretto in Italy." 

Erasmus, who visited this place, says that the chapel, then rebuilding, was 
distinct from the church, and inside of it was a small chapel of wood, on eadi side 
of which was a little narrow door, where those who were admitted came with their 
offerings, and paid their devotions : that it was lighted up witib. wax tapers, and 
that the glitter of gold, silver, and jewels, would lead you to suppose it to be the 
mansion of the saints. 

The galaxy ia the heavens was ^pularly believed to be a miraculous indication 
of the way to this place. Hence it was called the Waltinffham Way. Spelman 
observes that it was said King Henry the Eighth, in the second year of his reign, 
walked barefooted from the village of Basham to this place, and then presented a 
valuable necklace to the image. Of this costly present, as well as other saleable 
appendages, Cromwell doubtless took good care, when by his master's orders he 
reused the image, and burnt it at Chelsea. (BrayUy, Notes.) 

Mr. J. G^. Nichols says no catalogue of the treasures (gold and silver statues 
mentioned by Erasmus) is known to be now in existence, but we have testamentary 
record of two of the most remarkable. Bartholomew Lord Burghhersh, K.G., by 
his will made in 1369, ordered a statue of himself on horseback to be made in silver 
and offered to our I^y of Walsingham ; and King Henry YII., in his lifetime, 
had given a kneeling figure of himself, which is alluded to in his will. ( Vide 
" PUgrimage to S. Mary of Walsingham and S. Thomas of Canterbury by Desideriue* 
Erasmus, newly translated and illustrated with notes, by John Gough Nichols, 

The following beautiful verses are reproduced by Mr. Nichols from the " Gents. 
Mag." for 1839. The ballad is contained in a small 4to. volume in the Bodleiaa 
Library : — 

Lament fok Walsingham. 


In the wrackes of Walsingham ^ 

Whom should I chuse 
But the Queene of Walsingham 

To be guide to my muse F 

Then, thou Prince of Walsingham 

Graunt me to frame 
Bitter plaintes to rewe thy wrong, 

Bitt^ wo for thy name. 

Bitter was it, oh, to see 

The sely sheepe 
Murdred by the raveninge wolves 

While the sheepharde did sleep. 

Bitter was it, oh, to view 

The sacred vyne, 
Whiles the garoiners plaied all dose, 

Booted up by the swine. 

Bitter, bitter, oh, to behoulde 

The grasse to grow 
Where the walls of Walsingham 

So stately did shewe. 


The Will op Elizabeth D'Arcy, Widow (not dated 

hut) Proved 29 Jan., 1508, 

is a very interesting document on account of the 
description contained in it of several Eucharistic vest- 
ments and copes bequeathed by the testatrix, as well as 
of some articles of rich embroidery and fine napery. 
This lady was the wife of Roger D'Arcy, whose 
sepulchral inscription in the Church of All Saints, 
Maldon, has been preserved by Weever as follows : — 

Hie jacet Rogerus Darcy Ar. filius et heres Tho. Darcy Ar. pro 
corpora illustrissimi Principis Henrici septimi Re^s Anglie, et 
Elizabetha uxor ejus, filia Henrici Wentworth, militis, qui obijt 
ultimo die Septemb. 1508. 

Morant says that she was the daughter of Sir Henry 
Wentworth of Nettlested, and had been previously 
married to John Bourchier Earl of Bath, and to Thomas 

I print her Will from the Register Itteratim. The 
orthography is more than ordinarily impure, and I infer 
that the original, from which it was transcribed, was an 
ill-written document. Several words in the Register 
are manifestly corrupt readings.* 

' Such wore the worth of Walsingham 

While she did stand, 
Such are the wrackes as now do shewe 
Of that [so] holy lande. 

Levell, leveU, with the ground 

The towres doe lye, 
Which with their golden, glittering tops 
• Fearsed oute to the skeye. 

Where weare gates, no gates are nowe, 

The waies unknowen 
Where the press of fireares did passe, 

While her fame £eu: was hlowen ; 

Oules do scrike where the sweetest himmes 

Xjately wear songe, 
Toades and serpents hold their dennes 

Where the palmers did throng. 

Weepe, weepe, O Walsingham, 

Whose dayes are nightes, 
Blessings turned to hlasphemies. 

Holy deedes to dispites ; 

Sinne is where our lady sate, 

Heaven turned is to helle, 
Sathan sitte where our Lord did swaye, 

Walsingham, oh, farewell ! 

* I am very confident of the correctness of my own transcript, as the MS. 
presents no paleographical difficulties ; on the contrary, the hand is more than 
ordinarily clear and legible for tho period. 


In nomine ihu amen. I Dame Elizabeth Darcy widow being 
in god mynde make my testament and last will in maner and fourme 
following with godds grace to be truly kep;^d. ffirst I biqueth my 
Boule to almighti &;od my savyour ihu crist, and to our lady his 
blessid mother, ana to all the blessid company of heuyn, and niy 
body to be buried at Maiden Vin the tumbe where mayster Darcy 
lyth according to that god hath lefte me as my power and wiU 
streche. also for my t}rthis and offeringes according not do]m by 
my thowhtfiilnesse,* to make amendys for my soule helth, I biqueth 
to the high aulter yj* yiij** ; also I biqueth to al halow church, ther 
to be payed for, a cope and a yestiment, with more and it myght be, 
of blak yelyet and tha orferys a purpill cloth of gold, also I 
biqueth to my chapell and chauntrys at maldon a yestment of blak 
Saten, that to remayne alway to the chaimtry at Maldon. Also I 
biqueth to the ffirerys at Maldon to be prayed for my soule xx*. 
also for my tithes, and offeringes not well do/n, to make amendys 
to my soules helth, I biqueth to the high aulter at Danbery x*. 
Also I biqueth to sant John the Baptistes chapell to be prayde for 
iij* iiij''. Also I biqueth to the hign aidter a yestiment of yelyet 
there to remayn as good of the church, also I biqueth to saint 
nicolas Byshop' a cope of blak Damaske enkrandid f there to 
remayne alway to the honour of god and seint nicolas. also 
I biqueth to our lady chapell in Donbery a yestyment of blak 
satyn for my chauntry profoys^ to syng with them in honour 
of god and our blessed Lady.§ Item to Tbor'don church to 
the high aulter for my tithes yj' yiij"*. Item I biqueth to 
the church a cope and a yestiment of tawney yelyet.|| Item 

* Most prolMkblj doihJvins$t ; or, perhaps, thoughtltunuM, 

t TJnmistakeably written " enkniidid " in the Begister ; " embrawdid " for 
embroidered, which occurs farther on, was no doubt the word in the original WiU. 

X Clearly "profoys" in the Begister, and undoubtedly a misreading by the scribe 
of " prestys" priests, 

} Morant says that '* Robert, Abbot of S. John's, Colchester, and the Convent 
there, gave, 3id Edw. II., licence to John son of Simon, and Robert de St. Olere, 
Kts., to give all their lands in Munden holden of the said Abbot's fee in pure alms 
to the Chapel of Denewbury, for the soul of William de St. Clere." 

** There were also three perpetual chantries in this church, founded by the 
Darcyes, and called Darcye's Chantries ; two whereof were dedicated to S. Mary, 
and the other to S. John the Baptist. And here moreover was another chant^ 
founded by Richard Waldryan." It is dear, however, from this Will that there 
was an altar or chapel in the church dedicated to S. Nicholas, and it seems probable 
that one of the two said to be dedicated to S. Mary was in honour of 8. Nicholas, 
for the bequest " to our lady chapel" implies the existence of but one under her 

I i,s, a cope and chasuble of orange-ooloured velvet or of some shade of that 
oolour. According to the use of Sarum yellow vestments were prescribed only for 
festivals of Confessors ; but yeUow was not one of the ecclesiastical colours according 
 to the ordinary Roman use ; neither was blue ; but copes, chasubles, and altar 
cloths of blue frequentiy occur in the inventories of church goods. However, as I 
observed in a former note, the colours of the day or season were always marked by 
the apparelB of the alb. 

The rubrical colours for vestments as directed by the Sarum use were — Red, on every 
Sunday and every festival of Marhrrs, Apostles and Evangelists throughout the 
year, except from JSaster to Trinity Sunday, when they were always White. They 


10 ANCIENT Wllil^. ^ 

to * church in Kent to the high anlter rj* viij*. 

Ite* a Testement to be prayde for. Item I rive to my good lady 
of lincohi a payre of bedys of Jete gaudred with Jete and gold 

bedys on every syde-f Item, I biqneth to 

my dooghter Barbe a payre of fyne shots of iij brodes and a 
table cloth of crownes and floure deluces, and a fistyer napkyn 
of doundebys-t It'm to my doughter gaynssford a payer of 
shots of iij bradySy and a table clo& of diaper of biraes ey'n, 
and a bed of blew say embrawdid with -flowres and sy'kfoyles,! 
and to my doughter Bakyr a payre of shetys of iiij brodys. if 
cod give me life then I aflker truist to do other wise in every thing, 
but this in eny wise that my dettys be first payde, which De theis 
that followe, ffyrst to my brother humfrey xxx* x\ It'm to Bok 
Drap' iij li. It'm to Benyson Skynnar iij IL It'm to Bartilmewe 
reed xxxvj*. To a woman of sajmt Catherynes Ivi*. viij'*. Item to 
John Dawys wife that was xxxyj* viii'* and I must have of hir 
purple velvet of a vestiment and the or&rys tharto of white cloth of 
golijl It'm owyn to mouncastyr taylour xx* or more. It'm 
owyng to maister Selyard Ivi' viij*,1f and ovyng to him that hath 
pleagis xxvi li. which he hath plate to pledge tor ; my dettis to be 
payde and my will to be p'rourmed. I nertly pray maister Sir 
Thomas Tyrell,** my son Baker, and Sir William fiGawley the good 
person of hem churche,tt and, if my goods will stretche soo fer to 
berry me, and that thei may have some rewarde. I wiU that master 

-^fere also White on the Feasts of the Annundation, and of S. Maiy, 8. Michael, 
and S. John ; Yellow on Confessor's days ; and Black on Vigils and £mber days. 

Black, according to the custom of the rest of the Western Church, was used only 
on Good Friday and for funeral solemnities, obits, and masses for the dead, hence 
the black vestments bequeathed by Elizabeth D'Arcy for the Chantries. 

* Hiatus in Reg. 

t A pair of Beads (Lat. Par prtcuiarum) sometimee called Oracles. The large 
beads marking the Pater-nosters were generally more embeUished than the rest and 
called Qauds ; hence the term " gaudred." fieads of jet were supposed to possess 
great virtue. Mr. Ford, in " Murray's Handbook of Spain," has a note upon the 
Bosary when describing the Cathedral of Compostella : — '* The fourth and last side 
opens to the north on the Aaabaeheriaf or Plaza de San Mertin. The former term is 
derived from aaabaehe, jet, of which vast quantities of rosaries used to be made and 
sold on this spot to the pilgrims as they entered, just as is done at Jerusalem, in the 
Great Court of Mecca." 

The Bosary is usually seen dependent from the girdle in monumental brass 
effigies, but was frequently worn upon the arm. It ought to contain 150 beads, in 
which one Pater'ttoiUr is allowed for every ten Avs Mariat. Seven decades of Av§9 
IB, however, the more common number. 

X Cloundebys. So written in the Register, but most probably a misreading of 
** flourdelvs" (JUura^de-Ut ) frx>m the ill- written MS. of the original. It might 
possibly nave been '* Cloudberries" (Kubus Chamsemorus, or ground-mulberry) 
written in a contracted form in the original ; but fleurs-de-lis seems the more 
probable word. 

i Cinque-foils. 
Purple vestments were worn during Advent and Lent. 
IT Probably Edward Sulyard, Esq., of Flemyngs, Runwell. 
•♦Sir Thomas Tyrell, of Heron, who died in 1612. 
ft The Parson of East Homdon Church. 


Sir Thomas Tyrell may hare xl' and echo of the other xx'. (Proved 
24 Jan. 1508.) 

Weever has preserved an abstract of 

The Will op Sir Robert Darcy, Knioht, Dated 5 

Oct., 1469, and Proved 1470, 

from a MS. in the Cottonian library, extracted from 
the Register of Thomas Kemp. Bishop of London, 
which, in order to render the collection of Darcy wills 
more complete, I may be permitted to quote. He was 
of Danbury, and father of Thomas D' Arcy, whose will I 
have inserted above. According to Morant, he was 
buried there, but as this is contrary to the express 
directions contained in his will^ in default of direct proof 
that he was interred at Danbury, it is more probable 
that he lies in the Darcy aisle at Maldon. 

Robert Darcy, TTnight, made this Testament the 5 of October 
Anno Domini 1469, his body he willed to be buried in all Hallowes 
Church of Maldon, before the Altar, in the Isle where his father 
lieth in a Tombe of marble. Also he willed 1 markes to be disposed 
for two thousand masses for him to be said, within sixe weekes next 
after his deceyse, iiii**. for eueiy masse ; and that they be charged 
for to prey for his soule, his wifs sold, his fathers and his mothers, 
and for all his sisters soules ; and for all their husbands soules, and 
for all the soules that he is bound to prey for. Of which said 1 
markes, he willed to have somewhat euery Prist that dwelled in 
Pembroke hall in Cambridge. Allso he willed that euery Fryer 
that was a Prist in Colchester haue xx**. and euery little Fryer vi^ 
to say three dirgees, considering that he was a brother of that Order. 
And the house of Chennesford xl", the house of Clare xx*. and each 
young Frier vi*. considering that hee was a brother of their Order. 
And he made Ids executors Elizabeth his wife, Jo. Clopton, Esquire, 
Nicholas Saxton, and Richard Ashley, Clerkes. And the superuison 
of this his Testament, my Lord of Essex,* my Lord l)inham, 
Thomas Mountgomery, and Thomas Tirrill, Knights ; lowly 
beseeching the said Lord of Essex, the Lord Dinham, Sir Thomas 
Mountgomery, and Sir Thomas Tirrill to helpe his son Thomas and 
all his children. Also he willed that my Lord of Essex and the 
Lord Dinham should each of them have a But of Malmesy, and 
that Sir Thomas Mountgomery and Sir Thomas Tirrill should each 

* Heniy Bourchier, Earl of Ewe in Normandy, Baron and Yisoonnt Bourcliier 
of England, son and heir of William, Earl of Ewe, by Ann, dan., and eventuaUy 
0ole heir of Thomas Plantaganet, Duke of Gloucester, the £onner Earl of Essex, 
Created Earl of Essex 30 June, 1461, E.G. ; ob. 1483. 


of them hane a pipe of red wine. Also he willed that his brother 
John Clopton, one of his Executors should haue for his labour xxl. 
Also he willed mistresse Anne Darcy his brothers wife to haue xx 
markes. Yeuen at Danbury the daye and yeare aboye said. This 
his will was proued quarto die mensis Maij, coram reverendo in 
Ghristo Patre Domino Thoma Episcopo London ; infira manerium 
saum de Wekeham, Anno Domini 1470. 

I should have preferred, if leisure had permitted, and if 
a temporary cessation from the labour of transcribing 
records had not been urgently needed, to have given a 
series of the D'Arcy Wills m chronological order. I 
hope, however, if my search prove successful, to con- 
tinue them hereafter. One, of considerably later date, I 
insert now, on account of the reference of the testator to 
the mutilated condition of the D' Arcy monuments in the 
17th century, a condition, no doubt, attributable rather 
to robbery and wanton spoliation in the 16th and 17th 
centuries, than simply to the ravages of time. It is 

The Will op Thomas D'Arcy of Maldon, Dated 6 
June, 1656, Peoved 20 June, 1658. 

The property bequeathed consists almost exclusively 
of personafty, aad as in diis respect the will is of very 
litue interest except for the names recorded in it, I shall 

ive but a brief abstract of its contents in modem 

Inglish. Testator commences thus, 

My wife died tiie 24 Dea 1656 and I made this will the 6^ of 
June following, viz. ! 

Thomas Darcy of the family of the Darcies in Essex^ now one of 
the Masters of the Bench of lincolns Inn. My body to be buried 
by Elizabeth Darcy my wife in the Upper Church in Maldon where 
she lieth among the Darcies long smce buried there. Give unto 
Thomas Darcy, my nephew, the son of William Darcy my brother, 
the Bell Inn in Maldon and my other house wherein . . • .* 
Schoolmaster now dweUeth, situate in the upper parish in Maldon. 
[Mentions various sums of money secured by oonds and mortgage in 
the hands of various persons.] Said houses in Maldon give to my 
said nephew Thomas Darcy for Ufe, remainder to his first son and 
his heirs. Bemainder to second and third sons and their heirs in 
succession. Remainder to Edmond Darcy and his heirs. Remainder 
to right heirs. To nephew Thomas Darcy £350 in trust to ez- 

* Miatiu in St^iro, 


ecators till after his mother's death, he to have profits in the mean- 
time. To my brother Edmond £100, if he die then to my nephew 
Thomas Darcy. To my niece Stephen £50, and to her sister 
Elizabeth Darcy £50. To Anne and Penelope Darcy their younger 
sisters £30 cash. Appoint William Eden or Lincolns Inn Esq. and 
John Bu]^oyne of tne same Inn Esq, my kinsmen, executors, and 
give each £20. * Desire them to bestow £40 on a monument in 
the said chapel at Maldon where my said wife and are 

buried, in memory of us and of the ancient Darcies buried there 
whose stones and monuments are worn out by time. Sir Eobert 
Darcy was buried there in the high stone tomb about 26^ Hen. YI. 
John Darcy Esq. buried there Edw. IV*** time ; and divers others 
laid there before and after as appears of late times, but now the 
brass plates taken off. To my cousin Penelope Burgoine my silver 
tankard, and to my cousin Elizabeth Wiseman my 'imbroydered 
Bible.'* My books to my said executors. Residue equally among 
my kindred before mentioned, my sister Darcy, widow, to come in 
for a share and to have a ring. [Mentions ' my brother Thomas 

The monumental destruction in this Church, and the 
sacrilegious abstraction of magnificent brasses, has been 
so enormous since Weever wrote, and since the date of 
this will, that of all the D'Arcy monuments (with the 
exception of the mutilated one already mentioned) this 
in memory of the testator alone remams. The inscrip- 
tion is partially concealed by one of the old Puritan 
type of close closets with wmch the church is encum- 
bered, and by which its fine architectural features and 
proportions are obscured. It bears the arms of D' Arcy, 
with a crescent for difference, impaling Wentworth and 
the following inscription, which 1 have partly supplied 
within brackets : — 

Here lyeth interred the body of Thomas Darcy [late one] of the 
Masters of the Bench in [Lincolns] Inne in the County of [Middle- 
sex], who departed this me y' seventh day of January 1657. Here 
also lyeth interred the body of [Elizabeth his wife] eldest daughter 
of [Koger] Wentwoi:th of Bockin in the County of Essex Esq. 
[who departed this hfe the 24"^ Dec'. 1656.] 

Just above this slab lies another with indents of the 
effigies of a man and three women which appears to be 

* Bibles with ooYon of embioidery were not vnnsiial in this oentoij* and ace 
itQl to be met with. 


drca temp. Hen. VIL, and probably covers the remains 
of some of the D' Arcys. 

We are told by Morant that " Robert Darcy, of Dan- 
bury, Esq., founaed three chantries in this church in 
the reign of King Hen. IV., and that the south chapel 
is called D'Arcy's aisle or Chapel, undoubtedly because 
it was built by him for the use of his chantry Priests." 
The style of its architecture certainly accords with the 
date assigned. 

The history of Guilds and Chantries is very interest- 
ing as connected with the parochial system of the 
middle ages. I am not sure that it has ever been 
thoroughly investigated. It has commonly been asserted, 
without any qualification, and as currently believed, that 
the Chantry Priest was quite independent of the incum- 
bent of the church, and that his sole duty was to say 
mass for the good of the founder and others ; and that 
chantries were established for the sole purpose of 
keeping up a succession of prayers for the prosperity of 
a single family, both for the repose of the souls of the 
dead and for the good estate of its living members* 
The first clause of the statement is not strictly correct^ 
and the second is manifestly too limited. If in the 
majority of cases the Chantry Priests were actually or 
virtually independent of the incumbents, in many in- 
stances they were not ; while it is certain that they 
often had other duties to perform besides those above 
assigned to them. With respect to a large number of 
chantries we know nothing whatever of the original 
statutes of foundation ; but where records of the K>un- 
dation are extant, we often find that the Chantry Priest 
had a share of the parochial work expressly assigned to 
him.* Every parochial guild also maintamed a 
chantry, and the Guild Priest, if he were not by the 
terms of the foundation appointed to help serve the 
cure, had special duties which he owed to the members 
of the Fraternity to whom he stood in the relation of 
Chaplain. And so we find that at Maldon, down to the 
reign of Edw. VI., the staff of parochial clergy consisted 

* See Appendix to Dr. Oliver's " Monastioon Exonienins*' for Bucli examples in 
his account of the Chantries in the Diocese of Exeter. 


of two Vicars and three assistants, besides the three 
Chantry Priests attached to the D'Arcy Chapel in All 
Saints. The Priest of S. Catherine's Guild, in this 
parish, was, by the terms of the endowment, to sing 
mass in the church and help serve the cure. The 
Guild Priest of S. Mary the Virgin, in the parish of S. 
Peter, was to sing mass in that Church and keep a 
school ; and the Priest of the Guild of S. George 
in the parish of S. Mary was to sing mass and help 
serve the cure there.* These Guilds appear to have 
been very amply endowed. Evidence proving that 
Guild and Chantry Priests were often assistant Curates 
to the churches to which they were attached, might 
be easily accumulated.f With these cursory remarks 
upon the subject I will introduce 

The Will of Avery Cornburgh of Romford, Esq., 
Dated 1st Feb., and Proved 19th Feb., 1436-7. ' 

Avery or Alured Cornburgh held the Manor of 
Gooshays, and a third part of the Manor of Great 
Dovers in Romford; the evidence is in favour of his 
having lived at Gooshays. He was the founder of a 
Chantry in Romford Church, and but for the remark- 
able and interesting epitaph upon his monument, pre- 
served by Weever, it would, no doubt, have been 
hastily assumed that this foundation was limited to the 
perpetual celebration of masses for his soul's weal. 
His Will would rather have tended to confirm the truth 

* At the time of the snppreflsion of these Guilds, in the reign of Edw. VI., the 
certificate states that in the parish of All Saints there were 200 houseling people (or 
Communicants), in the pari^ of S. Peter 240, and in that of S. Mary 280. At one 
swoop the town was deprived of three assistant clergy with ample endowments, 
(besides the three chantry priests attached to D'Arcy's Qiapel) and the number 
reduced to two clergy with three impoverished vicarages. The Church of S. Peter 
was suffered to fall into ruins, and the grand Church of All Hallows was despoiled, 
de&ced and barbarized in every conceivable manner. 

t Most of the parochial chapels were founded as Chantries^ and there were 
many throughout tiie county which served as chapels of ease, or were resorted to by 
the parishioners. These feU, likewise, for the most part, under the " Superstitious 
Uses Act.'* It may be affirmed, I think, with certainty that the alienated Chapel 
and Chantry endowments would have provided amply for aU the parochial wants of 
modem times, and that there is scarcely an instcuice where such a provision was 
made, that it was not, or is not, needed 


of such an aBSumption. But he had founded the 
Chantry by deed prior to the date of his will, and 
appointed that the Priest who should be elected to 
serve the Chantry should be also Lecturer in the 
church: and he was bound not only to preach there, 
but to deliver two sermons, at least, every year in the 
churches of South Ockendon, Homchurch, Dagenham, 
and Barking* And such Priest was to be a Doctor or 
Bachelor of Divinity, or a Master of Arts. The value 
of the endowment was fiiUy equivalent to £200 per 
annum of modem money. The Chantry House was 
that now known as the " Cock and Bell Inn," standing 
in the High Street, immediately east of the church.* 
The following is the Will of Avery Comburgh tin 
extenso: — 

In the name of God amen. I Avery Comeburgh, Esquyer, hole 
of mynde and somwhat syke in body, the fiyrst day of the monyth 
of ffebraary In the yere of our lord god mooocxxxvi make and 
ordeyne this my testament in man' and forme following, Syrst I 
bequeyth my soule to our lord Ihu Crist to our lady Seint Mary 
Virgyn and to all the hooly copany of hevyn and my body to he 
buried in the church of Sent Edward of Rumford w4n the pish of 
homechurch in the Gounte of Essex, and in that place ther by me a 
fore prefixd, and over y* after my Detts paid I bequeeth unto 
Beatrice my Wife all ike residew of my goods moveabyll and 
unmoveabyil. And also all my londes tenements Bents and 
services w*4n England Whersoever thev lye, except oertejm lends 
and tenements that I have eevyn to the Keeping of a Chauntrey 
of oon prest w^n the same church of Rumfora for the wele of my 
soule my Wife and other my ffirends, to the valur of xiiii li by the 
yere whereof xii li for the salary of a priest, xiii' iiii** for the 
Keward of the church Wardens of Rumfora yearly for the gadering 
of the seid summe of xiiii li. and xx* yeerly for priests, clerkes, 
brede and ale to be conveniently had at mv yeres mjmd, and 
TJs viiid. the Residew yerely to be destributed for my sowle in pens 
among pour people at the seid yeres mynde as in writing thereof 
made it is expressed mor at large, and she to dispose the same my 
gods lends and tenements as she shall senn best to tne pleasure of god 
and the helth and profite of my soule. Also I will that noon of 
my execute's underwretyn by h3rm self make non acquitaunce to 
any of myn execute's wH)ut thassent of all the other myn executors 

* Sx, inform, Mr. Edvard J. Sage, to whom also I am indebted for the 
transcript of Aver^ Comburgh's Will, the l^oiM finun the Visitation, and other 
information regpecting him. 


in the same my testament named. Also I will that of this my 
testament and last will by me now made and of myn other testa- 
ment by me afore this t5rme made that ther be made a draught 
and an abstract by thadvice and Counsell of men lernyd in lawe. 
That they may reforme and order all things in the same testaments 
comprised accordjnag to reason and good conscience, as they shall 
think moost to the pleasure of god and helth & profite of my 
soule. The which Draught and abstracte so by thadvice of the seid 
lernyd men made and Drawen out of the said both my testaments, I 
afferme and conferme for my very testament and last will, and of 
this my seid testament and last wiU and of the said myn other 
testament made I make and ordeyne my execute's Syr Reynolde 
Bray, Knyghte, Beatrice my wife, Will'm Hoody, Knyght, and 
Chefe Baron of the Kyngs Exchequer, Will'm &iyvett, Knyght, 
Sir John Crowland, Bachelour in Divi Htie, and p'son of the p'ish 
church of South Okyntton in the Counte of Essex, Eichard Bowley 
Esquere, Syr James lorde, P'son of Otrigge. 

Aveiy Combur^h, agreeably to the directions con- 
tained in this Will, was buried in Romford Church. 
The Visitation of Essex in 1634 (c. 21, Coll. of Arms), 
though three • years later than tne date of the first 
edition of Weever's " Funeral Monuments/' contains a 
description of his tomb which is not recorded by the 
latter. It is described as " An Altar Tomb on which is 
the portraiture of a man in armour, with a sword by his 
side and a dagger, lying betwixt his wife and his sister ; 
at the foote of his sister this writeing, ' Here lyeth 
Elizabeth Hanys sister to Master Avery Corneburgh. 
'squire, on whose soules God have mercy. Amen. 
This motto jfrom her mouth ' F viailam cvH xp^o^ et 
requiescam in pace.^ And this from the man's mouth, 
* Uustodi 7108 dormtentesJ Inlaid also with brass round 
about, part thereof defaced, and this only remayneth." 
Then follows the inscription : but as this appears to me 
to be more faithfully transcribed by Weever, I shall give 
his reading :— 

yere of owr Lord 1480 . . . aad Beatrice 

his wyf which decessid the day of the yere of 

owr Lord God 1480 and of Maister John Crowland 

. . . . who decessid the day of the yere of owr 

Lord God, 1480. On whos souls Jesu have mercy. 


The following epitaph, preserved by Weever, is 
recorded by the Herald to have been at the end of the 
tomb above the escocheons : — 

Farwel my frendys, the Tyde abydeth no man ; 

I am departed fro hens, and so sail ye, 

But in my pasage the best song I can, 

Is Requiem eternam : now Jesu grant it me. 

When I have endyd all my auersite ; 

Ghrant me m Paradys to haue a mansion. 
That shed thy blood for my redemption. 

The following verses, also preserved by Weever, were 
inscribed upon the tomb. 1 quoted one stanza in a 
previous paper ; but as they contain a full rhythmical 
abstract of the foundation deed of the Chantry, and a 
very interesting memorial of the duties of the chantry 
priest and the mode of his election, I reproduce them, 
as probably there are many readers to whom a copy of 
Weever's work is not readily accessible : — 


The mortall corses buryed here behold. 

Of Avery Comburgh and Beatrice his wyff, 

Sqwire for the body in worship manifold, 

With Henry and Edward Kings in this lyfF ; 

And vndertreasurer with King Henry the seuenth fuU blyfE, 

Till deth him raft the world ad yow may se, 

And of Master John Crowland Doctor of Diuinite. 

Within this Church to sing perpetuell. 
They stablysh a Doctor, or Bachelor of Diuinite, 
Or a Master of Art, for node continuell, 
Ten pound for his salerie and chamber fee, 
And three pound more, there as you may se : 

Terlie xx* the liuelode to repare 

For eaery yere an oUt^ the residue is fare. 

Of Preests xii, and Clerks vi, alsoo. 
Six pens the Freest, and fewer pens euery Clerk, 
For brede, chese, and Ale in mony there must goo : 
To poor folk xl. d. fulfilling this werk : 
The Baylie and Wardens of this Church must herk : 
To levy the lyvelode, dispose and employ : 
And ech of them yerly for their labour shall xl. d. enioy. 


Moreoner tliis call to your remembranoe anon. 
That in the beadroll of vsage euery Sonday redd ; 
The sowls of this Avery, Beatrice, and John, 
Be prayed for in spedall ; se that owr will be spedd. 
And that the Curate of this Church curtesly be ledd 
And for his labour have in reding of that Roll 
Forty pens to pray for them any euery Christian sowl. 

The Chantrie Freest in this Church shall bynd him prechingy 
And in other when he is disposyd Soul helth to avans : 
Kamely at South Okendon, Homchurch, Dagenham and Barking; 
At euery of them twise a yere, or moo to Goddys pleasanSy 
And at two times seuerall this is sufficians. 

Forty days in the yere he shall haue to disport. 

If his disposition require such comfort. 

The Baylie and Wardens of the same town ; 

This chantre Freest shall puruay and prouyd, 

Within six wekes by ther own election. 

But aftyr such seyson if it shall betyd, 

To stand longer vacant, thei shall it not hyd, 
The Bishop of London, and the Archdekon, 
As is owr will for that on tym shall have ther election* 

But aft3rr six wekes a moneth of vacation. 

Not elet by them twein, depriuyth ther liberte. 

For then shall the Sing ha gift and nomination. 

Namely for that on tym ; we will that so it be. 

A chest in the Church with euidenses se, 

Concerning the liuelode with Indenture tripartite ; 
Kemeyning with the Bishop, and Herres of Auery : 
The third with the Wardens trowth to Annuity. 

Now Jesu for thy bitter passion, 
Howard the sowls with euerlasting blis 
Of them, which caused this Foundation ; 
And of thy mercy let them never mis. 
And Virgm Mary shew thy ^ace in this. 

Eternally, that they may hue with the. 

Amen, Amen, Amen, for cherite. 

Not a vestige of this tomb remains. It appears from 
the Herald's Church notes, taken at the time of the 
Visitation, that it was ornamented with escocheons, 
inlaid in brass at the four corners upon the top, and 
repeated upon one side. Over the head of Avery 


Comburgh, and at the foot of his sister, were the Com- 
burgh arms, Arg. three boars passant per fess vert and 
or, on a chief sa. a saltire or. Over the head of his wife 
Cornburgh impaling Ljrnne, Gu. a demi-lion rampant, 
double queued, arg. within a bordure az. bezant^e. 
And the arms of Lynne alone were placed beneath his 
feet. There is no pedigree of the Cornburgh family in 
the Herald's College. 

The following is an interesting excerpt from 

The Will of William Salmon, of Brentwood, Dated 
6 May, 1504, Proved 5 March, 1505-6, 

Inasmuch as it brings to a close point the date of the 
erection of the fine tower of South Weald Church, to 
which work the testator was a benefactor. Mr. Buckler 
refers the date of its erection to temp. Hen. VII., with 
which its style indubitably accords, and Morant says 
that it was built in the beginning of King Henry the 
Eighth's reign, and for that purpose a rate was granted 
for five years, on which were collected £289 5s. lOd* 
The work we shall see was proposed, and most probably 
begim, as early as 1504, five years before the accession 
of Henry VIII. Independently of the following extract^ 
the Will is of but little general interest. Testator 


To be buried ' in the pysshe church of Southwold w*in Aleye 
before the Roode. Also I bequeth to the high aulter of the same 
churche v'. Also I bequeth to the werke of the steple v m'rcs to 
be paid yerely as the werke of the said steple is areysed and goeth 
forward. Ako I will do, make, and glase the wjmdowe of the 
steple at myn own charge, reasonably, whatsoeu* the said wyndow 
coste. . 

I will have a stone of marball ordeyned ayent my monethya 
mynde to be leyde upon my grave of the valewe of iiij m'rks.'* 

* When, in 1852, 1 visited Southweald Church, I noted in the chancel an 
ancient slab, with a fish upon it, engraven in brass, about three inches in length. 
Is not this, probably, the sepulchral slab of William Salmon, and the fish emblematic 
of his name ? Of every other memorial the stone is despoiled, for a tomb of the 
value of four marks must have included brasses ; but I am glad to have rescued his 
name and his benevolence from the abyss of time. As his tomb is utterly despoiled 
it might be a graceful and grateful act at some future day to render his window a 
memorial of his name and deeds. He was a yeoman, and the donation he gave was 
a conaideiable sum in those days. 

ancient wills. 21 

The Will of Sir James Bourchier, of Little Stam- 
BRiDGE Hall, Knight, Dated 5 March, 1634-5, 
Proved 31 April, 1635, 

Is, at first sight, a document utterly destitute of any- 
historical or archaeological interest. I hope, however^ 
to evolve from it some entirely new facts and informa- 
tion, personal, historical and topographical. Sir James 
Bourchier was the father-in-law of Oliver Cromwell. 
He was a merchant of the City of London^ a furrier or 
skinner, and his town residence was upon Tower Hill^ 
in the parish of AU Hallows, Barking, as may be in- 
ferred from the fact that several of his children were 
-baptized at that Church in the beginning of the 17th 
century. He is commonly described by historians as of 
Felstead in Essex, where he is said to have had a 
country house, and to have possessed an estate, and the 
fact of the education of three of Cromwell's children at 
the Felstead Grammar School gives, perhaps, additional 
colour to the beKef. I have no evidence at present 
either to prove or disprove the statement, and the Essex 
historians are silent on the subject. That, however, 
which has been generally received, is probably true, 
and at the time of the marriage of his daughter with 
Cromwell, Sir James Bourchier most Ukely lived at 
Felstead. But very httle has been hitherto known of 
his connexion with Little Stambridge. The bare fact 
that he was of that parish is mentioned by Dr. Nash in 
his " History of Worcestershire," and that is all. Both 
in his Will and in his Pedigree, recorded in the College 
of Arms, he describes himself of that place only, and 
there can be no doubt that he then lived at Little Stam- 
bridge Hall. Until now there has been an hiatus in the 
descent of this Manor from the year 1574 (when John 
Cocke, Esq., died and was succeeded in it bv his son, 
John, then aged 12 years) down to the end of the 17th 
century, when it was in the possession of Micajah Perry^ 
of London, an eminent Virginian merchant, who died in 
1721. Its acquisition by the Bourchier family will 
partly, if not entirely, fill the chasm ; for it most pro- 
bably passed from Cocke to Bourchier^ and from the 


heirs of the latter family to Micajah Perry. With this 
introduction I will now give an abstract of the Will in 
modem English. Testator describes himself as 

Sir James Bourcliier, of Little Stambridge, in the County of 
Essex, Enight. To be buried in Christian burial. Give to my 
son Richard my Manor House of Little Stambridge Hall with aU 
the houses, eoifices, buildings (except the old bam), and the 
orchards, wardens, yards, and the land called ^ Cony ground,' the 
home fields and the fields adjoining now in the occupation of 
William Taynter, containing 40 acres, and ' Rochford field,' 20 
acres, in the occupation of Alexander Gbwers, all part of the Manor 
of Little Stambriage Hall. Give my two sons, William and Oliver, 
all those lands belonging to the Manor of Little Stambridge Hall 
in the o ccup ation of the said Alexander Gowers : that is to say, to 
my son William Bourchier and his heirs £17 per ann«, and to 
Oliver £20 per ann., the said lands to be divided between them, 
according to the proportions aforesaid, by two honest men. Give 
to my son James my tenement galled ' Babbs,' in Much Stambridge, 
with the lands thereto belonging. To my son Richard my woodland 
grounds in the park of Rocnford, also belonging to the said manor, 
and all my goods, chattels, household stuff, plate and jewels, and 
make him sole Executor, (he proved Will,) and appoint my loving 
friend, James Nuttall, of Rocnford, Gent., to be guardian of my 
said sons till 21. (Signed,) James Bourchier, in the presence of 
Jo. Loane,* G^oi^ Clench. 

This Will does not denote the possession of more 
than a very moderate landed estate, and as it contains 
no mention of the testator's eldest son Thomas, it may 
be inferred that he succeeded to another estate (perhaps 
also to lands at Felstead) under an entail ; and that the 
Stambridge property, being alone disposable by the tes- 
tator, was devised and apportioned to Ki$ younger sons 
as we have seen. It has been said tt^t Sir James 
Bourchier descended from a common ancestor with the 
Earls of Essex. There are no grounds for ti^s assump- 
tion ; Noble denies it, neither does Sir James . appear to 
have claimed such descent for himself, or at all events 
he did not record it ; and his armorial bearingfl, which, 
were not granted to this family imtil the reign of Eliza- 

* John Loane was Rector of Little Stambridge, and the author of cine of the 
" Elegies " addressed by several of the neighbouring Clergy to the Kejv. Samuel 
Purchas, the younger, Rector of Sutton, on the publication of his celebnited work 
on Bees, entitled *' A Theatre of PoHtical Flying Insects." j 


beth, are entirely diflFerent from those of the Bourchiers, 
Earls of Essex.* His pedigree, as entered in the 
Visitation of Essex in 1634, in the College of Arms 
and attested by his own autograph, is as follows : — 
Thomas Bourchier of Poukleston, in the Coun^ of 
Worcester, Gent, had issue a son, Thomas, of the 
same place, who had two sons, Richard, the elder, of 
Poukleston, and Thomas. Richard had issue. Thomas, 
of London, who. by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of 
James Morley oi London, Ironmonger, had Sir James 
Bourchier, of Little Stambridge, Kn*. He married 
Frances, daughter of Thomas Craine, of Suffolk, by 
whom he had Thomas, eldest son and heir apparent, 
affed about 30, in 1634, James, Richard, William, and 
Oliverf and one daugnter E]izabeth.:f Thomas the 
eldest son married the widow of Henry Cromwell ; 
James married a daughter of . . . Frost of Suffolk ; 
and Elizabeth was married to Oliver Cromwell in the 
Church of S. Giles, Cripplegate, 22 Aug., 1620.§ 
According to Mark Noble she was buried at Nor- 
borough, m Lincolnshire, 19th Nov., 1666, but Carlyle 

* The first grant of Amui to thiB &inilY was to Thomas Bourchier, Geni. Citiceii 
aud Haberdasher of London, by Cooke, Clarenceux, 23 Sept 1687, namely, Sa. a 
cher. eiiEL betw. three ounces passant or. Crest, on a mount vert a greyhound 
sejant arg. ducally gorged and lined, the line passing between the fore legs and 
reflezed OTer the beick, or. He died at his house in Lombard Street, 29 Nov., 
1694, and was buried in the church of S. Edmund the King and Martyr. His only 
son. Sir James Bourchier, iu 1610, obtained from Camden, Clarenceux, a fresh grant 
of arms, essentially different from those of his father, namely, Sa. three ounces 
passant in pale or. Crest, a greyhound salient arg. In the record of this patent^ 
1610, he is described as of Little Stambridge, Essex. 

t The Rev. James Maskell, in his recently published "History of the Parish of 
All Hallows, Barking," says, that "one of the sons of Sir James Bourchier, 
John, was a prominent member of the Long Parliament, and also one of the 
regicides.'* This is a grave error. Sir James Bourchier had no son named John^ 
Sir John Bourchier, the regicide, was of a different fiunily, and in no way related 
to ^ James Bourchier, being the son of Sir William Bourcluer of Benningborough, 
Co. York, Ent. bv Catherine his wife, daughter of Sir Thomas Barrington of 
Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex. His signature is attached to the warrant for the 
execution of King Charles I., together with his seal of arms, "a cross between 
four water-budgeto," the same as the arms of the Bourchiers, Earls of Essex. He 
died in 1669. 

I The following entries occur in the Baptismal Begister of All Hallowsy 
Barking, Tower Hill : — 

1607, July 24. Robert s. of Sir James Bourchier, Knight. 

1609, Feb. 6. f^nands s. of Sr James Bourchier, Knight. 

1616, Aug. 20. William s. of Sir James Bourchier, Knight. 
— ><' Hist, of All Hallows, Barking," by James Maskell. 

{ For these notes from the Bourchier Pedigree I must, as hereto&nrey reoozd my 
obligation to Mr. Hanison, Windsor Hecald. 


says that her death occurred there on the 8th of 
October, 1672. 

Mrs. Cromwell is not mentioned in her father's will, 
having most probably received her fortune upon her 
marriage, or else she was considered sufi&ciently pro- 
vided tor, and the property bequeathed to the younger 
sons was but smalL 


With reference to my remarks upon Heron HaU, Vol. in., p. 76, G. Al«^^n 
Lowndes, Esq., of Barrington Hall, the present owner of the Heron estate, has 
kindly informed me that he possesses a drawing and ground plan of the ancient 
mansion. Our associates will, I am sure, be glad to know that a delineation of one 
of the most interesting domestic edifices in the county has been fortunately 


In my preyious paper (Ko. 4) on Jnei$iU WUUy Vol. m., p. 177, in rerising the 
sheets, I inadyertently altered the date of death in the title to " Tlie Will of John 
(by Morant irroneoutly eatted Thomas) Tyrell of Heron." It will be seen by the text 
that follows, that he died in the year 1640. Morant says upon the 3rd of April. 
But as his Will bears date 6 June, 1640, and a nuncupatiye addition or codicil was 
made 20 days later, and the Inquisition taken upon his death is dated 30th Oct., it 
is obyious that he must have died' between the 26th of June and 30th of Oct., 1640. 
I trust that members will make the necessary correction in their journals, because 
as there is already an error in name and date by Morant, my own may otherwise 
increase the confusion. 



By H. W. Kmo. 

At the time of the Domesday Survey nearly the 
whole of the parish of Thaxted seems to have been 
comprehended m one Manor or Lordship, out of which 
five smaller manors, or reputed manors, were subse- 
quently formed. A sixth, anciently named Gerdelai, 
and now Yerdeley, at the Conquest, and even from the 
reign of Edward the Confessor, was apparently an 
independent possession. 

The name Horeham, or Horham, is reputed to be 
compounded of the Saxon Ora^ a skirt or border, and 
J5am, a house, to denote its standing on the borders of 
two territories, which indeed is so precisely the situa- 
tion of the present mansion, that the screens between 
the hall and the offices there still remain the boundary 
between Thaxted and that part of Broxted formerly 
called Chaureth, the lands belonging to it extending 
into both parishes. 

Chaureth itself is said to have similar derivation, from 
the Saxon, signifying a boundary in the sense in which 
a shore is the boundary of the ocean. The more ancient 
name, Chaureth, was frequently written and changed 
into Chaure, probably from the difficulty the Normans 
had in pronouncing the Saxon iheta. The Manor of 
Horham was held of the Honour of Clare by the service 
of two Knight's fees. 

The first Lord whom we find here, and in all proba- 
bility the first after it was made a Manor^ was Alured 
de Bendeville or Bendaville, who had also the advowson 
of the Church of Chaureth, which he and his wife, Sibil, 



gave to the Knights of S. John of Jerusalem, for the 
souls of the Clare family, in the year 1131. 

From him the Manor passed with his daughter Emma 
to Durkin de Lake. His son Walter succeeded him, 
and was living in the year 1221. The Escheats in the 
reign of Hen. HI. and Edw. II. speak of this Walter by 
the surname of D'Acre and De Clare. D'Acre is by no 
means an unlikely transformation to be made by a 
scribe accustomed to the use of Norman French ; and 
the clerks in a public office were more likely to err in 
recording the names of persons to whom they were 
entire strangers, than the monks of a neighbouring 
abbey ; and those of Tiltey, in the Register of that 
House, alwavs call him de Lake, except once, where his 
name is written del Acre. In this mstance.both the 
assonance and literal conformity are very close. 

In the Escheats, above referred to, tnere is a slight 
variation in recording the number of fees held. First, 
*' The heirs of Walter D'Acre held two fees and a half 
in Thaxted, Chaure and Brokesheved of Richard de 
Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, who died in 
1262.^' Second, " The heirs of Walter de Clare held 
three fees in these three places under Gilbert de Clare, 
Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, who died in 1314." 
Of these records the first is more probably correct, and 
the second contains, no doubt, a clerical error from 
having to write of three diflferent places. The two fees 
lying m Thaxted and Chaure must have been those of 
Horham ; the remaining half fee was in Broxted. The 
estate thus held of the Clare family answers so exactly 
to the Manors since called Horham and Brookend, that 
it is very hkely these composed the estate which 
descended to Walter from his mother Emma. 

At this period the name of Horham does not occur in 
records ; but besides the reasons already given for 
thinking it identical with Bendeville's Manor, several 
others concur. The number of manors wherein Chaure 
was concerned in ancient times, exclusive of Church 
Hall, which is out of the question, was two, and there 
is the same number now. Bendeville's and Fitz 
Baldwin's were undoubtedly the same with Horham 


and Chaure, and it only remains to determine to which 
of the ancient manors these names respectively belong. 
Now in the Public Records de Lake's, or Bendeville's, 
is described as lying in Thaxted and Chaure, whence it 
is a natural inference that the mansions and greater part 
of the manor here intended lay in Thaxted, which is 
exactly the case of Horham, On the other hand. 
Chaureth, or Chaure Hall Manor, is described in a deed 
of 32 Hen. VHL, preserved by le Neve, as Iving in 
Chaureth and Thaxted, where Chaureth has the pre- 
ference ; unquestionably for the same reason as that 
Thaxted had it in the former case. Bendeville's, there- 
fore, must be the same with Horham, for we perceive it 
different from Chaureth Hall. Again, the road leading 
from Chaure Street to Sucksted Green is supposed to 
have been the ancient boundary between the Manors of 
Horham and Chaure, the former reaching, before the 
acquisitions of the Abbey of Tiltey, to the northern side 
of that road, and the latter to the southern ; and in 
further confirmation, the grants made to the Abbey of 
Tiltey in the fee of Fitz-Baldwin, all seem to Ue on the 
southern side of this road. 

To return to the narrative of the succession. Durkin 
de Lake had a brother named William ; and Oliver and 
Nicholas de Lake were contemporaries with Walter ; 
but as the heirs of this latter are, in the above records, 
spoken of in the plural, it is most probable that he was 
succeeded by heirs female. 

With one of these, probably, the estate xjame into the 
family of de Wanton, Wanton, or Waletun, which is the 
next we find possessed of it. They were originally of 
Chaure, and seem to have been a yoimger branch of the 
de Chaures ; for William, who attests the donation of 
the Church of Chauree, in the year 1151, to the Knights 
Hospitallers, along with his father Godfrey de Chauree, 
is, no doubt, the same with William Fitz Godfrey, the 
first ancestor of this house who is found with certainty 
upon record. Esleford, an estate granted by this Fitz 
Godfrey to lilaurice, founder of Tiltey Abbey, was one 
of the first endowments of that Convent, to which Uke- 
wise Fitz Godfrey himself gave four acres opposite to 
his house at Chaure. His son Robert, called in the 


Register of Tiltey, de Waletun, confirmed these grants. 
Another Robert, for it could hardly be the same, was 
living in 1221, and gave land in the part of Chawreth 
called Reverwick to the Abbey of Tiltey, Soon after 
this we find a great rise in the Wanton family, a 
circumstance easily accounted for on the supposition 
that by marriage with a co-heir of de Lake they were 
become in some degree related to the great House of 
Clare, at this period one of the most powerful in the 
kingdom. John de Wauton was Sheriff of Essex and 
Herts in 1241, and in half of the succeeding reign. 
Sir William de Wauton, Knight, occurs in 1248 : Simon 
de Wauton was Justice of the Common Pleas in 1251, 
and Bishop of Norwich from 1257 till his death, which 
took place 2 Jan., 1265. Richard de Wauton purchased 
an estate in Ashdon in 1259, which has gone ever since 
by his name. John de Wauton was one of the persons 
to whom the custody of the lands of William de Valence, 
Earl of Pembroke, was committed after the victory 
gained by the Barons over Hen. III. at the battle of 
Lewes ; and as the Earl of Gloucester was second in 
command among the Barons, in all probability de 
Wauton obtained this ofiice by the Earl's influence. 
Roger de Wauton was Marshall of the Household to 
Hen. HI. about the year 1270. He had a grant of land 
from Henry of £20 a-year out of the rents of Chester, to 
be paid by the Prior of Bemwelle. 

Whether the above-mentioned Sir William, or his 
father Robert, was the first of his family who possessed 
Horham is not clear from the evidence, but several 
reasons concur to induce to the supposition that the 
-father had it for a short time before his death. In 1294 
William de Wauton had acquired the adjoining Manor 
of Chaureth by a marriage with Maud, daughter of 
John de Arden. A grant mjm Geoffrey Pamphilun to 
this William, and the said Maud, his wife, is dated at 
Horeham in 1304. He was a Knight Banneret and 
Representative for the County of Essex in the Parlia- 
ments of the years 1311 and 1312. WiUiam de Wauton, 
styled of Thaxted, doubtless to distinguish him from the 
branch at Ashdon, purchased land of Ralph de Yardley 


in 1323. Sir William de Wauton, Knight, granted a 
messuage and some lands in Chaurethe by deed 
dated at Horeham, in the year 1336, to John le Hunte, 

Sir William de Wanton, Knight, was Lord of Chauree 
and Horham in 1341. William de Wanton, probably 
son of the foregoing Knight, died in 1347. Next after 
him occurs Sir William Wanton, Knight, in 1354 and 
again in 1372, in which year he granted a license of 
aUenation for lands in the Manors of Chauree and Hore- 
ham, and died in 1393 possessed of both those manors. 
His co-heirs were his sister Joan, the wife of William 
Chalke, and Anne the daughter of his other sister, 
Alianor, by her husband, John Ednesore.* 

From the time when this family failed there is a 
chasm (which I am unable to fill up) till the year 1451, 
when Richard Large, Esq., occurs as a witness to a deed 
touching some land in Thaxted. He was of London, 
and heir, probably, of Robert Large, Mercer, Lord 
Mayor of that City in 1349, and grandson of Thomas 
Large of the same place. Which of these first possessed 
Horham, and by what means, does not appear. By 
deed indented, Alesander Quadryng, Squyer, and Sir 
John Walton, Clerk, Executors of Alice Large, late wife 
of Richard Large, and executrix of his will, Richard and 
John Langton, Squers, John Brown, Squyer, William 
Rede, Marchant, and John Chateryngton, Clerk, feofiees 
of the Manor of Horam HaU to perform the uses of the 
said Richard's will, agreed to convey the said Manor 
with appurtenances in Thaktede and Chaury to Richard 
Quadryng, Sqyer, for the sum of viii. c. marks sterling. 
Dated 12th Feb., 9 Hen. VIL, A.D. 1494.t 

* This fifimily had other considerable estates in this county. In 1302 a Fine 
passed between Sir William, the Banneret, Plaintiff, and William Chamberlain, 
Deforciant, for two Messuages, 440 acres of arable, 17 acres of meadow, 8 of pasture, 
3U acres of wood, and 248. rent, in Stepal Bumpsted, &c., to hold to the said William 
Wanton, jointly with Joane his wife. William de Wauton died in 1347, and Sir 
William his son was possessed of Warden Hall Manor in Willingale Dou, which is 
supposed to be called from them Wanton's Hall. I know not whether the quantities 
mentioned in the Fine were as fictitious as in later Fines. But the note is appended 
merely to establish the liact of possession. 

t Though feudal lands were not devisable till statute 27 Hen. YIII., c. 10, yet 
by these leoflments to uses a method was invented ot disposing of the profits of such 
estates hj Will, though the posseBSors could not dispose of the land itself. (Wright's 
" Tenures," edit., p. 174.) 


The Quadryn^s were of Tofte and Ingoldmeles in Co. 
Lincoln, of which latter place was this Richard, who 
kept this manor for a short time only. 

In 1502 Sir John Cutte purchased this estate, of whom 
I do not find, but very probably of Richard Quadryng 
or his assigns. Sir John Cutte was Treasurer of the 
Household to King Hen. VHL, and^ according to 
Leland, built the present mansion. By indenture oated 
17th March, 1514, Queen Catherine of Arragon, Consort 
of Hen. VIIL, granted the Manor and Borough of 
Thaxted to Sir John Cutte, to hold during her Ufe, 
under the rent of £57 7 s. And by Letters Patent of 
King Hen. VIIL, dated 29 June following, he had a 
grant of the reversion of the same in fee-farm under 
the same rent. He died 4th April, 1520, and held 
not only the Manor and Borough of Thaxted, but 
also divers estates and parcels of land here and 
elsewhere. By Elizabeth Lis wife he left two sons, 
John and Henry. John, the elder son and suc- 
cessor, was 13 years old when his father died. He 
married Lucy Browne, and died 1 July, 1528, leaving 
an only son, John, then a^ed 3 years. He was of 
Horham and Chiider8ley,> Co. Cambridge, was 
Knighted, and served Sheriff of Cambridgeshire and 
Huntingdonshire in 1651, He died in 1555, leaving by 
Sibell, his wife, one son, John, then aged 10 years, and 
two daughters, Ursula and Elizabeth. He, too, was 
afterwards Knighted ; and so noted for his house- 
keeping, that Queen Elizabeth sent to him the Spanish 
Ambassador, to be entertained during a sickness in 
London. But being more magnificent than prudent, by 
license dated 2nd April, 1599, he alienated the Manor 
and Borough of Thaxted and Spensers-fee to Thomas 
Kemp, Esq., in trust^ who had before purchased of his 
father Coldham's fee, a reputed manor in this parish. 
He departed this life in 1*615, and appears to have been 
the last of his family who possessed Horham. He had 
two wives. By Elizabeth, the first, daughter of Sir 
Arthur D'Arcy, he had a daughter Elizabeth, married to 
Sir Humphrey Stafford ; and by the second, Margaret, 
daughter of William Brocket, he left an only son, John, 


afterwards a Knight Sir John was of Childerslev, and 
married first, Anne, daughter and co-heir of Sir Thomas 
Kemp, of Ollantye, Wye, Co. Kent, Kt. He married, 
secondly, Anne, daughter of Sir . • • Weld, of 
Edmonton, and died m June 1646, leaving two sons, 
John and Henry. The latter died unmarried in 1661. 
John, the elder, was created a Baronet 2 June, 1660, 
but dying unmarried at Sarum in 1670, the Horham 
and Childersley line became extinct. He gave his 
estates to Richard Cutts, of Arkesden, his collateral 
relation. I have followed out this line beyond the 
period when the family ceased to possess Horham, until 
its extinction : and as in pursuing my investigations 
I have found that the pedigree of Cutte or Cutts, as 
recorded by Morant, is very inaccurate and defective, 
the present seems an opportime occasion for correcting 
it ; and with that view an authenticated genealogy 
of the family, courteously contributed by G. H. 
Rogers-Harrison, Esq., F.S.A., Windsor Herald, is 

Soon after the alienation of the capital Manor by Sir 
John Cutte in 1599, Sir William Smijth, of Hill Hall, in 
this county. Knight, became possessed of it, and also of 
Horham. He died 12th Dec, 1626, and left the estates 
to his second son, Thomas Smiith, Esq., in whose 
posterity the Manor of Horham (of which alone we are 
treating) continued until 1854, when it passed, by an 
exchange of estates, from Sir William Bowyer Smijth, 
Bart., to F. G. West, Esq., the present owner. 

We have traced the descent of the Manor of Horham 
(with but one interruption of 58 years) from the period 
of its formation in the 12th century to the present day, 
and believe that this is the most complete narrative of 
its transmission that has yet been pubhshed. This may 
be said inasmuch as I have been largely indebted to the 
aid of an antiquarian friend in London, (whose assistance 
I am precluded from further acknowledging) for much 
of the earlier portion of the history, so that httle besides 
the mere arrangement of the material has devolved 
upon me. 


It now remains to give some accotmt of 

The Family of Cutte. 

Of the ancestry of Sir John Cutte, the builder of 
Horham Hall, we have no account. No genealogies of 
the family ascend beyond him. Even the epitaph in 
Arkesden Church for Richard Cutte, who died in 1592, 
which is specially genealogical, claims for him no more 
remote ancestry than to have been son and heir of 
Peter, son and heir of John, son and heir of Richard, 
which Richard was brother of Sir John Cutte of Horham, 
" Treasurer of the most honourable household of the 
mighty King Hen. VHI." It may, perhaps, therefore be 
reasonably mferred that prior to the time of Sir John 
Cutte they were of no note, and that he was the founder 
of the fortunes of his family. That he acquired great 
estates will be seen by his Will, as well as in the pages 
of the Coimty History. Leland says that " Old Cutte 
maeried the doughter and heyre oi one Roodes about 
Yorkshir, and had by her a 3 hunderith markes of landes 
by the yere." This authority we have accepted. Again, 
Leland says that " Young Cutte married one .... 
by the procurement of my Lady Lucy." She whom 
" Young Cutte" wedded was Lucy Browne, a widow, 
sister and co-heir of Lady Elizaoeth Scrope, wife of 
Thomas le Scrope, and daughter of John Neville, 
Marquess Montacute. And it is, I think, plain, from 
the will of Sir John Cutte, that the marriage was by 
the " procurement " of the Lad}^ Elizabeth Scrope, by 
covenant made for that end, when " young Cutte " was 
young indeed, for he was but a boy of 13 at his father's 
death, prior to which it had been covenanted that he 
should wed the widow Browne. As 

The Will of Sir John Cutte, of Horham, Kt., 

to which I have referred, is a valuable document in 
connexion with the history of Thaxted and Horham, it 
may be appropriately inserted here, instead of in the 
series in which I should otherwise have placed it. 

In the Name of God Amen. I Syr John Cutte, Ktiyghte, on 
the six daye of Aprieli the xii yere of the reigne of oure soyerayne 


lorde Kyng Henry the VIII* be3mge hoole in mynde and in good 
p'fytte remembrance, lawde and prayse be unto almighty god, doo 
make & ordigne my last will & testament in manor and forme 
foUowyng. That is to saye, first and pryncipally I gyve and bequeth 
my soule to almighty god, to his blessed mother seint Mary, and to 
all the holy company of hevyn, and my body to be buried in the 
parisshe church oi Thaxted unto such tyme as my chapell be fully 
Duylded as hereafter shall ensue, and then my body to be removed 
and buried by the discrecion of myn executors in the new chapell. 

This appears to confirm the accuracy of Mr. West's 
conviction that there was formerly a chapel at Horham, 
and that he had discovered some of its remains. And 
if so, the chapel was Sir John Cutte's latest addition to 
the edifice, though he did not live to witness its com- 
pletion. That he was interred in Thaxted Church is 
beyond doubt. Whether his remains were afterwards 
translated is a question of some little interest. 

Of the remainder of the Will I give an abstract, with 
literal extracts of some passages. 

Give each of my servants 20" over and above his wages ; £10 to 
be dealed to poor people on the day of my burial. My debts to be 
paid ; all wrongs and injuries which I may have done, to be recom- 
pensed if duly proved. The will of the Right Noble Lady Sciope, 
of which I am one of the executors, if my part be not performed, to 
be performed. Appoint Executors, my wife Elizabeth, Sir Henry 
W;yatt, Knyghte, Sir Richard Cholmeley, Knyghte, Maister Robert 
Blagge, oon of the Barons of the Kyngs Exchequer ; and Syr 
Thomas Lovell, Knyht, be overseer and give each xx h. Residue of 
all goods chattels and debts to my wife Elizabeth desiring her to 
continue good and loving to her children and mine. My lands in 
Essex, Herts, Cambridge, Norfolk, Yorkshire, Middlesex, Kent or 
elsewhere to be disposed as follows, viz. All my lands ' in Essex, 
Cambridge, Norfolk, York and Middlesex to my son John and 
his heirs ; Also the Manor of Sheveley in Herts according to the 
covenant between him and the Right Noble Lady Elizabeth 
* Shroppe' deceased, for a marriage to be had between the said John 
and Lucy his wife ; the remainder after the decease of my wife. 
Remainder to my son Henry and his heirs ; remainder to right 
heirs of the said Henry. My wife Elizabeth during 12 years after 
my decease to have all my lands in Kent ; remainder to my son 
Henry and his heirs ; remainder to right heirs of said Henry. The 
revenue of the Manor of Thaxted and the revenue of all my lands 
tenements &c. &c. in Middlesex, after the death of my wife and for 
lack of heirs of my son John, to Henry and his heirs. My wife ta 



find my sons sufficiently to their learning &c. till each be 24. Wife 
out of profits of lands in Cambridgeshire to build a good convenient 
and able Alms House in Thaxted ' for xii Bedesmen and for oon 
Chauntery prest to dwell and inhabitte & as much other lands tene- 
ments & hereditaments that each bedesman may hare paid viij** a 
week for ever and the Chauntery prest and his successours yerely 
for ever x marc^, surely to mortes into mortmayne ** or otherwise 
proved, surely to provide unto the churchwardens of the said parish 
church and their successors for the time being for ever ; and the 
same Almes House so * mortessed ' or otherwise provided, the said 
Church wardens or their successors shall pay to the said bedesmen 
xij** & to the chantry priest £10 (at the four quarterly feasts). The 
priest and bedesmen to be chosen by my wife during her life, after- 
wards by the churchwardens and their successors, every of the said 
bedesmen to pray specially for the souls of the Right Noble Lady 
Elizabeth Scrope, oi Sir Renold Gray En*., and for my soul, and for 
my wife's soul, my father's, my mother's, and for all christian souls, 
** and the same bedesmen to saye as many ladyes sawters, pater 
nosters and ave maries, and other orisons and prayers as every of 
them shalbe assigned and lymitted unto by the said churchwardens 
& their successours for the tyme being, and non of theym to be put 
out of the said Almysse housse as long as they doo theire duties, 
and be of good Ruelle and gov'naunce, & goo not comenly aboute 
the said towne of Thaxted, or the cuntrey aboute the same towne 
and begg. And the chaimtery prest and his successours specially to 

?)ray for the soul of the most famous Kyng of most blessid memory, 
or my soule and for the soules of all other before named, and to 
syng and saye masse in the said parish churche of Thaxted at the 
aulter of the Trenite thereunto such time as the chapell that I wold 
have made & bylditt, be fully made and buyldyt. And after the 
said chapele be made & buyldyt, then to synge and saye masse in 
the same chapell for ever ; and if the said chauntery prest be hoole 
and not sike, then to syng and saye masse wekely for ever every 
Sonday, Wednesday, fi&iaay & Saturday ; and oon of the masses to 
be of Requiem, alweys, for ever. And to say every weke thre 
tymes placebo and dirige foreu', and the psalme of de profundis. 
And the same chauntery preste and hys successours so elected not to 
be put out of the said Almes house, nor from the said Chauntery, so 
long as they be of good and honest conu'sacion and l3rving and doo 
their said Duties." If any be put out after the death of my wife, 
the churchwardens to elect others. If the churchwardens are remiss 
in their duty, after the space of seven days, my heir may elect other 
bedesmen. If my wife aie before the said Almshouse is builded she 
to deliver to her executors sufficient goods &c. ' to buyld up & 
mortes in mortmayne the said Almes House.' Margaret Beckwith 
my servant to have delivered to her the money which I have in my 
keeping. Proved at 'Xamhith' 28 June 1521. 

* Afluntue into mortouuxL 


As we hear nothing of Sir John Cutte's Chantry and 
Ahns House at the time of the Suppression, it seems 
clear that his intentions were never carried into eflfect 
by his executors. Morant speaks of an Alms House in 
Thaxted belonging to the Manor of Horham, then under 
the patronage of Sir Charles Smijth, Bart., who repaired 
the fabric and put in the inhabitants ; but it is obvious 
that, however it might have come into the patronage of 
the Lord of the Manor of Horham, it was not of Sir 
John Cutte's foundation. Part of the endowment of the- 
Guild and Chantry of S. John Baptist, namely, the rents 
formerly Coleman's and afterwards Coldham s fee, were 
certainly annexed to the Manor of Horham after the 
suppression, and possibly the Alms House referred to 
may have been portion of another endowment seized by 
King Edw. VI. after the death of Sir John Cutte and of 
his eldest son, who had scarcely attained to the age of 
21 years. 1 am strongly inclined to believe that the 
family resided chiefly at Childersley — and it was, I 
believe, at Childersley, and not at Horham, that Sir 
John Cutte, his great grandson, entertained the Spanish 
Ambassador. What little evidence there is seems to 
connect them more closely with Cambridgeshire than 
with Essex. Sir John Cutte, the third in succession, 
who died in 1564 or 1555, describes himself as of 
Childersley. His Will is of very small archaeological 
interest, but, as it enumerates his estates, is of value to 
the county historian and topographer. I therefore 
give an abstract of its contents in modem orthography. 

The Will of Sir John Cutte, of Childersley, Co. 
Cambridge, Kt. Dated 9 - June, 1554, Proved 18 
Nov., 1555. 

In the Name of God, so be it. I John Cutt of Childerley, Co. 
Cambridge, Knight, bequeath my soul to Almighty God. To be 
buried where I happen to die. Give to Dame Sibell my wife, for 
life, my manors of Great and Little Childerley and Loldsworth, 
with appurtenances, and all my messuages, lands, tenements, and 
hereditaments in Great Childley, Little Childley, Loleworth, Box- 
with. Dry Drayton, Madingsly, Great Eversden and East Enopwell 
and other towns in the said county, in recompense of dower. My 
next heir to have to him and his heirs an estate of inheritance in 


fee simple, or in fee tail, all those my manors of Thaxted, Spensersfee, 
Eorham Hall aod Richmonds, in Thaxted, in the County of Essex, 
and all my manors, messuages, lands, tenements, &c., m the said 
county, after my decease, according to the custom of the laws of this 
realm, whereof the Queen's highness shall or may have the ward- 
ship and ' prymer season '* thereof, as the case shall require, &c. 
All which Doing of the clear yearly value of one-third of all my 
lands, tenements, &c., in possession. f Give my manor of Swaveshey, 
alias Swasey, in Swasey and Willingham-over-Marshe, Berwick, 
Chaters, Covii^fton and Cambridge in said Co. of Cambridge, which 
,1 lately purchased in fee simple of Henry Carye, Esq., to my ex- 
ecutors to pay my debts, &c., and to pay unto Ursula my daughter 
and to Elizabeth my youngest daughter each 500 marks when 21 or 
married. If either die, 400 marks to remain to John Cutt my son 
at the end of 15 years, and the other 100 marks of residue to the 
surviving daughter. If both die, their shares to go to son John. If 
all three die, the 1000 marks to my wife. If she die before the 
children are 21 or married, the said 1000 marks among the children 
of my uncle Henry Cutte, Esq., who shall be living. Goods and 
chattels to wife Sibell. Appoint Executors, Sibell my wife, Francis 
Hynde, Jeffrey Colvyle, and John Button, Esqrs., and give each 
£20. and Sir James Dyer K*. and Christopher Burgone Esq. 
supervisors and give each £5. (Signed) John Cutte. Witnesses 
John Cutte, Clement Chechiley, Gnfiyth Complove, Roger Clegg, 
James Gryndell. Proved by Sibell his relict 18 Nov., 1555* 

Lady Cutte having the manor and estates of Chil- 
dersley, &c., for life, her son might possibly have fixed 
his residence at Horham on attaining his majority, tiU 
his mother's death. He it was who, " being more 
magnificent than prudent,'* alienated the Thaxted^ pro- 
perty and died intestate in 1616, when administration 
w^as granted to his son John. Here their connexion 
with Horham ceased. 

 Premier Seisin, f Prima Seisina.) The first poBsession. It was a brancli of 
the King's Hoyal Prerogative whereby he had the first pos£esfdon or profits for a 
Tear of all lands and tenements holden oi him tn mpitt whereol the tenant died seised 
in fee, his heir being then at JuU age ; and this the Sling loimerly took until the 
heir, if he were of age, did his homage, and, it under age, till he were so. But since 
the taking away of the Tenure in enpits^ all charges ol Pitmivr beinn are of oourse 
taken away also. (Jacob, " Law Diet.*') 

t After the Statute 27 Hen. VIII., c 10, pre-riously referred to, further prOYidon 
was made for the devise of estates. By Statute 32 and 34 Hen. VUI., c. 6, all 
persons having a sole estate in fee-simple could devise the same by Will, unless part 
of the land was held t>i eapite of the King ; then the paxty could devise but two- 
thirds of the whole, the other third being to descend to the* Heir-at-Law t6 answer 
the Duties to tbe Crown, &c. The Statute 12 Car. II. abolished the Tenure m 
eapiu. (Ibid. J This and the preceding note will ezplain to the non-legal reader 
the meaning of this clause in Sir John Outte's WilL 


For two generations longer the family remained 
seated at Childersley, when, upon the death of Sir 
John Cutte, Bart., unmarried, in 1670, the Horham and 
Childersley line became extinct. He devised his estate 
to his distant collateral relation, Richard Cutte, of 
Arkesden, who, however, died a short time before the 
testator, whereupon the property was inherited by 
Richard Cutte, eldest son of the devisee, who, dying 
unmarried, was succeeded by his brother John, after- 
wards Lord Cutts, of Gowran, on whose death without 
issue in 1707 the Arkesden line also terminated. 

He was the last and most distinguished male repre- 
sentative of the family, and mav be fairly included 
among " The Worthies of Essex ; ' for as he was born 
in or about 1661, nine years before his father came into 
possession of the Childerslev estate, in all probability 
his birthplace was Woodhall, in Arkesden, where his 
father then lived, and where nis ancestors had resided 
for many generations.* 

* Bose, in his " Biog. Diet./' says that the fiimily was of Matching. This is an 
error ; they had property there, but undoubtedly lived at Arkesden. The Bev. T. 
J. Griffinhoofe, Vicar of Arkesden, informs me tnat the earliest Begister is not older 
than June 1690, so that the baptism of Lord Cutts at that church cannot be verified. 
There are no entries of the name in the Matching Begister, which begins in 1668. 

Woodhall, now the property of Thomas Biiui Wolfe, Esq., is still in existence, 
and the frame of the house is essentially the same as it was of old, but the external 
appearance was greatly altered about 80 years ago. At that period it was a red- 
bricked manor house with gables ; the exterior is now stuccoed and modernized. 
Part of a fine elm avenue remains in the park, and a portion of the old moat. 

Mr. Griifinhoofe has also kindly communicated the following description of the 
Monuments of the Cutte family in Arkesden Church : — 

There is a very large monument of dunch, painted and gilded, to the memor}[ of 
Bichard Cutte, Esq., and his wife, at the east end of the south aide. Their effigies, 
larger than life, rest under a canopy supported by six pillars. Hie figure of Bichard 
Cutte is dad in mail. Altogether it is a fine specimen of Jaeobian work. An in- 
scription round the cornice informs us — '* Heare lyeth Richard Cutte Esquier sonne 
and heire to Peter Cutte Esquier sonne and heire to John Cutte Esquier sonne and 
heire to Bichard Cutte Esquier, which Bichard was brother to Sir John Cutte of 
Horram Hall in thaxted treasurer of the most honourable household of the Mighty 
King Henry 8. This Bichard dyed 16 Aug. 1692. Heare lyeth also Mary Cutte 
late wife of this Bichard & daughter of Edward Elrington of thoyden bovs in 
Essix Esq. chief butler of England to the most renouned King Edward 6, Queen 
Mary and Queen Elizabeth. This Mary dyed 20 Jan. 16»4." 

Kneding around this tomb are the figures of their four sons and two daughters 
each with an inscription, as follows : — 

Bichard Cutte ddest sonne of this Bichard & Mary Cutte who caused this 
monument to be erected. 

William second sonne married An, daughter of Danid Betenham of Plnckley in 
Kent Esq. 

Francis third sonne married Katherin daughter of John Bondail of Spanton in 
Yorkshire Esquier. 

John youngest sonne. 


Bred to arms he was early in the service of Mon- 
mouth, and afterwards aide-de-camp to the Duke of 
Lorraine in Hungary, and signalised himself at the 
taking of Buda by the Imperialists in 1686. He after- 
wards accompanied William of Orange to England, who 
created him a Baron of Ireland by the style and title of 
Baron Cutts of Gowran. He distinguished himself 
greatly in the wars of that Prince, and was present at 
the siege of Namur. In 1693 he was appointed 
Governor of the Isle of Wight and made a Major- 
General. In 1696 he was appointed Captain of the 
Kind's Guard. In 1695, and in the three following 
Parliaments, he was elected representative for Cam- 
bridgeshire, and in 1702 and 1705 he represented 
Newport. He was Colonel of the Coldstreams, or 
Second Regiment of Guards, in 1701. On the accession 
of Queen Anne he was made Lieut-General of the 
forces in Holland ; served with much distinction under 

Barl)ara eldest daughter married Roger Godlafe of Bucknam-ferry in Norfolk Esq. 
Dorothy youngest daughter married Thomas Bendiah of Steeple Bumsted in 
Essex Esq. 

On the west side is the salutary warning to the liying— 

As ye now are, so once were we 

As we now are, so shall ye be. 

When ye remember us, forget not yourselyes. 

Shield at the head of Cutters monument. 

Cutte, Arg. on a bend engrailed Sab. 3, plates, impaling Elrington, Arg. a fesse 
indented bezant^e between 6 storks Sab. 3. 3. 

On the South side of the monument quarterly of 9. 

1. Cutte, arg. on a bend engrailed Sab. 3 plates. 

2. Coney, Arg. a chevron between 3 Bugle horns stringed Sable. 

3. Esmerton, Arg. on a bend oottissed Sab. 3 muUets pierced of tbe Ist. 

4. Per ealtire or and sa. a saltire counterchanged. 

6. Langley, Paly of 6. Arg. and vert. 

7. Fox, Per pale vert and or, a cross patonce Arg. 

8. Bigwood, Arg. on a chief fpi. 2 crescents or. 

0. Walden, Arg. 2 bars Sab. m chief 3 cinquefoils of the first. 

There is one other monument worthy of note. It is an exquisite structure of 3 
stages, in black-and-white marble, doubtless by Roubilliac. The lower stage is 
occupied by deaths' head/i and cross bones. On the upper stage, 2 corbels support 
exquisite busts of John Withers and his wife. Oherubin hover over them, and tix>m 
the cornice depends a wreath of most lovely pomegranates, while the middle stage 
presents the fottowing inscription : — 

M. S. Johannis Withers de Medio Templo, qui sub hoc marmore un&cum 
prsBcharissima conjuge Ann& filift Richardi Cutts Armig. (quondam de h&c parochid) 
lacet. Hie postquam vixerat annos 73 obiit nempe Kovembris XXVIII, annoque 
I)omini 1692. Ilia vero florente etate. Patruo charissimo et de se optime merito 
Gulielmus Withers nepoe et Haeres hoc monumentum gratitudinis ergo posuit. 
Beati obdormientes in Domino. 

Above the cornice is the following coat of arms : — ^Withers, a chevron betw. 8 
creeoents impaling, Cutte, On a bend engrailed 3 plates Arg. 


the Duke of Marlborongli, and took a conspicuous and 
important part in the battle of Blenheim. Afterwards 
he was made Lieut-General of the forces in Ireland ; 
but being deprived of the military command, the morti- 
fication affected him so much that he died in 1707, and 
was interred in the Cathedral of Christ Church, Dublin. 
He wrote " Poetical Exercises " in 1687, a poem " On 
the Death of Queen Mary," and some other pieces.* 

Like his collateral ancestor Sir John Cutte of Hor- 
ham, he was deeply involved in debt, as appears bv the 
disclosure of his pecuniary affairs in the following letter 
and memorial addressed to the occupant of the English 
Throne, William of Orange, in 1698. Lord Cutts evi- 
dently considered that his secret services had been in- 
adequately requited by the barren honours of an Irish 
peerage, that a more substantial recognition was de- 
served, and, apparently with reason, that the princely 
promise of reward had been broken. 

These letters, which furnish a new passage in the 
private history of Lord Cutts, at least in one. incident 
therein recorded, and appear to illustrate also an old 
one in the amours of William, are kindly contributed by 
William W. Cutts, Esq., of Clapham, and are now first 
printed fi-om the originals in his possession. 

Kensington March the 17«» 1698. 
&, — In obedience to your Majesty's commands (by Mr. Blath- 
wayt) I lay before you the Fort and the Foible of my afifaires ; 

• Lord Cutts was twice married. (See Pedigree.) His second wife, Elizabeth, 
died in 1697, aged 18. She was daughter of Lady Pickering, and is reputed to 
have been a woman of eminent piety, as is attested by Dr. Atterbury, afterwards 
Bishop of Rochester, a credible and impartial witness, who has drawn a high 
character of her in a Funeral Sermon preached by him in 1698. (Atterbury's 
" Sermons* and Discourses," vol. i.. Sermon vi.) 

The following Sermon and Poems were also published on the occasion of her 
death : — 

A Sermon on the occasion of the Death of the Right Honourable Elizabeth Lady 
Cutts, containing an account of her most pious lite and lamented death. By John 
Provoste, A.M., London, 1698. 

The Victory of Death, or the Fall of Beauty, a Visionary-Pindarick Poem, occa- 
sioned by the Ever to be deplor'd Death of the Right Honourable Lady Cutts. By 
Mr. John Hopkins, London, 1698. 

A Consolatory Poem to the Right Honourable John, Lord Cutts, upon the Death 
of his Most Accomplished Lady. By N. Tate, Servant to His Majesty. London, 
1698. FoHo. 

And upon the Death of Lord Cutts was published, ' Threnodice BritannicsB.* A 
Funeral Poem to the Memory of the Right Honourable John Lord Cutts. By Tho. 
Greene, A.B., late of St. Peter's College in Cambridge. London, 1707. (£ 
Libris, W. W. Cutts.) 


which I humbly beg of your Majesty (what-ever your resolutions 
are) not to expose ; as I have never expos'd your Majesty's 

I understand, S', by the Arch-Byshop, & Mr Blathwayt, that 
your Majesty made a particular remarque upon my asking so much 
as 3 or 4000** a year in Ireland. 

I consider'd, S', how earnestly you desir'd me (by the Duke of 
Monmouth) to break my match with Mrs Villiers, and what a 
promise you made me upon it ; I consider'd how often you have, S', 
renew'd your Promise of favour ; I consider'd what you have since 
done for her, and for her Relations ; and I could never think, that I 
should be ill us'd for trusting to you, S', and for waiting with 
Patience. I told your Majesty of my Debt before the Revolution, I 
told you, S', if ever you settled in England, I should hope (by your 
favour) to get clear of it ; and you were pleas'd to encourage me in 
all these hopes. 

I was actually (when I engag'd first ] st. 

in y' Majestys service) worth . . j 2000 p annu. 

I owed then^not in all above 15,000..00..00 

I have now left in Land not above 1000 p annu. 

I owe as appears by Abstract 17,534..00..00 

Of my Land that is left I have that ) -st. 

is in Reversion j 800-p annu. 

Tour Maiesty may wonder how these Debts have grown to be so 
great ; but if you consider, S', what Interest upon Interest comes to 
(with procuration and continuation money) how little I made of my 
rents when I was abroad, before I sold my Estate ; how ill your 
Majesty's Officers and Garrisons have been payd ; that the Vice- 
Admiralty of the Isle of Wight (my best Profit) has been kept from 
me ; your Majesty (considering the Taxes I have payd you too, S',) 
will have some Compassion for me. 

Upon the whole, S', I cannot recall past time ; I cannot alter the 
nature of things, but my Debts are pressing, and without payment I 
must goe to Prison, or retire. I thought I was sure upon your 
promise, S\ but submit all to God and your Majesty ; only humbly 
Beg to know your Majesty's Resolutions as soon as may be. 


When I ask*d an Estate of 3 or 4000 in Ireland, I thought 
(considering what I have spent of my Inheritance) I might have 
asked something besides my bare Debts ; seeine severaU Persons 
who had nothing, have made so great Fortunes from y' Majesty's 
bounty* But I submit all ; oiUy beg I may speedily know y* 


Majesty's resolution ; and that y* will consider, &» that if I pay 
some and not all ; I shall be as bad as if I payd none. 

For God's sake^ S^ don't refuse to speak with me, whatever 
becomes of me. 

I am Sf, Most dutiful!, 

Your Majestys, and devoted, 


P.S. — 'Tis easy for your Majesty to sajr publickly, I did you a 
very important service before the [Revolution and that will warrant 
what you doe, S' and my case won't be a President to any other. 
I ask your Favour not your Justice ; & I insist upon your 
Promises not my merits. 

I had waited on your Majesty sooner, to thank you, S', for 
Y kind Expressions by the Arch-Byshop, and Mr. Blathwayt ; but 
nave been extream ill ; and (if my mind be not settled one way or 
other soon) I cannot live. When I know the worst PI act like a 
Man of Honour ; and if I succeed I'l do so too. 

The Memorial is written upon an open sheet of demy 
folio, and endorsed also in Lord Cutts's hand, as 
follows : — 

Abstract of all the Lord Cutts his Debts ; with Bemarques upon 
ihem ; and a Memoriall to his Majesty. 


His Majesty is most humbly desir'd not to expose the State of the 
Lord Cutts's affaires to any one but himself, it will hurt him and 
doe his Majesty no service. 

His Majesty will have the Goodness to pardon the ill writing in 
this Paper, the Lord Cutts being really very ill. 

A clerical endorsement upon another fold is, 

17 March 1698, 
From Lord Cutts to the King. 

Pi J. f= 


1 llliScf-jl!'^-'' " 

lull. .,'-8 •^r ts'i^tiiif 'Jii'U. J 

-' • ^ """ s 



Ethelred. Audiy marrd Istto Ralph 
Latham and 2ndW' to Sir 
Gabriel Pointz Ejnt. He 
died 8 Feb. 1607. She ob. 
2 Dec. 1694. Both bur. 
at North Ockendon Co. 
Essex. M.I. 


not 18 in 1647. 

icifl Cutte= 
id by 
' before 


Katherine John Cutte Barbara uz. of Roger Dorothy ux. of 

dau. of. . . of Vintners. Gbdsalve of Buck- Thomas Bendysh of 

Bondville of 1692 and 1607 nam Fer^ Norfolk. Steeple Bmnpsted, 

Spanton Co. -r- Esq. = 

York Esq. ^ t 

Mary ux. of 
I Francis 

Judith ux. of 

Richard Pipes. 


I I- 

Ann ux. of Barbara ux. of 

George Gill of Thomas Fowl© 

Co. Herts 1609. 1609. 

1 Margaret. Anne. 


tt.bcth grand-dau. of 
Pickering, ob. Sep. 
a't. 18. com. 13 
1679 to John, Lord 
jrfe, her husband. She 
ibed of Kensington. 

2nd. ux. 

Ann ux. of John 
Withers of the Middle 
Temple, Esq. He ob. 
Nov. 1692 tt't. 73. She 
died young. Both bur. 
in Arkesden Church 


Margaret ux. of John 
Acton of Basingstoke 
Co. Hants. Esq. Marr. 
Lie. in Faculty Office 
dat. 6 Ap. 1687. He 
ob. in Mar. 1728-9. 
Bur. at Reading. 


Joanna un- 
marrd in 1701 

Executrix to 
her brother 
John, Lord 
Cutts, 1706-7. 




By GsoBOB H. BoGEBS-IlABBiflONy F.S.A., Windsor Herald. 

So little is generally known of the origin of the 
Rev. Philip Morant, the Historian of this County, that 
the following succinct narrative of his descent will 
perhaps be acceptable and interesting to the members 
of the Essex Archaeological Societv. The various 
brief Memoirs of the Historian simply record that he 
was the son of Stephen Morant, of the Island of 
Jersey, and was bom in the Parish of St. Saviour in 
that Island, 6 Oct, 1700. Respecting his ancestry 
Biographers are silent 

Drouet Morant, of the Island of Jersey, was living 
in the year 1 500, and had three sons. Holier, bom in 
1546, l^ieholas, who had issue Peter and John ; 
William, and a daughter Ann, who married Juen 
Durel ; Helier Morant, the eldest son, married Jane, 
daughter of Mary Canwet, by whom he had one son, 
Timothy, who, in 1599, married Mary Noel, and two 
daughters, Mary and Susan, the wife of Peter Renouf ; 
Timothy Morant had issue an only son named Timothy, 
who, by Collette Anthonie his wife, had two sons, 
Timothy, the eldest, and Stephen, who, in 1647, 
married Mary, daughter of John Aubin, by whom he 
had issue, Stephen, who married, in 1682, Mary Filleul; 
John, who married Martha, daughter and co-heir of 
Peter Poingdestre, Esq., and had issue ; Timothy, who 
married Susan Aubin ; and two daughters, Mary, wife 
of ... . Vivian, and Elizabeth, wife of C. J. 
Bastard, Esq. Stephen Morant, the eldest son, by 
Mary Filleul, his wife, had issue, Stephen, who, in 
1718, married Jane, daughter of Philip Filleul, Esq., 



Mary, wife of Philip Vivian, Esq., and Philip, the 
Essex Historian. Stephen left an only son Philip, who 
married Jane Estur, spinster, by whom he had an only 
child and heir, who married first to George CoUas, Esq.^ 
of S. Martin's, Jersey, and secondly to Elias Falle, 

Of the personal history of the Rev. Philip Morant, 

or of his writings, nothing need be said. His published 

works are well known, and it will be sufficient to refer 

the reader to his brief memoir contained in various 

Biographical Dictionaries, and in Wright's " History 

of Essex," Vol. I., p. 304, where it is concisely related, 

that "He was bom at S. Saviour's, in the Island of 

' Jersey, Oct. 6, 1 700, and educated at Abingdon School 

'and rembroke College, Oxford, where he took the 

'degree of B.A., June 10, 1721, and that of M.A. in 

'1724. Between the years 1733 and 1745 he obtained 

'successively six Benefices f in Essex. In 1751 he 

'was elected F.S.A., and in February. 1768, he was 

'appointed by the Sub-Committee oi the House of 

' Peers to succeed Mr. Blyke in preparing for the press 

' a copy of the ' Rolls of Parliament,' a service to which 

' he (liligently attended until his death, on the 2&th of 

'November, 1770," being at that time Rector of St. 

Mary-at-the Walls, Colchester, and of the neighbouring 

parish of Aldham, in the Church of which he was 

mterred. By Anne, his wife, daughter and co-heir of 

Solomon Stebbing, of Pebmarsh (of an ancient Essex 

family), he left an only daughter and heir, Anna Maria, 

wife of Thomas Astle, Esq., of Battersea Rise. Surrey, 

F.S.A., Keeper of the Records in the Tower oi London, 

paternal grandfather of the present Robert Hills, of 

Colne Park, in Colne Engaine, Co. Essex, Esq. 

* "Armonal of Jersey," Pari V., p. 294. Anne of Morant: Gules on a 
Cheyeron Argent, three talbots passant Sable. 

t Shellow Bowells, 1733; Broomfield, 1734; Chignal-Smeeley, 1735; St. Maiy- 
st-the-Wallfl, Colchester, 1737-8; Wickham Bishops, 1742-3; and Aldham, 1746. 



By the Bev. E. H. CLUTTERBtrcK, 
Curate of Flaistow and Corresponding Member. 

After many changes, vicissitudes, " restorations," 
and " renovations," more than are recorded or will ever 
be known. West Ham Chm^ch was, in the year 1847, a 
large structure showing outwardly a fine tower of stone, 
and one aisle of flint with stone dressings and bold 
buttresses in the Perpendicular stvle : a north chapel 
and stair tarret, which formerly gave access to the 
rood loft of Tudor workmanship ; a chancel with south 
chapel ; and a modern and incongruous south aisle of 
white brick. Within, the magnificent area was encum- 
bered with high pews and spacious galleries, at the 
building of which the capitals of the colimms of the 
north and south arcades were entirely cut away, and 
others of plaster substituted : and the architectural 
detaHs of the interior, generally, had either been hidden 
or ruthlessly destroyed. Such, briefly, was the condition 
and internal aspect of the Church in 1847-8. 

In that year, however, another " restoration " was 
carried out, which, although it did not " restore " the 
Church to its pre-reformation appearance, at the least 
made a clean sweep of the high pews and other obstruc- 
tions, and prepared the way for better things.* 

* It may be well to mention liere that the monmaents of Sir Thomas Foote, Kt 
and Baronet, and of G^rge Cooper, Eexi., were moved from their origioal position 
in the arches between the chancel and chapel to that which they now oocapy, 
against the E. wall of the N. Chapel. The same remark applies to the cnrions altar 
tomb mentioned with such a sing^ilar mistake by Stxype. in moriog this a ouzionB 
signet ring was found, which is now in possession of stx. Self, of West Ham. 


During this " restoration/' a painting was disclosed 
on the wall of the clerestory at tne eastern end of the 
north aisle, which had been previously discovered 
during some cleansing and repairs in 1844. It excited 
a good deal of interest at the time, and in 1845 a 
small pamphlet of 35 pages was published purporting 
to give an account of it;* and although the informa- 
tion its writer would convey is generally most unworthy 
the attention of an archaeologist, yet as the painting 
was only uncovered for a very short time, it has of 
necessity some value as notes taken on the spot. I 
have, therefore, thought it well to refer to it particu- 
larly, in order to render the present notice as complete 
as may be. The painting was again whitewashed over 
with the rest of the walls in the course of that " restora- 

The present autumn saw the commencement of 
another vigorous renovation, which, by the kindness of 
the Vicar, afforded me an opportunity of making some 

The chief improvements that are now being effected 
are the opening out of the great tower arch by the 
demolition of the huge west gallery ; the removal of the 
paint and whitewash from the stone work, and of the 
plaster from the clerestory walls. This last operation 
has brought to hght a most curious and interesting fact, 
namely, the existence of a series of Norman or transition 
clerestory windows over the Decorated arches of the 

Before the commencement of the present works, it 
appeared as though the whole of the nave was of one 
date, and though the caps of the columns were known 
to be modern shams of plaster, and the bases had been 
so " made good " with the same material, that the 
original outline was entirely altered, and, therefore, 
mouldings were no indication of the style or date ; yet 
it seemed probable, as subsequent discoveries have con- 

* " Sketch of the History and Antiquities of West Ham Church, Essex, with a 
particular description of an Ancient Painting lately discovered on the walls of that 
edifice ; togeUier with a few notices of the Parish of Bow and other local antiquities. 
By a Laynuin. London : Printed and published by Alex. D. Dangerfield, 2Zf 
Cdeman Street, Bask, and sold by 6. Creek, Stratford, £esez. 1846." 


firmed, that this paxt of the Church could not have been 
built long after the year 1300. 

When the plastering was removed it was seen from 
the masonry that the two easternmost bays were of 
later date than the other four. The wall over these last 
is of that small rubble work with tile and clunch which 
one would expect to find in Norman buildings ; and 
above them is now seen a series of roundheaded 
windows, not ranging in any way with the arches 
below, and blocked with precisely similar material to 
the wall around them, and not extending into the more 
recent work of the two eastern bays. The sills of these 
windows had been removed, in some cases the crown of 
the nave arch goes right tkrough where the sill would 
have been, in others the crown of the roundheaded 
windows has been destroyed. These two circumstances 
show that they could not have been built at the same 
time as the great arches. 

I found it impossible to open any of them entirely 
without doing serious damage to the ceiling of the aisle, 
and I was, therefore, compeUed to content myself with 
making a large hole through the filling up of one. This 
showed that they certainly had been windows and very 
deeply splayed, the openmg at the inside measuring 2 
feet 9 inches, but decreasing, as it seemed to myself and 
the mason who removed the wall for me, to little more 
than 9 or 10 inches. The thickness of the wall is 2 feet 
3 inches, and it was finished with a dressing of stone 
work on the inner and outer surface, the rest of the 
splay being formed in the rubble work. 

As we cotdd not open the head of the arch I cannot 
say what was the shape of the exterior aperture, but, at 
any rate, it appears evident that thev are of considerably 
earlier date tnan the arches below them. 

The only solution I can offer of this extraordinary fact 
is the probability that at the time when it was lound 
desirable to enlarge the arches of the original chiirch, 
the roof and clerestory walls were thought too good to 
be destroyed, and were, therefore, shored up, while the, 
Norman arches were one by one cut away and Decorated 
ones built up, the clerestory windows being blocked, for; 


the sake of uniformity, with the old material, of which^ 
of course, there woiud be abundance at hand. And 
although this may be a plan very unusual with Mediaeval 
builders, yet it cannot be deemed impossible, since we 
continually see the same thing done in the large 
buildings of our cities. 

I have mentioned that the character of the masonry 
over the last two bays, one whole and one three-quarter 
arch, showed a somewhat later date ; it proves, also, that 
the columns of the arches are of different stone from the 
others, the bases also show later mouldings, the western 
columns were all built of white free stone with very 
hard grey stone capitals, resembling Kentish rag. The 
later ones are of the hard stone throughout. 

On pulling down the western gallery we found part 
of two of the original caps remaining, and observed that 
the fictitious ones had been placed about four inches lower 
down than the original 

It may, perhaps, be well to mention that a third 
alteration oi the Church apparently took place in pure 
Perpendicular times, when the tower and side aisles 
were built on the foundation upon which they at present 
stand. The chancel, with its aisles, was subsequent 
some years. And then, the north aisle of the chancel 
was re-built in that beautifully wrought brickwork of 
which we have so many fine specimens in this neigh- 
bourhood. Abutting on the wall of this chapel is a 
turret, which formerly gave admission to the rood loft, 
but this, at the time of the re-building the chapel walls, 
was not pulled down, but encased in brick and carried 
up some feet higher, the stone newel being continued 
in wood for the purpose of access to the rooiT 

The nrocess of removing the plaster showed that the 
whole building had been freely polychromed. I was 
imable to secure the patterns of any of the diaper 
except in one place, and that on the wall of the latest 
portion, which had been covered with a very coarse and 
vulgar fret pattern, painted in distemper in two shades 
of red. 

Knowing, however, the position which the painting 
discovered in 1844 occupied, I took the precaution of 


personally suj)erintendmg the removal of the whitewash 
before it fell into the workmen's hands, and though it 
was found too much dilapidated to secure a satisfactory 
drawing, enough was left to render the original arrange- 
ment intelligible, I hope, by description. 

It remained only on the eastern part of the south 
clerestory wall over the three-quarter arch and as far as 
the second roof pendant, measuring 8 feet in width by 
5 in height. It does not appear that more than this 
was visible when it was last uncovered, but from some 
heads which we found on the south side of the chancel 
arch it seems clear that this is but one wing of the 
subject which at one time probably extended over the 
east wall of the nave, and an equal distance on the 
north and south sides. 

It appears to be the work of the latter part of the 
15th century, and was generally of inferior though 
somewhat elaborate execution. 

It was painted in ail colours, on exceedingly rough 
plastering, and covered also part of the stone of the 
arch, and in one place, where a beam of the aisle roof 
comes through the wall, it was continued upon the 
surface afforded by its section. 

The writer of the i)amphlet to which I have referred 
seems to have fallen into the mistake of supposing this 
portion to represent the last judgment, whereas this, 
though probably part of a picture of that subject, shows 
no more than the reward of the righteous. Evidently 
he was misled by the arrangement rendered necessary 
from the shape of the wall space on which it is depictea, 
and took it for granted that the figures which occupy a 
lower position along the arch tiban the others were 
" descending." 

The upper part of the painting, extending as high as 
the wall plate, and forming a background to the whole, 
was richly grouped, though rudely executed, " tabernacle 
work," chiefly white shaded with grey, the windows 
and crockets strongly outlined in black ; some of the 
windows were coloured red. In these " tabernacles " 
were several celestials, each wearing a circlet with a 



small cross over the forehead ; amongst them two were 
playing on ^ttems. 

One of wese angels in a small battlemented turret 
appeared to our pamphleteer to be a " grave justice." 
In a higher story was a door thus described, with a 
misapprehension originating in his mistake as to the 
subject of the picture, " At the entrance or door thereof 
is one person naif in the doorway, and guarded by a 
second person, who appears to have been in ctistody, 
who has ^ot his hand against his back as if reluctant to 
ffo in, ana looking back as if wistful to stay. A little 
distance from the door is another figure, who also 
appears to be an officer to execute the will of the judge. 
He is attired in grave costume, with a sort of turban on 
his head, and his countenance is serene and happy, 
similar to the other. These two are of course designed 
for two angels as porters of the gate." 

At the lower part of the painting, below the basement 
of the canopy, were two angels raising the righteous by 
the hand ; they seem to have issued through the port- 
cuUised gates behind them, and we may, therefore^ 
with good reason, suppose that this tabernacle work in 
the background was intended as a conventional repre- 
sentation of the heavenly Jerusalem.* 

There are two of these gates at the lower part of the 
picture beside the one in the upper part of the canopy 
into which one of the redeemed is entering. From one 
of them the angels who are assisting the risen seem to 
have issued themselves, and to be leading their charges 
into the other. 

The risen saints were grouped all alon^ the line of 
the arch in that crowded maimer usual with mediaeval 
limners. They are singularly irregular in size, the 
largest being placed just over the crown of the arch, 
and dimini^img as they approached the cap of the 

• This mode of treating the sabject would be most intelligible and significant to 
those fatniliRr with the glorious rhythm which tells of the 

« -Syon atria conjubilantia, martyre plena, 

" Cive mip.antia, Principe stantia, luce seremi, 

" Est tibi consita Uluras, et insita oedrus hysopo 

" Sunt radiantia jas^ide moenia, dara pyropo 

" Hinc tibi sardius, inde topaziuSy hinc amethystus 

*' Est tua fiibrica oondo csauca, gemmaque Christus.*' 


cohimn. All were nude, with hands either joined in 
prayer or extended as if in admiration. Among the 
group were two ecclesiastics with red mitres, and a 
cardinal with a red hat. Another figure, with a beard, 
seemed to the author of the tract to be intended " to 
represent a monk, friar, or priest" '' Another principal 
figure," he adds, which, however, I could not identify, 
unless indeed it be " his eminence," " seems to repre- 
sent royalty, for there is a crown on its head (some of 
the gilt of it remains), king or queen, cannot say, but 
it is a fine, handsome figure, much taller than the 

The two angels I have mentioned as raising the 
righteous were larger than the other figures, and in 
tolerable preservation, their faces were painted with 
some care, and they were not without dignity ; they 
were vested in long white albs without cincture or 

The description of them is somewhat amusing. One 
is put down as the Virgin Mary, and it is pointed out 
that she " performs the act witn as much ease as we 
may suppose Sampson could have raised an infant." 
For the sake of guarding against a charge of inaccuracy, 
I must make one more quotation from the writer. He 
says, in his description, p. 24, " Over the pulpit, on the 
right at the end of me arch, are two figures, as of 
females, in fiill length, naked. They are descending, 
and seem passing on to a certain point ; ftirther on are 
a great many entering a place which seems to represent 
the suburbs of hell. Further on still are many persons 
in it, tormented in the flames (which seem to have been 
painted in vivid colours), all sad and in extreme distress. 
They are looking upward, and their hands folded in the 
attitude of prayer. I could find no traces of flames, 
though it is possible they may have been obliterated in 
the whitewashing. If there were any. I should think 
they must have been rather the fires oi purgatory than 
of hell, but there was nothing to lead me to suppose he 
saw much more than I did ; and the conviction which 
forces itself on my mind is that the vivid colours to 
which he refers was a diaper or perhaps a pavement 


Close to the an^le of the wall three demons are 
visible. The painting was so much mutilated in that 
part, I could not make out more than the figures them- 
selves ; one seemed to be falling headlong as if to 
denote the abortive malice of the evil spirits, now unable 
to hurt the redeemed, who are placed beyond their 
power. It appeared to our author as though " the lower 
one had a person in his arms as if leading him away, 
and looks maliciously pleased." 

Tliese demons were painted grejish blue. The figures 
generally are as void of expression as most paintings 
of this date. Although most unwilling to lose this 
painting, it was so very imperfect, and utterly unintelli- 
gible, except to those who could reach it by a scaffold^ 
that I could not produce anv suflBcient reason for its 
preservation as au the rest of the plastering was to be 
removed ; indeed, I do not see how it could have been 
of any practical value in the state in which I found it, 
and it is now destroyed. 

I cannot conclude this notice without acknowledging^ 
in the warmest terms, the kindness and courtesy of the 
Rev. A. J. Ram, the Vicar of West Ham and Rural 
Dean, who allowed me to make any investigations I 
pleased. Not only are my personal thanks due to him 
for his urbanity, but the thanks of our Society, and of 
archaeologists at large, for the careful and admirable 
manner in which the ^' restoration " (really so) has been 

I am also indebted to Mr. Marshall, the surveyor, and 
especially to Mr. W. Smith, the contractor, for the 
liberal and most kind manner in which he has placed aU 
the means of inspection I required at my disposal 




^^^'r^KK^ymbi. jkSBSs-'^itS^-:'^^'^^* ' V ' 




or ?,. 


Y t Mvia 





In February, 1865, in double trenching the ground to 
remove the roots of a large walnut-tree m the garden of 
Mr. Halls, of Colchester, the workmen came upon a 
tessellated pavement. Mr. Halls gave directions that 
the pavement should be carefully uncovered, and he at 
once communicated the discovery to the Officers of the 
Essex ArchsBological Society and others interested in 
antiquities. The Society sought Mr. Halls' s permission 
to prosecute the excavation, in the hope of recovering 
further traces of the house of which the pavement 
formed a part ; and the warmest thanks of the Society 
are due to Mr. Halls for the very kind and liberal manner 
in which he allowed his garden to be dug up by the 
excavators and invaded by a host of curious visitors, 
and for the generosity with which he presented to the 
Societv the valuable pavements and other objects which 
were found in the course of these researches. 

The house was situated within the Roman town of 
Colonia, on the northern slope of the hill included 
within its waUs, the pavement first discovered being 32 
feet from the west wall, and 132 yards north of the 
Balkerne Gate. 

The conduct of the excavations was committed to 
Mr. Parish, artist, of Colchester, and to his knowledge 
of the subject, and skill as a draughtsman, and to the 
great pains which he bestowed upon the work, we. are 
mdebted for the following very minute and accurate 
record of the discovery. 

It is only necessary to say further that the pavements 
were carefully taken up by Mr. Parish, that one has 
been, and the other shortly will be, put together, and 
that they are now preserved, together with the other 


objects of interest found with them, in the Society's 
Museum in Colchester Castle. 


The walls seem to have been removed for building purposes, as» 
in many places, only the rubble stones are left to indicate where the 
walls formerly stood. These are, of course, wider than the founda- 
tion walls were, so as to form footings ; and some have been found 
to the depth of two feet ; they are lor the most part rather small in 
size, and many pieces are very thin, which would almost allow one 
to believe they were the refuse chips when the cement stones were 
faced for finished work. Some of the stones left standing in parts of 
the walls were as large as those used in the Town Wall, and of the 
same kind ; also a few pieces of the Roman tiles were found bonded 
in the walls, in random rubble courses. One piece of wall was found 
standing on the concrete floor of the villa ; it nad all the appearance 
of a foundation wall, but in taking part away to enable us to remove 
a bronze box or vessel, which was discovered close to the comer of 
the wall, we found the concrete entirely under the whole mass of 
stones, which must, altogether, have weighed 3 tons. Mr. Halls 
wanted all the Roman building material we could find ; therefore 
after I had made my plans and notes, I had it all thrown out, that 
the hole might be filled, for, being a garden^ we cannot cover up 
very much space with the soil thrown out. There is one very 
singular part to which I should wish to call the attention of the 
Archsaological Society : it is an upright row of the large Roman 
tiles, standing at right-angles with the foundation walls ; there 
were eight in number. I thought, at first, they might be 
placed to be the boundary of the red tessellated pavement 
adjoining, but I found about a foot of rubble concrete on each 
side of them, and not a vestige of pavement. Grossing the end 
of this row of tiles, and at an angle of about 80 degrees, 
was found a number of flange tiles, with their flanges uppermost. 
We left them in their places — ^partly of necessity : for, having to cut 
deep, and very perpendicular, to avoid injuring an asparagus bed, 
we had a large iana slip, and as the tiles were so very much broken, 
I did not think it worth the trouble to remove several tons of earth 
to again ^et at them. We have had very bad weather to contend 
with, which has made it difficult to keep in high piles the soil 
thrown out of the deep cuttings. 


I have found several varieties of concrete, but I think they only 
vary in the proportion of the sand, lime, &c., of which they are 
composed. Tnat used for the masonry of the walls is harder than 
the stones it secures The sort used for the best pavement was a 
rough yellowish sandy concrete, laid, on an average of 4 inches thick. 



• %■ 

* • 



^ / 

-- ■<— ! 1 I I 


on rough rabble stone ; this was spread with a very even surface, 
and then a concrete with a large proportion of the pounded tile 
was laid above it, about an ineh-and-a-half in thickness ; again, on 
this reddish concrete, was spread a thin coating of fine calcareous 
cement, and into this last bedding the tessellas were bedded. Again, 
in some of the compartments oi the building, concrete floors (or 
perhaps smooth beddings to what were formerly paved courts) were 
found of a deep red tint, not at all the pink colour the pounded tile 
gives, but a deep red ; these, upon close examination, I found ,to be 
made of crushed tile (not pounded), all broken in pieces from an 
eighth to an inch in size, ana bedded into the pink concrete. The one 
to the south of the pavement (Fig. A) was of this description, as also 
the centre of the court farthest east, as shown where tile centre 
pattern has been broken away. Some of the floors have a yellowish 
tint, but they always seem very coarse in contrast with the pink or red 
kinds. Great masses of these various kinds were found 3 feet 6 inches 
under the pavement (Fig. A), along with the debris of a former 
house ; also the sides of a large flue, made of concrete. 


The best pavement (A) is composed of tesseUsd, average size 4 to a 
square inch, of a very beautiful pattern ; the part remaining is rather 
more than one-quarter of the entire floor, ana just sufElcient over the 
quarter to prove it was more than a double-centred oblong. The 
mil floor contained 4 of the patterns like that which has been found, 
and a centre one put in lozenge- wise. It had originally a border one 
yard wide, composed entirely of white tessell». The other pavement 
(B) is of the large red tessellsB, averaging 100 to a square foot, and 
measures 21 feet 10 inches square. In the centre is an ornamented 

Jiattem, with a very beautiful bordering of very fine tessellsB. TJn- 
brtunately this is much injured. This centre was 7 feet 10 inches 
in size, leaving 7 feet of the large red pavement all round. 

Utensils, Bones, &c. 

Fragments of Samian Ware were found in all parts of the excavations 
when down on a level with the concrete, and a very good specimen 
of a Roman stylus, almost identically the same as that figured in 
C. Roach Smith's " Antiquities of Richborough," p. 103. One 
entire urn was found, containing a small quantity of greenish earth, 
which was very loamy to the feel ; no coin, or lamp, &c., was within 
it. It was covered over with a fragment of a very coarse white 
vessel, about an inch in thickness. A good sample of a Roman 
spearhead was found by the side of the mound of loose foundation 
material, placed on the concrete above mentioned. 3 small silver 
rings were found ; Mr. Halls wished to have one, therefore I have 
but 2 of them. A very fine horn core (slug) of an extinct ox, called 
bos langi/rons, having part of the os frontis on. it. A description of 


this extinct species of Bos can be found in the *' British Fossil 
Mammalia," p. 508, by Professor Owen This was found 
at a depth of 5 feet, just under all the made soil, and between 
parts of several broken large tiles. The leg of a game cock, with 
the spur attached, was found under the parement (Fig. A). The 
bronze box before mentioned contained soil exactly like that found 
in the urn. A Roman spur was dug up from under the concrete, 
close to where the urn was exhumed. Everywhere the debris of the 
stucco of the walls covered with painting was seen, embedded in stiflF 
clayey soil, but it was too tender to obtain large pieces of it. 
Numerous specimens are sent for inspection. I find the red was the 
last colour applied, as in many parts it goes entirely over the other 
colours. Almost all the bones of a horse were found, but much 
broken, and a very singular piece of pottery with a blue vitrified 
pattern on it, and a semi-transparent surface to the under side, was 
found underneath the head of the horse. I have great doubts of 
this piece of pottery being Roman. The peculiar features of the 
bones of the horse were their extreme lightness, and the bones or 
processes of the withers seemed quite an inch longer than the bones 
of the other parts would account for ; its head seemed to be more 
bowed or curved on the front than usual-^our bad tempered horses 
are sometimes found of that form. A small piece or two of glass, 
and a very small fragment of a coin were all of this kind found. 
Abundance of firagments of black pottery and yellow ware. 


A flue was found running westerly under pavement (Fig. A), 
and quite 3| feet lower than the pavement ; and between the flue 
and pavement were debris of a former villa, such as broken concrete, 
and numerous pieces of wall painting ; the flue contained charcoal 
in large quantities. 

This flue inclined to the west, about 1 in 20 ; its base was about 
2ft. 6in., but I cannot tell how much wider, as it had all been 
broken away, the sides only had the concrete rendering for testing 
the bottom ; I found it was composed of half-burnt clay, a large 
quantity of vegetable charcoal was found Ipng at the bottom, some 
specimens of this were taken out, but visitors have taken them all 
away, piece by piece. The charcoal was in such a good state that 
the rings in the wood could be seen as perfectly as the first day it 
was cut from the tree. This flue I have traced as far as I could 
find it at all. A large depression was found in the pavement 
(Fig. A), and, as I thought, it was occasioned by a flue having 
given way under it. 


No vestige of spaces left for doors has been found, but the 
rubble contmued alt round in one unbroken line, therefore, under 
the door steps. 



If.B, — All of this Report refen to the portions of the small ground- 
plan, coloured Black. 


As in the earlier part of the Report a long description of the 
concrete was ^ven, I need only say that if there was any difference 
in that used m the remains found in the more recent excavations 
it is of a coarser nature, with considerably less of lime. In some 
parts the concrete bedding for the walls (which projects about 8 or 
9 inches on either side of the walls) is 2 feqt deep, but the part 
below seems to have been rubble stones, of the cement-stone kmd, 
thrown in loosely, and thin concrete poured over them. A portion 
of the ground plan, and also of the section plan, will be found 
marked to show where a thick bedding of tne best white lime 
concrete was laid. From the isolated plaice in which this was found, 
I should think that it was the surplus concrete after making the 
pavements in the best rooms ; it is identical with that used for the 
surface bedding of the best kinds of pavement, and there was not 
an^ trace of any concrete like it, for a long distance, from where 
this heap was found. I have had two pieces of this claken out that 
it can be compared with other concretes. When first uncovered it 
was as hard as the cement stones, and of a very beautiful white- 
ness, but the exposure has considerably diminished both these 


After opening the ground on the south-west comer of the room 
containing the pavement (A), and finding the red concrete bedding, 
I had it still further opened to the southward, and sufficiently 
westward, to take in any remains which a wide doorway might 
leave. I found that the common sand concrete, mixed with rubble 
stone, ran due south, close beside the red concrete floor-bedding 
above mentioned, and of a sufficient width to form the bedding for 
a wall 2 feet in thickness. Portions of this wall, of this thickness, 
were found, with a fair face, on the west side ; and these broken 
pieces of wall continued southward, getting better defined, and 
more left standiag, until a distance of 28 feet brought me on the 
inner side to a return wall running due east. This was found to be 
the most perfect piece of foundation yet uncovered, and continued 
for a distance of 39 feet, in parts as high as 3 feet, and all the way 
along not only were the stones much larger than found in other 
places, but portions of fresco painting were found adhering to both 
sides of it ; these were in such a very tender condition that I could 
not secure any large pieces, and the whole of the soil I found was 



filled with the debris of the painting. I had now to have the holes 
made wider, with buttresses of earth left, as a rather extensive land- 
slip (occasioned by the heavy rains during our excavations) nearly 
buried one of the men ; and the surface of the ground rising 
considerably, compelled me (through the ruins running for the 
most part on a level) to have all our opening now of the depth of 
9 feet I had a trench dug on both sides of this last-found wall so as 
to see if there was any trace of pavement to be found, or the bedding 
on which to lay one, but not a vestige could be found ; every spade- 
full of soil from the sides of the wall disclosed numbers of pieces of 
the wall-painting, which were for the most part red, some pieces of 
a scarlet colour, equal (when first taken out) to any vermiUion used 
at the present time. This brilliancy soon goes off when in contact 
with tne atmosphere. They are very beautiful in colour, a little 
brighter than the brightest specimen of the Samian pottery. After 
running 39 feet eastward, the wall ceased, and I had the ground 
opened as far as the width of a vei*y large doorway, but I could not 
find any trace of the earth ever having been disturbed ; then I had 
a tunnel cut under at the east end of this long wall, in a direction 
due south, and sufficiently large to allow me to have a distinct view 
of about a foot on each side of the wall, should it go in that direction. 
I found the wall ran in that direction, and it proved to be the thickest 
piece yet found, being originally a 3-feet wall, as I could see from a 
fair side seen in some parts, but it was very much broken on the west 
side, and the foot of it did not go so low as the other wall by quite a 
foot. I made the men search carefully for any traces of step that 
might be left, but they could not find any. I then had a hole dug 
by the side to see how much concrete it stood upon, and I found it 
had a bedding of only 4 or 5 inches, and beneath that depth aU was 
unmoved soil. After following this wall in its course due south for 
a distance of 29 feet, I again came upon return walls running 
through to the east and west ; the one on the east side was very 
rough on both sides, and was at least 3 feet thick originally, but it was 
so very much broken I cannot tell how much thicker it may have 
been originally. Again, there was a rise of about a foot in the 
ground, and no part of a floor left to tell what kind of pavement 
the room or court contained ; at this wall the soil around had not 
any trace of wall painting, and pieces of broken pottery were more 
abundant ; in this wall were found four or five square tiles, about 
eight inches by one inch. I have had them taken to the Museiun. 
This wall was uncovered for about 8 feet to the east, and it was still 
very broken on the face, and still going direct eastward ; it was then 
left, to prosecute our search on the west wall. This I found to be 
only 18 inches in thickness, and having very fair faces ; it was 7 feet 
deep to the bottom of the wall, and extended west for a distance of 
30 feet, and the end of it being faced, I had a hole opened in the 
directions north and south. On the north side I coxdd not find any 


trace of a wall, door-way, &a ; therefore I extended the hole to the 
north-west, and snfficiendy £Eur to reach the farther side of a door- 
way, should there be one. I found one (up till then no trace of any 
door had been found in any of the courts): it was about 6 feet wide, 
the concrete bedding for the wall running west was 2 feet wide, and 
the remains of the wall ran west for about 4 feet, and then ran 
north imtil it joined the west side wall of the red concrete court, 
abutting on the south of the pavement (A). 

Then I turned my attention to the south side of this wall, which 
was faced at the end, thinking it might go in that direction. After 
cutting down to the required depth, 7 feet, and clearing the end 
faceTl found I was right in my conjecture : it returned southward 
about 4 feet, and then was broken away very suddenly, and from 
the black soil going deeper just there, by about 2 feet, than in any 
of the surrounding parts, I am inclined to ^bink it had an opening 
for a doorway. All the surface soil has been brought down and 
laid upon these ruins ; the soil thus made in this part is 6 feet thick, 
and as the excavations go more south I find the made soil is of 
greater thickness. I tried a little further south, to see if it should 
prove a door- way, and succeeded in finding it so, aud when at a 
distance of 14 feet 6 inches from the north comer I came upon a 
wall running due east and west. 

This I foUowed to the east, having to remove a plum-tree which 
an earth slip had rendered unsafe. When this had been followed 
for a distance of 30 feet eastward, another wall crossed it, running 
north and south, and only a trifle more than a foot in thickness ; 
this was a little lower than the wall running through it, and after 
running north 13 feet, abutted on the thick wall running east, before 
described. And on the south it continues to rise, and goes in a due 
south direction under the garden of St. Peter's Vicarage. Here I 
was obliged to stop following it, and proceed to our search at the west 
termination of the long south wall. (The east end of this wall is 
still imexplored, as Mr. HaUs required his garden at that park) 

Following out the course of the last-named wall to the west (after 
passing the door-way named in the description above), it contmues 
westward for about 7 feet, then it takes a curve northwards, such as 
if complete with the radius where seen would join on to the wall at the 
west comer of the first-named doorway. This curved wall is composed 
of flue-tiles broken up, with pieces of pottery of the larger kinds, and 
rubble stones, and may have been a rough boundary wall to contain 
heaps of refuse thrown away, for a great number of bones, fragments 
of pottery, and scraps of iron, and the heap of the best white lime 
concrete was found within this boundary wall, and the constraction 
of the wall would warrant such a conclusion, as it was made of such 
very mixed materials, and in such a rude manner, it could never 
have been intended for a part of any building formed to carry the 
weight of a roof, &c. The outer edges were only plastered together 


with the common sand concrete, and all the middle was filled up 
with all broken rabble stone, and pieces of old concrete and broken 
tiles. In the bottom of it I found one whole flue-tile filled with 
concrete to the flanges, and the wall was made in such a rude 
manner that this large tile was drawn out from the under part 
without disturbing any of the other parts, thus clearly showing that 
there could never have been any very great weight on such a wall. 
Upon opening a hole fiirther to tibe south-west, at the end of a space 
sufficient for a doorway, and in a direct Une with the long Bouth 
waU running east, I came upon a comer of a wall again running 
west, and 2 feet thick. On the end of it, to the south, there was 
the concrete bedding left of a wall running in that direction, but all 
the wall stones had been removed ; traces of yellow and white con- 
crete were found within the comer, and a rubble stone bedding ; 
therefore I had a hole cut still south-westerly, and found there had 
been a red pavement within the room or court, composed of tiles 
of an inch cube. It was very broken, but had been a very good 
specimen, as all the cubes were well-shaped. 

Westward of this last part stands a fruit-tree, and as it is of a 
valuable kind, I did not feel warranted in taking it up, as from the 
sort of waU found at the comer, and the pavement of the room or 
court, it would most likely be only a straight wall found. There- 
fore, when I had measured every part, I had some of the lai^r 
pieces of the wall and concrete thrown out, so that Mr. Halls could 
use them in restoring the Town Wall, and the workmen then com- 
menced to fill up the holes« This was a work of some considerable 
labour, as a great quantity of the soil had been moved back from 
the tops of tiie openings so as to leave a place for the soil to be 
thrown upon from below. This filling and the removal of the 
second piece of pavement (which has come away very successfully) 
occupiea the time until the evening of April the 8th, when we had 
completed the levelling of the garden. 

Fragments of Pottery, &c. 

Numerous pieces of pottery, &c., have been found, but nothing 
very remarkable. Among the pieces found in the little circular out- 
buildinff or ash-pit, was a very fine piece of a vase, of a dull brown 
colour, having aoout 100 degrees of the circumference. This shows 
the vase to have been divided into 4 compartments for ornamenta- 
tion, and a dolphin occupies the whole of each compartment, or 
quite 90 degrees, and the tail of the one in the next division is seen. 
This specimen is the work of an artist fax above the average, and 
the rioged spines and the raised eyes of the dolphin are as sharp and 
perfect as wnen modelled ; the figuration is in very high relief. I 
have a number of bones, &c., parts of j^ins and needles in bone and 
ivory, &c. One piece of a red Samian vessel was found in an 
excavation about 9 feet deep, of rather a peculiar shape. I caused 


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a search to be made to find other fragments of it, but could not 
succeed. Next day, upon opening another hole, at about 9 feet 
deep, another piece of this very pot was found, having the same 
pattern, and the jagged broken parts fitting exactly ; the holes were 
about 6 or 6 yards apart. Some of the pieces of pottery have a 
remarkably bright glaze on them, having a metallic lustre. 

Scarce any glass could be found, only one or two plain pieces, nor 
any vestige of beads. 



Pagell5.->In the title of the Will of Avery Comburgh, for 1495-7 r^^d 1486-7. 
Page 16. — In the Will, line d|/or mooccxzxvi rtad mcocdxzxTi. 
Page 17.— In line 17, /or Otrigge T$ad Abrigge. 




By fhe Bey. E. S. Oobbib. 
fBead at the Earls CkHne Meeting.) 

The title here prefixed is far too ambitious for the few 
and simple remarks I shall be able to make. 

It is, moreover, not strictly accurate, for I shall have 
to refer not only to cottages, but to farm-houses, &c., in 
fact any dwelling-house, under the rank of the mansion 
of the squire or nobleman. These have been often well 
described and illustrated in works easily accessible to aU ; 
but the cottages and farm-houses left us by our fathers in 
past ages have not received the attention which I think 
they deserve. I cannot but think, that it would be well 
worth the while, for some one really capable, to under- 
take this subject and work it out ; to illustrate the 
principles of design which these old houses exhibit : to 
endeavour to classify them as to date ; and to publish 
careful illustrations of good examples. I have not the 
knowledge or skill for anything of the sort, and only 
venture to skim the surface of the subject, and direct 
the attention of some abler hand towards it. 

I do not allude now, in any way, to the ground plan of 
these old homesteads — their arrangement of rooms — 
their apphances for the comfort and decency of their 
inhabitants at the time of their erection — or their 
capabilities for meeting the necessities of our modem 
life J I speak simply of their external form and design. 

Now it is impossible to deny that this is, generally, 
ftdl of beauty, throughout the whole of our country. 
Our poets have sung the beauty and quiet of our 
English cottages. Travellers from other lands speak of 
them with unvarying admiration. Painters love to 



represent their picturesque gables, and shadowing 
eaves, and latticed windows, and broad chimnies. It is 
some few features of this beauty we would wish to 
point out. 

And first, I would bid you remark how entirely these 
buildings are designed to harmonise with their particular 
sites, and with the prevaiUng features of our quiet 
English landscape. Tms implies in their builders a per- 
ception of artistic propriety and fitness, which is now 
little understood, and seldom attained, by our modem 
architects, even in great works. How often, in these 
days, do we see a building, placed in a city, crowded 
up in narrow streets, yet framed on a design, requiring 
it to be seen from a distance, and fitted for some com- 
manding position in the country. On the other hand, 
we have buildings like the facade of the new Museum 
of Oxford, fitted for the continuous line of street;, 
standing isolated and alone. Now this fact of appor- 
tioning the character of a design, not only to the object 
of the building, but to the nature of its site ; to make it 
thus appear to belong to the landscape around it ^ to 
grow out of it. instead of being an extraneous thmg, 
put down, as it were, hap-hazard, where it is ; this, I 
say, is a mark of subtile and true artistic feeling. It 
was possessed in an eminent degree by the builders of 
old time : it is seen in their greatest works. The house 
of the noble in the city was of a different type fi-om that 
of his mansion in the country. Their churches varied 
according to the nature of the scenery around them and 
the materials to be used. Some had spires, some 
towers — ^the towers themselves varying in form and 
size, and yet each so exactly suited to their several 
situations that, to a practised eye and cultivated taste, 
no small portion of effect could be lost were any two 
different types interchanged in site. A Pembrokeshire 
churchy with its severe and simple pyramidal tower, 
would oe out of place in the wooded or cultivated plains 
of Essex. An elaborate tower like that under whose 
shadow we are sitting, or one of beautiM brickwork 
like that we shall see at Hedingham, would lose half its 
beauty among the wild hills and rugged valleys of tha 


west. Now just tliis very principle which the old 
architects adopted in these their great works, they 
Bi^cessfully imparted even to their smallest. All that 
we have said of mansions and churches, applies equally 
to their cottages and farms. To a memeeval builder 
nothing was too small for care. The same air of grace 
and fitness that marked the mansion of the squire or 
the noble, was thrown round the humbler dwelling of 
the farmer or the peasant. If the one looked grand and 
noble, with its wide sweep of lawn and far-reaching 
avenues, the other equally became its knot of shadowing 
elms, and its little garden by the village green. The 
one as well as the other was fitted for its special site, 
and seemed equally a part and parcel of liie general 
landscape around. In Herefordshire we have the 
homesteads formed with the black beams, showing 
oftentimes in beautiful and varied patterns through the 
white plaster between. In Gloucestershire, the rich 
yellow stone, with stone muUions and quoins, and roof 
of slabs, give an air of solidity and comfort, fitting the 
rich gardens and orchards in which they stand. In 
Wales, the grey cottages, low and nesthng in some 
hollow of the hills, ^ve an air of shelter from the wild 
winds of the mountains ; all these, fit and beautiful in 
their several positions, we feel would be out of place in 
Essex, where the long stretch of roof, varied by pro- 
jecting gables, and covered with thatch or tile, the wnite 
walls, with their quaint varieties of pargetting, seem at 
once the natural outgrowth of our quiet, undulating 
country, and lend to it one of its greatest charms. 

I know, indeed, it may be said that aU this is purely 
accidental — that this grace and fitness result simply of 
themselves fi-om the accident of material, or what not. 
But the objection is a shallow one. Things do not grow 
of themselves into forms of beauty. To make them do 
so requires knowledge, and thought, and skill. Nay, the 
objection itself only proves the more what we are 
stating, for it is the very height of art to conceal itself, 
and appear actually what it is not — ^the mere natural 
outgrowth of utiUty, of necessity, or material. 

lake another view of these homesteads of our 


country, and observe the fitness with which their mere 
outward form expresses the kind of life for which thev 
are constructed. There is thrown around them an fiir 
of quiet, calm repose — ^they seem to breathe an atmos- 
phere or simplicity and content, harmonising completely 
with the quiet, unambitious tenor of a country life. 
Those, indeed, who know the country best, know that 
this appearance is but too fallacious — that amid those 

auiet scenes breathe the same wild human passions ; 
lere are the same troubles and miseries, the same 
wayward errors and sins, that beset life everywhere. 
Yet, as we look upon some country village, we feel the 
thought of all this runs counter to the outward show 
of things, and this very feeling of incongruity shows 
how deep a hold upon our mind have the ideas of peace 
and repose that the old builders have impressed upon 
their buildings. 

Yet a third matter to which I would call your atten- 
tion in these old domestic buildings is their infinite 
variety. The type, indeed, is the same ; there is 
always the high-pitched roof, the wooden-framed or 
mulhoned windows, the genial stack of brick chimnies, 
suggesting the warm ingle within. But at the same 
time there is an almost endless variety. Sometimes 
the roof is unbroken from end to end, sometimes a 
central gable breaks its line, sometimes there is a gable 
at one end of the front, sometimes at both. When 
several houses are placed in a row, under one roof, the 
windows are sometimes dormers, sometimes carried up 
from the wall in small gables, which group beautifdUy 
with the larger gables which in such cases usually flank 
one end or the other ; sometimes the upper story 
projects over the lower, throwing at once a dark mass 
of shadow, which adds greatly to beauty. The walls, 
as I have already said, though often simply rough-cast, 
yet frequently present a great number of patterns in 
pargetting, quaint and simple, and eminently con- 
structive in design. All these, and other matters we 
might mention, alone or in combination, produce an 
infinite change and variety of form, and this alone is 
enough to claim for them a high artistic excellence. 


Sameness of type^ with mdividtial variety^ is the law of 
nature's works ; it regulates the growth of the trees of 
the forest, and the leaves of each individual tree ; it 
marks no less these old cottages and homesteads of our 
native country. 

This, then, is a high artistic feature — ^it is more, it is 
a great moral influence. It tends to gather the afiec- 
tions of the in-dwellers of these houses around them, 
to separate them from others, to intensify the idea ex- 
pressed by our sweet English word Home. 

Contrast these ancient houses with those which we 
erect to-day. Take an ordinary modem cottage, four 
square brick walls, a door at one side and a window at 
the other, and two windows above, a slate roof, low in 
pitch, with no eaves ; it is a dissight — a blot upon the 
landscape around it. It is impossible to love a base, 
mean thing Uke that. Or take a modem row of cottages 
—each one exactly like the others — each a repetition of 
the type I have distressed you by describing ; without 
a single thing to distinguish it from its neighbours but 
the number of the door ; how can any affectionate asso- 
ciations gather round such a dwelling as this ? It seems 
almost a profanation to apply to it the sacred name of 
home. There is certainly nothing in it to attract, and 
everythine: to repel. But beins: constituted as we are. 
with body as well as spirit, susceptible as is our nature; 
and especially in its uneducated state, to external in- 
fluences, it IS, to say the least, unvyise to render our 
homes outwardly unlovely and repelling. Our fathers 
acted vnsely as well as tastefully when they sought to 
render a man's house itself attractive, to give it an 
individual peculiarity distinct from any other, and to 
make it outwardly a fitting type of those fair and gentle 
influences which should dwell within. 

Such are a few of the artistic features of these old 
homesteads — it is a poor and meagre outline ; but it may 
serve, I think, at least to caU attention to them, and 
gain for them an interest which they well merit, and 
which they but seldom excite. The more you really 
look at them the more you will be struck with their 
picturesque beauty. They are, moreover, very precious 


as memorials of the past of our people, still existmg 
amon^ us, and whica if once lost can never be re- 

And it is a fact that they are, slowly indeed but 
surely, fading away from us. The mere process of 
inevitable decay must rob us of them in time, and of the 
oldest and therefore often the best, first ; but besides this 
every year, in every village, one and another of them is 
falling often before the march of what is called improve- 
ment ; either altogether pulled down to make room for 
some vulgar, tasteless erection, deficient in every point 
in which they excelled, or else mutilated or added to, and 
all their native beauty destroved. Now surely it is to 
be lamented that these buildings should pass away 
without some record and memorial. If the things 
themselves must cease from among us, surely, at least, 
their forms may be preserved. Now this is the real 
object I have had in choosing the subject of this paper. 
I would venture to press upon you the importance and 
interest of securing some memorial of these old build- 
ings. In every neighbourhood there is some one or 
other who has the power of making some sort of 
sketch, however rough. Will it not then be well to 
keep an eye upon these old buildings ? Whenever a 
house or cottage is to be pulled down, or impraoed^ as 
the term is, let some one or other make it his business 
to take a sketch of it from one or two diflferent points 
of view; a simple outline would be enough, just 
catching its leading features, the distribution of its 
basses, and the arrangement of its parts. Nay, more- 
there are many of you in these days who are j?Aoto- 
graphers. I can conceive nothing more interesting than 
that some one who possesses this valuable art should 
go round his own particular neighbourhood and take 
photographs of the best and most picturesque of these 
ancient homesteads. A collection of such photographs 
would have an interest and value almost impossible to 
over-estimate. They would form at once interesting 
memorials of the past, and be precious guides to our 
architects for the buildings of the future. We are 
never likely to have a type of building so fitted for oui: 


climate and otir scenery as these, and it is surely pos- 
sible to combine with the increased comforts and 
greater requirements of modem Kfe, these time-honoured 
forms, which add so much of beauty to the hills and 
plains of our native land. 




By H. W. Kmo. 
("Read at the Kdvedon Meeting, August, 1B6SJ 

At the Annual Meeting of our Society, held at Had- 
leigh in 1868, the members had an opportunity of 
inspecting the ruins of the ancient Castle erected there 
by Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent and Justiciary. of 
England in the reign of Henry HI. ; and upon that 
occasion it devolved upon me to offer a few remarks 
upon its history and plan, subsequently developed into 
a brief historical and descriptive memoir which ap- 

F eared in the second volume of our "Transactions." 
may, therefore, assume that the general arrangement 
of the structure is familiar to all, and to many of us 
from personal examination upon the site. 

The engraved plan which illustrated my paper was 
drawn from an accurate survey of the visible remains, 
which comprise the lines of the entire circuit of the 
walls and the principal defences, namely, the two great 
eastern towers, the gateway tower, and other small 
flanking towers. All else has utterly disappeared.* 

I mentioned, however, that there were architectural 
indications that the chief apartments and offices were 
situate at the western part of the enclosure, and 
advanced eastward as far as the gateway tower ; indeed, 

* Some of the references in this report are to the plan engraved in Vol. 11., 
p. 91, of the ''Transactions " of the Society, to which I hegto refer the reader. 
Others are to the accompanying ground plan of the apartments recently disclosed 
at the north-west part of the iMtlliam, whidi required to be drawn upon a larger 
scale. The present survey and plan have been kindly made for me dv Mr. GJeo. 
Frederick Wood, to whose persozual labour and assistance I was also much indebted 
during the progress of the excavations. I must also record my thanks to an 
nnknown helper whose name did not reach me, an officer in the army, who, on 
Tisiting the site, kindly Toloutearad and ezecoted a whole day's manual labour with 
ipade and pick-axe. 


=P r. 











1' - 



in dry weather, I had traced, by the parched grass, 
some of the lines of the foundations lying buried 
beneath the greensward. There, probably, stood the 
great Hall and the Chapel, unless either of these be the 
apartment (F). 

It has been remarked that the Early English period^ 
rich in ecclesiastical edifices, is poor m muitary struc- 
tures ; in Hadleigh Castle, however, we possess the 
remains of a rare example of the military architecture 
of that era, and ever since I made a survey of the 
fortress I have been impressed with the importance of 
disclosing the foundations of these apartments in order 
to a more correct understanding of the internal arrange- 
ments of a Castle of that date. 

Upon expressing my wishes to Mrs. Wood, the lessee 
of the Castle and rark estates, who feels much interest 
in the history as well as in the preservation of the 
structure, she readily assented to my request to make 
such excavations as I might deem desirable, an act of 
liberal concession for the advancement of archselogical 
science for which I feel personally indebted, and for 
which, I think, we shall all feel that the thanks of this 
Society are due.* 

These excavations, which involved the imcovering of 
a considerable area, were commenced by my son^ Mr. 
H. W. Montague King, in April last, and have been 
continued to the present month, not without some hope 
that, besides disclosing the architectural lines of the 
interior of the building, they might also lead^ perhaps, 
to the discovery of some articles of military and 
domestic use, or other objects of antiquarian interest, 
though of course everything of value would be secured 
prior to its demolition. Tne results of these excava- 
tions, as far as they have been prosecuted — ^though 
much work yet remains to be done — ^I have now me 
honour to report to the Society. I cannot make my 
paper to-day entertaining ; even in speaking of a Castle, 

^ * Hjb Qiace the Jhike of Maadbeflter, then owner of the Lordship and Manor, 
vifdted the eite; and the only request made to me, through the Steward, was, 
that if any ancient coins should be found, his Graoe might have the opportunity of 
inspecting them. Nothing, howeyer, of the emallert numismatic yalue, or worth 
offiiring to the Duke, was found. 



both Baronial and Royal^ I cannot present to yon any 
scenes of war or chivaliy, or recal historical reminis- 
cences connected with it I must solicit your patient 
indulgence in Kstening for a brief space to the bare and 
dry recital of archaeological facts — facts, however, I 
think, important in themselves, and which, perhaps 
hereafter to be dealt with by abler hands, may conduce 
to our more intimate knowledge of ancient castellation« 
In the present work I am but the pioneer. 

Excavations were commenced at the south flanking 
tower (C) where, upon the face of the wall, within the 
bailey, the crown of a wide pointed arch of four feet 
projection is visible, which, supposing that any under- 
ground apartments existed, 1 was induced to think 
might be the commencement of the vaulting. Here a 
shaft was sunk to the base of the wall^ a depth of about 
fourteen feet, and of the entire width of the arch, 
which determined that it was merely constructional, 
the whole cutting being through virgin clay. The 
earth was next removed from the small shaft or chamber 
(b) which had been filled up in recent times, to about 
the same depth, and I am now convinced tnat it was 
the pit of a garderobe attached to this tower, and that 
the arched passage leading into it (or rather from it) at 
tiie basement floor, twelve feet below the level of the 
ballium, was the djrain. The size of this drain is ex- 
traordinary as compared with those leading from the 
pits of the other garderobes, one of which was attached 
to every apartment discovered, and apparently to the 
floor of every tower. It is two feet wide, and not less 
than five feet eight inches high, yet the aperture into the 
pit, now much broken, could not have been more than 
two feet square. This must have traversed the base- 
ment of the tower against the inner wall, and had its 
exit immediately below it : in fact all the cloacae belong- 
ing to the Castle, of which there are as many as eight, 
without any regard on the part of the architect for 
sanitary laws, discharged themselves immediately under 
the outer walls. 

My original supposition, therefore, that underground 


chambers might possibly have existed in connexion 
with this tower, but whicn could only be determined by 
excavation, is definitively resolved in the negative, and 1 
think it is equally certain that in no part of the building 
were vaults or undercrofts constructed. 

A cutting was also made upon a spot between the 
great N.E. Tower and the north flanking tower (N), where 
the ground is much depressed, so as in rainy weather to 
form a shallow pond. Only the bones of an ox were 
disinterred, but no remains of masonry, except a few 
loose stones, were foimd. The depression was probably 
occasioned by the removal of the soil for agricultural 
purposes. * 

Operations were next directed at the N.W. part of 
the Tbailey, where I have already mentioned there were 
striking architectural and other indications of the 
former existence of a range of apartments. 

The basement of the gateway tower was completely 
filled with earth, forming a low mound. Upon clearing 
this out the inner diameter of the tower was found to 
measure about twenty-eight feet, and its wall eight feet 
in thickness. The basement presented three platforms, 
each raised higher than the other alternately ; the two 
lower of triangular shape, the upper forming a segment 
of the circle^ on the chord of which projects a semi- 
cylindrical mass of masonry, apparently the base of a 
large newel, six feet in diameter. It is, therefore, I 
think, obvious that the whole of the tower was occupied 
by a large winding stair, of which onlv three steps 
remain ; and its great size afforded reaay and speedy 
access to its smnmit for a number of men hastily sum- 
moned at any moment for the defence of the entrance 
which it commands. A mere fragment of the tower 
on its western side, where it unites with the wall of 
the bailey, still rises to the height of perhaps some 
twenty feet, and shows on its iimer sunace the spring 
of a part of the groining, which either gave support 
to the stairs as they wound round the newel, or formed 
the vaulting of an upper chamber • and higher up may 
be seen the jambs of two widely splayed windows, 


wlucli looked respectively towards the west and north- 

It will be in vain for me to atteriipt to determine the 
specific uses to which the several apartments, whose 
fomidations we have denuded, were appropriated. 

You will observe that a spacious area has already 
been imcovered, but the situation and shape of the 
rooms will be best understood by reference to the 

ground plan. A httle to the left of the gateway tower I 
ad originally indicated the probable existence of a 
fireplace. This the excavations have verified. The 
hearth, sixteen feet wide, by four feet deep, is composed 
of tiles placed edgeways and embed&ea in concrete, 
much blackened by the action of fire ; the fireplace, in 
order to ensure sufficient draught, is supported upon an 
arch constructed below the ground leveLf Here, I 
presume, was a guard chamber (twenty-one feet by ten 
feet two inches), immediately adjacent to the tower, and 
the adjoining room (2), about seventeen feet eight inches 
by sixteen feet nine inches, I conjecture was a kitchen^ 
i^ indeed, both were not used lor culinary purposes. 
In the next recess to the left of the fireplace was foimd 
a compact bed of tile work, obviously adjusted as the 
setting for a cauldron ; a similar setting of masonry is 
built up in the comer of the third recess, or chimney, 
and between them a semi-circle of masonry is set 
against the wall — arrangements which denote the former 
existence of furnaces, cauldrons, and other appliances 
for heating water and cooking. It may be that, al- 
though the groimd plan seems to indicate two rooms, 
there was perhaps but c/nA apartment about forty-one 
feet long. 

The space in firont of what I have ventured to desig- 
nate a guard chamber, was manifestly a small open 

* These featuree I Hid not observe until reriBiting the Oastle in the present year, 
1866, when, owing to the destniotion, by fire, of a mass of vrr with which this 
portion of the nun was richly mantled, the spring of the groining and traces of 
two windows have been disclosed. Although this mischievous or uncautious work 
of a |»ic-nic party has revealed some architectural features, it has totally destroyed 
the picturesque character of the ruin. 

t A few Roman tiles were used in the construction of this arch, but none are to 
be seen in any other part of the structure ; tiles, however, of the same shape and 
thickness as modem roof tiles occur frequently among the masonry of the outer 


paved court. The triangular shape of rooms (3 and 4) 
— ^if they were rooms — ^as well as the peculiar form of 
the paved court, may probably be explained by sup- 
posing, as indeed seems evident, that the parallelogram 
comprising rooms (6, 7, and 8) measuring respectively 
fifteen feet two inches, twelve feet seven inches, and 
seven feet four inches, by twelve feet eight inches, was 
a subsequent erection. A fireplace separated the two 
westernmost of these apartments and the small chamber 
(9) set upon the further angle may have been a garde- 
robe. From the opposite angle a wall sets off to the 
south, the line of which has not at present been further 
pursued, but within the last few days, owing to the dry 
weather, the lines of the foundations buried beneath 
the surface on the south side have become very clearly 
defined upon the greensward, presenting a parallelo- 
gram similar to that upon tne north, and connected 
with it by a wall running north and south. There are 
also indications of an inner Une of waU extending fi-om 
the gateway to the north flanking tower (N), from which 
it may be assumed that a range of apartments existed 
there above which was a broad rampart, as upon the 

Continuing our excavations along and within the line 
of the extreme west wall it was found that the square 
tower marked (H) was approached by a short flight of 
steps carried upon an arct, and that Aad a window on 
the south, a fireplace and a garderobe constructed in 
the thickness of the wall upon the north, the angles of 
the entrance plainly chamfered off. From this tower to 
the buttress it was also ascertained that the wall does' 
not run in a right Une, but an obtuse angle is formed 
about midway. Thus far our excavations have at 
present been prosecuted, but a large space of ground 
remains to be explored.* 

* It had long been a subject of fpecolation by myself and others whence and 
by what means the gaxrison was supplied with water, as there is neither trace 
nor probabili^ of the existence of eiuier well or spring ,in the hill upon which 
the Castle is built. I had previously suggested that one source was tiie brook 
which flows through the valley on the north, and a small pond adjacent. 
These, however, would have afforded but an inadequate supply, and in the 
event of siege might have been cut off, while in summer time the streamlet 
would be diy. At a subsequent period we discovered that the chief supply 


The soil, fts yet, has not been very prolific of antiqui- 
ties, still many objects not entirely devoid of interest 
have been exhumed. These include a few encaustic 
tiles, of which I exhibit specimens ; the small example 
bearing a fieur de lys^ I think may be referred to the 
Edwardian period — ^the others are clearly of the 15 th 
century ; they were found with other plain glazed tiles 
in close proximity to the fireplace. These and a few 
fragments of painted glass, deeply opalized, are relics 
which attest the rich decoration of the chief apart- 
ments tenanted oA;en, no doubt, by some of the highest 
and noblest of the land, as well as by the powerful 
Baron who laid the deep and massive foundations, and 
reared so vast and magnificent a pile. Here, too, be- 
neath the fireplace lay the antlered scull of a noble 
stag, which centuries ago had ranged the adjacent 
park, and many tusks of boars which roamed and fed 
in the surrounding forest. One, which must have be- 
longed to a huge beast, measured six inches in length. 
Bones of deer and oxen, upon which the garrison had 
feasted, were plentiful, especially beneath the western 
wall. Shreds of mediaeval pottery were strewed upon 
the grouted floors of the various rooms and elsewhere 
along the walls. Most of it is red — some is coated 
with a green glaze-— other fragments are glazed with 
yellow stripes. The lip of a large pitcher, moulded 
mto a grotesque face five inches long, is a curious and 
interesting specimen of manufacture. The forehead is 
encircled by a wreath or band of a head-dress, em- 
broidered in a lozenge pattern, and two long braids of 
hair depend on eit&r side from the temples to the 
neck ; the chin is beardless, but the upper lip is graced 
with a lon^ curled and drooping moustache. Rude and 
grotesque in the extreme, it might not improbably be 

must haTe been oonveyed from a spring or reserYoir upon Flnmtree HOI^ 
distant nearly a fbrlong to the west, by a pipe which entered the OsBtle beneath the 
wall, in dose proximity to kitchen fireplace. To trace the pi^ to the souree was 
needless had it been possible, for decay and agricultural operations had repeatedly 
severed it, though its course was followed down the slope for some oistance. 
Enough, however, was done to lead to a satis&ctory conclusion that a secret source 
existed whence water was by this means derived ; and that besides at a more remote 
distance there are two perennial springs which might have been rendered avsil- 


intended as a caricature of an exquisite of the time. 
The clay is red and yellow. Among the remains of 
culinary utensils is the bottom of a large mortar, one 
foot in its outer and eight-and-a-half inches in its inner 
diameter, wrought in hard gritstone, and used for 
bruising com or triturating other vegetable substances. 
The implements of iron comprise a large key, the point 
of a sword blade, a pair of scissors, a candle socket 
with spike, which was driven into a wall, a horse-shoe, 
and several large nails, the head of one, the stud for a 
heavy oaken door, measures three-and-a-half by two 
inches square. Only one small silver coin, of the reign 
of Edward I., has at present been discovered; and 
three Nuremberg or Abbey tokens of the common types 
found so frequently all over England; one of these 
bears the legend AVE MARIA ORATI>e. A 
fourth piece, which belongs equally to the not very 
interestmg series of jettons and counters, bears on one 
side an obvious resemblance to the coins of the time. 
The obverse exhibits a king enthroned, the reverse a 
floriated cross. In Castles, Convents, and Baronial 
Halls, these pieces circulated in vast numbers as pseudo- 
moneta. There was also found a piece of very hard 
plaster among the d£bris^ upon which some tenant of 
the apartment to which it belonged had scratched his 
name in faint old English characters — <!Srta94 The 
Christian name is lost. The writing is evidently that 
of a person much above the common rank — ^but it is in 
vain to conjecture who he was or what was his position. 
And upon a fragment of stone moulding in my posses- 
sion is scratched a coat of arms, apparently, " Sem^e 
of crosses form^e, a fess lozengy, or else, **A fess 
lozengy between ten crosses form^e." 

Just before the excavations were begun on the site 
of the Castle, another interesting discovery was acci- 
dentally made in connexion with its history, namely, the 
foundations of the Park-keeper's lod^e, upon the spot 
which I had formerly indicated as its probable site, 
about a quarter of a mile distant on the opposite hill 
towards the north-east, beneath a grass-plot at Mrs. 
Wood's residence. The ground pkn was a simple 


parallelogram divided into two apartments, each fom*- 
teen feet square. The names, you may remember, of 
two of these officers who seem to have been men of 
some consideration are upon record, Hugh le Parker^ 
who held the office in 1284, and Roger de Estwyke, in 

I have now laid before the meeting a detailed report 
of the progress of our excavations, so far as I have 
been able to prosecute them, with the results. If the 
soil has not proved so prolific in objects of antiquarian 
interest as might *have been anticipated, yet in having 
brought to H^t so much of the ground plan of the 
interior which for four centuries has been buried 
beneath the earth, my own expectations have been 
fully realised, and the labour already expended upon 
the work has not been bestowed in vain. 

Much additional information relating to the Castle 
and its history no doubt yet remains to be elicited. It 
may be remembered that at the close of my memoir I 
expressed my belief that if our national archives were 
diligently investigated by those who possessed the 
leisure to make the requisite researches, some records 
of its former history would be found. It has not been 
in my own power to do this : but my friend, William 
Impey, Esq., Deputy Keeper of H.M. Land Revenue 
Records, has discovered in his department a Roll and 
several Royal warrants relating to the repairs of the 
edifice in tne reign of Edward III., the titles of which 
he has been kind enough to send me. The RoU con- 
sists of the following : — 

"Account of Nicholas Raunche, Clerk of the Works of our 
Lord the King in the Castle of Hadlejgh, of payments^ &c., as well 
about repairs of the walls of the said Castle and Mill of Hadleigh, 
as in the repair of the Lodge in the Park of Rayleigh, with the 
enclosure of the Park of Hadleigh, by order of Walter Withers, 
and under the Survey and Control of Godfrey de la Rokele, Sur- 
veyor of the Works of our Lord the "King there, from 28 July, 
45 Edw. HI., to Michas. 46 of same reign.' 

This Roll contains every item of expenditure for work 
and materials. The next document is dated 

« Westmr. 18 Jnly 46 Edw. KL 

^ Warrant under Privy Seal to Nicholas Baunche, Reeve of tha 


Manor of Eastwoode, to deKver to Walter Withers and Godfrey de 
la Rokele, by indenture, the sums of money receiyed by him from 
Roger de Estwick, Keeper of the Park of Hadleigh, Wm. Hunt, 
Keeper of the Park of Thundersley, and John Hunt, Keeper of the 
Park of Rayleigh, on account of Agistment of Beasts and sale of 
Birch underwood in Rayleigh Park, to be expended on the repairs 
of the Castle of Hadleigh and the Mills and Houses there under 
the Suryey and Control of the said Walter and Godfrey." 

Addressed "... 

" A nostre bein aime Nichol ' 
Raunche, P'yost de n'ro manerlo 
de Estwode." 

And a similar Warrant to W. Withers and G. de la 
Rokele to receive the said sums of money for the 
repairs aforesaid. The Indentures between Raunche 
and Withers and de la Rokele are also there. 

These, I trust, are but the first instalment of docu- 
mentary evidences from among the Public Records 
relating to the history of this Castle, if only the requisite 
research be made.* 

In concluding these notes, I would remind the mem- 
bers of our Society that there were as many as nine 
Baronial Castles in this county, that the history of 
nearly every one of them is almost a blank, or at best 
but imperfectly recorded, and indeed I know not if the 
ground plan of any one has been hitherto successMly 
or satisfactorily made out. As they were dismantled 
one by one, Essex being destitute of stone, they became 
the quarries which supplied that material for the repairs, 
enlargement, and erection of churches and other build- 
ings, so that the majority were razed to their founda- 
tions. I have very little doubt that much of the stone 
used in building Leigh Church, and perhaps some 
others in the neighbourhood, was quarried from Had- 
leigh Castle, and that more was not removed is only 
attributed to the fact that more was not required. 
Here, fortunately, the foundations of the entire circuit 
of the walls and outer defences have been preserved, 

* I have since found in the Public Record Office a Eoll and other documents, 
chiefly in Norman Erench, which appear to he duplicates of those in Mr. Impey's 



and although we have not such grand, perfect, and 
imposing remains as the massive Norman keeps of 
Hedingham and Colchester present, we have the whole 
extent and form of the structure clearly defined, and I 
am now in hope that we shall succeed in disclosing 
the general plan and the arrangement of every part. 
Great facilities have been most kindly ofiered at Had- 
leigh. I cannot doubt that the same liberal spirit 
would be evinced elsewhere, and that men will be 
foimd among the archaeologists of Essex to conduct 
and carrv out similar work in their respective localities. 
Excavation, the importance of which nas been so re- 
peatedly insisted on by Mr. Roach Smith, and has been 
attended with such valuable results under the direction 
of himself and other antiquaries upon the sites of the 
Roman Castra of Richborough, Lymne, and Pevensey, 
and more recently on the site of Uriconium, imder the 
superintendence of Mr, Thomas Wright — I would urge 
with equal earnestness upon the members of this 
Societv. I do not know that our time or our labour 
could be better employed in the service of archaeology, 
and in furtherance oi the true objects of the Associa- 
tion, than in recovering or determining the metes and 
bounds, the plan and construction, of the ancient edifices 
in this county. 

Why in the science of archaeology, more than any 
other, should new discoveries be so often left exclusively 
to accident, and the mere casual labour of the spade or 
plough? The sites of some thirty desolated Abbeys 
and nine ruined Castles He at this moment around us 
unexplored, and our Roman remains have as yet been 
but partially investigated. Here is a wide field for really 
practical research. I would say, therefore, supported 
as I am by the decision of the ablest archaeologists, 
that wherever permission can be obtained, whether it be 
upon the site of a Roman Castrum, a Baronial Castle, 
or a ruined Abbey, let members unite in their respective 
localities in some systematic plan of excavation. I 
have shown to-day that much may be done single- 
handed — ^in combination still more may be achieved, — 
and I doubt not that in every instance the results would 


be more tlian adequate to the time and labour bestowed, 
while the reward will be the pleasure of having con- 
tributed, in whatever degree, to our more accurate 
knowledge of the great architectural works of our 
ancestors, of their habits and their mode of life in the 
Cloister, the Castle, or the Hall. Any one with a 
limited knowledge of military architecture who stands 
upon the site of Hadleigh Castle, can, from the bare 
remains, mentally re-construct the entire edifice, re- 
people its hall, and courts, and towers with officers and 
armed retainers, and restore the fabric in all its feudal 
splendour and magnificence. In the words of an old 
writer, " The very genius of Chivalry seems to present 
himself amidst the venerable ruins, with a sternness 
and majesty of air, which show what he once has been, 
and a mixture of disdain for the degenerate posterity 
that despoiled him of his honours. Amid such a scene 
the manly exercises of Knighthood recur to the imagina- 
tion in their full pomp and solemnity ; while every 
patriot feeling beats at the remembrance of the generous 
virtues which were nursed in those schools of fortitude, 
honour, courtesy, and wit — the mansions of our ancient 
nobility. We dwell with a romantic pleasure on these 
vestiges of former hospitaUty and munificence, the 
pride and omamejit of England : that munificence 
which was open to all, but particularly to the noble and 
courteous — and to the minstrel, the honoured recorder 
of their splendour and festivity : thus exciting the first 
efforts of wit and fancy, and therefore largely contri- 
buting to every species of polite learning."* 

These, Sir, I believe are some among the feelings, 
pleasures, and reflections which arise in the pursuit of 
archaeology — it is not all dry, weary plodding among 
the faded records of antiquity and laborious digging 
upon historic sites — at all events these labours meet 
their full reward. On these grounds let me urge others 
in this large and important county, so rich in antiquarian 
and historical remains, to join our ranks, that we may 
more widely extend the operations of the Society, and 
that they also may enjoy the fruit of our united labour 
and research. 

* *' Bargesfi on the Study of Antiquities,'* with references to '' Kurd's Dialogue 
on the Age of Queen Elizabcth."^p. 172, note u, of Vol. I., and pp. 177> 178. 




By Edwakd 0. Hakewill. 

Befoke attempting to describe the Church of St. 
John in its more interesting or ancient condition, a few 
words may mark its present state, now fast receding 
from our view. We know that the once normal con- 
dition of our parish Churches is now, within the period 
of one generation, becoming rare, and the sad desecra- 
tions, familiar to us in our youth, may be unknown to 
our children, except historically ; though by the word 
desecration I do not mean to imply a spirit of hostility 
to the Church, or of irreverence ; rather, a diflferent 
phase of a zeal for religion which produced what we 
now properly regard in that light. 

The conaition of the Church, prior to its present 
restoration, may be said to have been first produced 
in the time of Queen Anne. The windows were re- 
glazed, wooden mullions and frames substituted where 
the stonework was decayed, and whatever stained glass 
there may have been was replaced by white quarry 
glass, the only portion of the old glass now left being 
tne hoof of an ass and part of an inscription. The 
tower, blocked up to form a vestry, was separated from 
the nave by a double line of partitions. The galleries 
extended half way into the nave, up to the north and 
south doorways, and the whole interior was encumbered 
with large and lofty boarded enclosures, which formed 
the pews, and which grew higher towards the east. 
These and the high centre pulpit entirely screened the 
chancel, and when it was gained the visitor was lost 
to the nave, and the readiest exit was by a door cut 
through the sedilia. 

The advantage to be gained in that pew-loving age 


by cutting through the walls was not lost sight of. 
On the south side the entire space between the two 
buttresses had been cut out, and while a wooden 
window filled the sp^ce above, a family pew was ob- 
tained below, with its own external d6or. The same 
arrangement for a somewhat smaller family was made 
in the north wall. 

As in the interior, one uniform whitewash covered 
ceiling and walls; so on the outside, one coating of 
stucco brought brick, stone, and wood to one uniform 
appearance, save where a brick porch covered and 
mutilated the old south doorway, and excepting the top 
wooden story of the tower ; but here, when the plasterer 
left off, the painter went on. The Clactonians of Queen 
Anne's time were not guilty of all here described, but 
they originated this state of things by what was then 
a thorough restoration. They put a new roof on to 
both nave and chancel, and formed the present ceilings 
under them. They formed the galleries, re-pewed the 
Church, and built the pulpit. They formed the wooden 
reredos in the then modem classic style, and the balus- 
trade for an altar rail. But in more recent times " the 
Churchwardens, William Angier and Joseph Thorpe, 
in 1736," extended the galleries ; and a reason is urged 
against the removal of the wooden belfry and present 
incongruous spire, erected in 1810, because both the 
cost and those who incurred it, are still remembered 
in the parish. 

" Semper eadem," the motto on the royal arms of 
Queen Anne, which hang in the Church, seems to teach 
how we may change and change, and be yet the same. 
Few Churches can have seen more changes than this. 
Its walls may have echoed the Te Deum from Saxon 
and Dane, from Roman and Norman, in Latin, and 
" English of the vulgar tongue." 

That there was a Roman building existing before the 
Norman Church, is evident from the quantity of Roman 
tiles and brick used by the Normans, who, about the 
year 1050, seem to have built the entire fabric of the 
Church we now see, with the exception of the tower. 

The Church seems to have been re-built within the 


Norman period, for fragments of Norman work are 
found in the substance of the Norman walls. 

It is extremely possible that the heavy groined roof 
that once covered the building proved too much for the 
constructive powers of the builders, and that it may 
have given way shortly after its completion, bringing 
with it a portion of the walls, and that in the re-build- 
ing the idea of the groined roof was abandoned, when 
they arrived at the springing. 

The springing or commencement of the arch remains 
on each of the piers, but without the slightest appear- 
ance of ruin ; in fact it shows itself to be a discontinued 
work by its uniformity on each of the internal piers. 

The piers are constructed as to their quoins, both 
internally and externally, for the most part with Roman 
tile, and the springing of the groin shows the same 
construction ; the abacus or capping from which the 
arches spring being the only part constructed of stone. 
The abacus on the two western piers is missing, and 
one has been discovered, used externally, on the north- 
west buttress. These springing stones are of the 
plainest type, the only approach to ornamentation, be- 
yond the mere moulding, being on the east side of one 
of the south piers, east of the doorway, and this was 
entirely concealed by its insertion in the wall. 

A remarkable uniformity prevails in the north and 
south walls of the nave, consisting of a central door- 
way, with a window over it, and one on either side, 
the side windows being somewhat longer than those 
over the doorways, but in other respects alike. What 
the original chancel was is not so apparent, but the 
existing walls seem to be on the old foundations, and 
a portion of the south wall appears to be of Norman 
work, and doubtless the two present windows occupy 
the places of two Norman windows of the same 
character as those in the nave.* At the west end a 
Norman turret staircase, which still exists, with its 
Norman doorway, led up to a wooden belfry con- 

* Since this report was written fragments of bases of oolamns and of jambs, 
formed of Roman tile, have been found in the south wall of the chancel, between 
the two Decorated windows. They eyidently formed the two Norman windows of 
the original chancel. 

ST. John's church, clacton magna. 85 

stnicted in the roof, just above the OTOined ceiling^ 
and the principal timbers of this belfry still remain 
below the present roof. This would, therefore, mark 
the western termination of the building before the 
tower was added ; and from the number of fragments 
of Norman columns, with their caps and bases, which 
have been discovered, we may conclude that there was 
a Norman western doorway similar to those in the 
north and south walls. In the 14th century fragments 
of Norman columns were used as internal quoins to 
the south windows of the chancel, and the piscina is 
curiously involved in this construction. In the sub- 
stance of the portion of the east wall thai has been 
pulled down, a considerable amount also of Early 
English work has been discovered, probably indicating 
arcaded w6rk, which in the 12th and 13th centuries 
may have enriched the east wall, co-existing with the 
Norman windows. 

It is evident that up to this period there had been 
no internal plastering. The stone work scantily used, 
the Roman tiles as quoins, and the rubble work for the 
general walling, being all exposed to view. 

The south windows of the chancel were remodelled 
in the Decorated period, and the sedilia and piscina 
formed, and probably the two windows on either side 
of the south doorway of the nave ; and it was at this 
period that the splay of the windows on either side of 
the south doorway was enlarged, for on this excess of 
splay we found the first coat . of plastering, continued 
from the entire surface, and the hint given by this 
enlargement of the splay of the window was not lost 
upon those who came after ; they continued this cutting 
down to the floor, and made the uncomfortable pews 
before described. 

The greatest alteration seems to have taken place in 
the 15th century. The western tower, though doubt- 
less added about the 13th century, received now as 
insertions its present dilapidated west window, its 
west doorway, and its arch opening into the nave. 
The tower had been carried to a greater height, and is 
said to have been surmounted by a shingle spire. It 


is more probable that it had a stone spire, the fall of 
which would account for the state of ruin the upper 
part of the tower exhibits. 

The font is of this period, and was placed on proper 
steps at the tower arch — one, or part of one, of those 
steps is still in its place, though the font itself has been 
put on one side ; but though of a very common type it 
IS well worthy of careful restoration, having on three of 
its panels representations of the Holy Trinity, and on 
the other five the emblems of the Passion, carried by 

A little later in this (the 15th) century the east wall 
of the Church must have given up its Norman win- 
dows to receive the present debased and dilapidated 
Perpendicular window. 

The Church was re-pewed, but of this pewing but 
one bench end alone remains. 

The windows were filled with stained glass, of which 
the one fragment before alluded to alone remains. 

The walls were then covered, at any rate to the 
height of six feet from the floor, with rich colour, and 
so continued, in succession, varieties of colour, green, 
chocolate, and blue, with a vermillion band, till the time 
of whitewash and Queen Anne, with which this descrip- 
tion commenced. 

There is a peal of five bells in the tower, two of 
which say that " Miles Gray made me in 1649," and 
three say "Thomas Gardiner, fecit 1721." 

It will now suffice to tell what we are doing in the way 
of restoration ; humbly, both as regards our means and 
our ability, but earnestly, as regards our sense of the 
value and importance of the work, and full of hope that 
if we may substantially bring back the fabric to some- 
thing like its pristine state, others may come after us 
with more ample means, and bring back the whole of 
that lost glory which once belonged to it, and should 
ever mark the House of the Lord. 

We have cleared out the whole of the pewing and 
galleries, and the great preaching tower, and so opened 
the Church from east to west a noble length of 120 

ST. John's church, clacton magna. 87 

To compensate for the loss of the galleries, an aisle 
has been added on the north side of the chancel, open- 
ing into the chancel by an arcade of two arches of 
Norman character. The aisle is, externally, quite 
hidden from view, and the north wall of the chancel 
taken down to receive it, was wholly without archi- 
tectural interest, and much dilapidated, so that none of 
the peculiar features of the Church are lost by this 
arrangement. The dilapidated Perpendicular east win- 
dow has given place to a triplet of Norman windows. 
The sedilia, and Decorated window over it, which only 
wanted its cill and mullion, have been restored, and the 
adjoining window on this side, which was wholly 
wanting as to its stone work, has been formed to cor- 
respond; both these windows possess the peculiarity 
of having their internal jambs formed of old Norman 

One of the three arches which formerly spanned the 
nave has been completed, and forms the chancel arch, 
under which is a dwarf stone screen, forming the 
entrance to the chancel. 

All the nave windows have been restored to their 
former condition, and the two beautiful doorways re- 

The font is replaced in the centre of the tower arch, 
and raised agkin on proper steps. 

We have not touched the slate spire or the boarded 
belfry, but the tower, as far as it existed in substantial 
material, has been thoroughly repaired. 

All the external stucco has been removed, and the 
whole of the facing renewed and repaired, where de- 
fective, preserving as much as possible of the old work, 
and especially preserving the old manner of forming 
the quoins and arches with the old Roman tiles. A 
nave gable has been built over the chancel arch, and 
both gables surmounted by stone crosses. 

For the pewing the one old bench end formed the 
model on which all the new are made, and it may now 
be seen taking its place among them, only showing 
that its surface was once carved, which we have not 



had fimds to do with the others. This may yet be 

The east windows will be filled with stained glass, 
and we may hope that in time the others will be also. 

The walls and ceilings we may hope to see covered 
with anpropriate colour, especialfy the reredos, and the 
chancel laid with Encaustic tiles ; and we may hope 
eventually to see the spire and the upper part of the 
tower re-built 



Before brick was introduced, in the 15th century, 
as the common building material of stoneless districts, 
the good oak timber, which our English forests fur- 
nished in cheap abundance, was the common buildin| 
material of the country. Even the Romans, who usei 
brick extensively in Britain, seem to have built many 
of their villas of timber — only the foundations of the 
walls being of less perishable material. The Saxons 
seem to have had few buildings of stone ; their manor 
houses, monasteries, and churches seem to have been* 
nearly all of timber. The Normans were the great 
masons, and they adorned the land with stately stone 
buildings, both secular and ecclesiastical. But, even 
down to the 16th century, the dwellings of the great 
mass of the people, from the small gentry downwards, 
were almost universally of timber. One cannot help 
suspecting that when the manor houses were so often 
of timber, the churches must not infrequently have 
been of timber also. And there is some evidence that 
they were so, oftener, perhaps, than has been commonly 
supposed. We find representations of churches and 
religious houses, in illuminated MSS., not uncommonly 
of timber, and we find a number of actually existin| 
remains of timber work in churches. The earliest an( 
most curious of all the timber churches in the kingdom 
is in Essex, and Essex possesses an unusual amount 
of later mediaeval timber-work in its churches, so 
that the subject has a special interest for Essex Anti- 
quaries. We have, therefore, thought that it might be 


acceptable to our members to re-print in our Journal 
the substance of several papers on the subject, which 
appeared two years ago in several numbers of the 
Building News, which are now out of print ; this we 
do with the permission of the writer of the papers, who 
is one of our members, and we have to make our ac- 
knowledgments to the Editor of the Building News for 
his kind and liberal permission to make use of the cuts 
with which the papers were originally illustrated. 

The first of the series is one of the most curious 
architectural relics in the kingdom. It is a veritable 
example of the rude log churches which our Saxon 
ancestors used to build in the far-oflF days, before the 
Norman Conquest. Its preservation to the present day, 
and in a very perfect and unaltered condition, owing, 
doubtless, to the peculiar sanctity which attached to the 
building as having been the temporary shrine of the re- 
mains ff S. Ea.L>d the Kmg'Lri.artyr, ie » very 
remarkable fact. This Saxon log church forms the ex- 
isting nave of the present parish church of Greenstead, 
near Ongar. A brick chancel has been added on the east, 
and a timber tower built to its west end, and a porch 
applied to its south side, and a modem tiled roof has 
replaced the original one, which was, perhaps, thatched 
with reeds ;* but there the old Saxon church stiU stands 
with its log walls, happily uninjured by insertions, and 
very little afifected by the wind and weather of 800 or 
900 years. It is composed of the outsides or slabs of 
large oak trees, though some imagine them to be ches- 
nut. They are not, as usually described, " half trees," 
or trees split asunder, but have had a portion of the 
centre or neart cut out, probably to furnish beams for 
the construction of the roof and sills. These slabs are 
set upright, side by side, close to one another, with the 
roima side outwards. The ends are roughly hewn so 
as to fit into a sill at the bottom, and into a plate at the 

* The cliuTch which Finan built at Lmdisfani, when he founded there the 
religious establishment to which half England owes its Christianity, was of the 
same character. Bede tells us that he built a church for his Episcopal See, which 
was composed not of stone, but more scottorum of cleft wood, covered with reeda — 
(de robore secto totum composuit atque harundine tezit.) 


top, into which they are fastened with wooden pins, as 
ahown in tiie accompanying wood-cut There are 16 of 


tiiese logs on the south side, and two door posts ; on 
the north side there are 21 logs, and two vacancies now 
filled up with plaster. The church thus formed was 
about 30 feet Ions by 14 feet wide, and the log walls are 
5 feet 6 inches high. There are no original windows 
left, and happily the mediaeval and modem restorers 
have not injured the walls by any subsequent insertion 
of windows, but have, with very good taste, obtained 
the li^ht they needed by dormers in Ihe roof^ two on 
each side. The light may have been originally obtained 
from a window at the east end, and there may possibly 
have been two lights on the north side, where the two 
vacancies occur. 

As to the date of it, it certainly is not later than the 
year 1013 a.d., and it maybe earlier than that. The 
county historians tell us that when the body of S. 
Edmund was being translated from Loudon to Bury S. 
Edmund's, in the year 1013, along the high road of 
Essex, which then ran through Ongar, the bearers 
rested for a night here, and this little church was built 


to receive the sainted body during its night's halt. But 
it seems quite compatible with the evidence which they 
adduce that the cnurch already existed here, and that 
the body was deposited in it because it afforded an 
appropriate resting place.* There is no evidence that 
a church was bmlt at each stopping place between 
London and Bury, as the Eleanor crosses were built 
wherever that Queen's body rested for a night between 
Lincolnshire and London; and there seems no reason 
why a church should have been built at this particular 
halting place. We incline, therefore, to the opinion 
that the church already existed there in 1013 a.d. The 
chancel is a brick building of the date of Henry VIIL, 
with moulded brick mullions and tracery in its west, 
east, and side windows, and it has one of the " low side 
windows," which have so long puzzled the ecclesiolo- 
gists, on its south side. 

From the 11th century we pass at a bound over 400 
years, of which we find no remaining example of a 
wooden church, down to the 15th Century, in which we 
have a rather considerable number of examples of 
timber church work. 

But we may partially fill up the gap by a few notes 
of the representations of timber erections in the illumi- 
nated MSS. In a 14th century MS. of " Froissart's 
History," preserved in the British Museum, and known 
by the press-mark Harleian 4379, at folio 3, are two 
towers m a city view, which are built of timber, and 

* The corpse of S. Edmund on its return from London to Bury 8. Edmund's 
was, as Lydgate, a monk of that monastery, informs us, conyeyed in a chest In a 
MS. entitled " The Life and Passion of S. Edmund," preserved at Lambeth 
Palace, it is recorded that in the year 1010 (30th of Ethelredjl the body of 8. 
Edmund was removed to London on account of the invasion oi tiie Banes ; but 
that at the expiration of three years it was returned to Bedriceworth (Bury S. 
Edmund's), and that it was received on its return from London at Stapleford And 
in another MS. cited by Dugdale in his '* Monasticon," and entitled " The Begister 
of 8. Edmund's Bur^," it is further added, " he was sheltered near Aungre, where a 
wooden chapel remams as a memorial unto this day." The parish of Aungre, or 
Ongar, herein mentioned, adjoins that of G-reenstead, where this church is situated, 
and through which the ancient road from London into Suffolk passed ; and no doubt 
has ever oeen entertained that this rough and unpolished &bric of oak is the 
"wooden chapel near Aungre." A tradition has ever since existed in the village 
that the bones of a Saxon monarch once rested in this church ; and although 
tradition does in some cases nourish erroneous opinions, yet when, as in the present 
case, it is found to be divested of all fable, and conforms itself so exactly to tha 
records of history, and to existing monuments of antiquity, it must be granted to 
afford very strong additional testimony. — " Suckling's Memoiiali." 


present some ctuious features. Both of them have 
clocks — early instances — and one of them has a kind 
of open belvidere at the top, which is finished with a 
comer pinnacle. A hermitage, represented at folio 55 
of the " Histoire de Lamicelot du Lac " (Add. 10, 292), 
a MSS. of date 1316 a.d., has its upper part of timber, 
with cusped barge boards in the gables. The entrance 
gate of a " white abbey," at folio 94 of the early 14th 
century, " Roman du San Graal " (Royal 14, E. III.), 
has its upper story of timber. A monastery, in another 
MS. of about the same date, has also its upper works of 

We may be allowed to give a few notes of the instances 
of timber work in civil architecture which appear in the 
same MSS., some of which are very interesting. It 
would seem to have been common for the houses of 
this century to have timber balconies to their windows, 
supported by carved struts set in the wall. There are 
good representations of them in folios 67, 70, and 108 
of the early 14th century MSS., "Histoire Universelle" 
(Royal 20, 1). 1). There is a balcony to a tower win- 
dow, and a timber erection on the top of the tower ; 
sometimes a kind of open belvidere, formed by uprights 
supporting a roof ; sometimes a kind of battlement 
earned at some distance beyond the wall face on struts, 
and we may conjecture that openings would be left be- 
tween the timbers of the floor to serve for machicolations. 
There are other examples in the early 14th century 
" Histoire du San Graal" (Add. 10, 292). These timber 
works add much to the picturesque effect of the towers ; 
they were no doubt commonly painted in gay colours ; 
covered with lead, the ornamental cresting and vanes 

filded ; and a flag waved from the summit ; the effect 
eing of the same class as that which has been produced 
in more substantial material in the clock tower and the 
Victoria tower of the Palace of Westminster. 

In the absence of timber churches, we may take a 
timber monastic hall of the period as a fair representa- 
tive of the style of architecture of the similar sacred build- 
ing. The hall of Malvern Abbey, Worcestershire, now 
no longer standing, but well known from the engraving 


of it in the ** Plates of the Glossary of Architecture " 
(under the head " Roofs "), is a fine example of about 
the middle of the 14th century. 

The earliest actually existing example of a mediaeval 
timber church we have met with is that of Marton, 
Cheshire, which is of the 15th century. 

It has north and south aisles, and the arcades between 
the nave and aisles have fine octagonal pillars, each 
hewn 'out of a tree, with the usual capital and base 
mouldings of the period ; and the arches also are formed 
of timber. The side waUs are^ half timbered, t.e., are 
formed of wooden studs set at intervals in a sill which 
rests on a low foundation wall, the intermediate spaces 
being filled in with plaster, the nrevailing fashion of the 
15th century manor houses of the neighbourhood. The 
windows in these walls are square-headed, the shape 
which most naturally falls in with the construction of 
the walls, with mullions and good perpendicular tracery. 

If we may run across the Channel for another 
example, there is a remarkable one no further off than 
Honfleur, at the mouth of the Seine. It is a large and 
lofty half-timbered 15th century Church, consisting of 
two equal bodies, with a row of piUars down the middle, 
and two low narrow aisles ; it has wooden mullions and 
tracery in the windows of its aisles and clerestory. Inside 
it has two narrow galleries, not placed in the aisles, but 
in the position of triforial gallenes. It has a tower and 
a spire, also of timber^ standing detached at the west 
end of the church, with the street between, with old 
buildings picturesquely clustered about the base of the 

To return home again, we find a good deal of very 
interesting timber work in the churches of Essex. The 
timber belfries are so common as to form quite a 
characteristic feature of Essex churches and Essex land- 
scape. In the commonest type of these belfries nothing 
appears externally but the upper part of the bell- 
chamber cropping through the west end of the nave 
roof, in the shape of a very humble-looking bell-cot 
covered with weather boarding, which is usually painted 
white. At first sight the whole thing looks modem and 


poor in construction, though there is something in the 
'"■"""•^'"ns and in the 
stic quaintneBB 
>uld ^ease tiie 
n artist. But, 
sitor would go 
le church and 
the conBtruc- 
one of these 
humble bell- 
cots, he would 
be surprised to 
find that it is 
built up from 
the ground 
with a scientific 
framework of 
old oak timbers 
of wonderful 
girth, which 
have sustained 
the vibration of 
a ring of bella 
for three or four 
centuries with- 
out starting a 
joint ; and be- 
hind the mo- 
dem weather- 
boarding of the 
bell-cot ne will 


' iina massive 

timbers pictuesquely framed and sometimes belfry- 
lights with curious oak tracery. 

As an example of this type of belfry, we will take 
that of Mountneseing. We cnoose it because there are 
some other features of interest in the church besides. 
Externally it is a very ugly, modern-looking church, 
with a vast expanse of tiled roof to the nave, and a 
hideous modem brick chancel. The west end of the 
ohurch, which is presented in the accompanying wood- 


cut, is the best external view. It is of brick work, of 
late 15th century date, or, perhaps, even later ; and there 
is something not unpicturesque in its broad canted gable. 
But the eccTesiologist would be very hkely to pass it by 
under the persuasion that there was nothing within to 
repay the trouble of borrowing the key at the neighbour- 
ing manor-house. On entering it, however, he would be 
agreeably surprised to find that the church is old, con- 
sisting of a nave and aieles of three baye, of early Eng- 
lish date, with rather curious foliage sculptured on some 
of the capitals. In the 15th century the two western 
arches were walled up, as shown in the accompanying 
plan ; and within the western bay of the nave thus 

enclosed was erected the timber belfry, whose exterior 
appearance is given in the preceding sketch, and whoso 
construction we have now to describe. A brick founda- 
tion was first laid round the north, west, and east sides, 
within the walls ; and upon this brick foundation were 
laid sills of massive timber. Four main piers were 
placed at the comers, which sustain the whole weight 
of the superstructure. A timber arch with moulded 
piers, bases, capitals, and arch mouldings, was thrown 
across the opening looking towards the church, to form 



an ornamental tower arch. The mouldings of the capital 
are of good perpendicular character, the base is de- 
stroyed ; the arch is simply chamfered. The north and 
south sides were subdivided in their height; and the 
west end had a timber arch thrown over the doorway, 
and the rest of the timbers picturesquely framed, so as 
to form a handsome termination to the vista seen from 
the nave, through the timber belfry arch. 

In the accompanying wood cut we give an elevation 
of the east side of the belfry, right across the church, 

in order to show the 
construction of its 
framing. It wiU be 
noticed in the plan 
that the dimensions 
of this belfry are 
greater from north to 
south than from east 
to west ; but in the 
upper stage of the 
framing mis is re- 
duced to a perfect 
square by two cross 
beams which are car- 
ried on brackets, in- 
serted at c c. The 
floor of the bell 
chamber is at d d. 
This floor is artificially 
framed, as indicated 
in dotted lines on 
the plan ; diagonal 
moulded arches, 
springing from the 
angles of the square 
frame work at level c c, meet in the centre and help to 
sustain it. Seen from beneath, these skeleton arches, 
with the ornamental pattern of the floor joists, have a 
verv good effect. The original stair to the bell chamber 
still remains. It runs up parallel with the south side of 
the belfiy, and consists simply of two sloping beams, 




witii steps fastened upon their tipper surface, formed of 
the halves of 8<^uare blocks of wood, which have been 
sawn asunder diagonally into triangular prisms. In the 
bell chamber there are arched windows in the four sides^ 
with abundant evidence about them that the heads have 
been cusped or traceried. The stability of the frame work 
was still further provided for by great timber shores 
which stretched across the north and south aisles, 
springing from a and J, and forming flying buttresses 
to the timber tower. A careful examination of the 
upper part of the spire will show that, above the oak 
Bningles which cover it. it is finished with a coping 
of lead, which is curiously turned back into a fan-like 
shape, out of which springs the iron-bound staff which 
carries the vane. This appears to be original ; the spire 
of Shenfield Church, in the same neighbourhood, is 
similarly finished. 

Here, in the next wood cut, is a variety of the 
common type, where, instead of the bell-cot cropping 

out of the roof benind 
the western gable, the 
point of the gable is 
cut off, and the side of 
the bell-cot rests on the 
western wall. In the 
example here given, 
which is at Button, 
near Brentwood, the 
belfry is not close 
boarded, as in the 
majority of cases, but 
has Venetian weather 
boards, intended, of 
course, for the better 
escape of the sound 
of me enclosed bells. 
The reader would, per- 
haps, hardly suspect, 
Hx^H cH^. w«t «.. ^ from this weeteri 
facade, that the nave has aisles, but such is the case, 
and the church affords a very good example of the fine 



effect which may be produced by good proportions, even 
when on a small scale. The nave and aisles are very 
small, but from their well managed proportions look 
larger than they are, and the height, especially, gives 
quite an imposing air to the interior. There is also a 
nicely designed timber south porch : the effect of the 
west end, shadowed by tall elms, with a group of yews 
on the south side, as seen from the church path across 
the fields, is a charming rural picture. 

At Bowers Gifford is another variety. The western 

tower is of stone, and in another 
county would probably have 
been finished either with a stone 
parapet, or with an ordinary 
spire, but the Essex architect 
finished it with a characteristic 
wooden bell-cot, of which we 
give an outline. The church 
owns the fine military brass of 
a knight of the Gifford family, 
from which the parish takes its 
second name.* The brass is at 
present deposited at the Rectory 


In the preceding examples of timber belfries, the 
lower part of the framework which carries the bell cote 
is enclosed within the west end of the church, and only 
the bell cote itself appears externally, cropping througn 
the roof. There is another type, m which the lower 
stage of a stone tower is built on to the west end of the 
church, and serves to contain the lower part of the 
framing upon which a timber bell chamber is carried, 
the bell chamber being weather-boarded, and usually 
surmounted by a spire. This is the case at Shenfield, a 
church of which we shall have to speak more at length 
hereafter. The tower of Bowers Gifford is an example 
in which the stone tower is carried to the unusual 
height of two storeys. At Marks Tey the lower stage 
of the tower is of rubble, with a brick newel stair m 

* Engiaved in the ** Tranaactioiu of tlie Essex Axchssological Society/' VoL L, 
p. 95. 



the angle ; and the upper stage of the tower is of 
timber, covered externally with planks, which are fixed 
vertically instead of horizontally, completing the outline 
and proportions of an ordinary tower. At Greenstead, the 
tower attached to the west end of the Saxon log church, 
already described, consists of a framework of timber 
only, without any supporting walls, and is weather- 
boarded from top to bottom, and surmounted by a tall, 
slender spire. The result, we are free to confess, is not 
very satisfactory. The tower is too slender for its 
height, and with the modem-looking weather-boarding, 
it looks altogether, as may be seen by a reference to the 
engraving, like a rather unsubstantial piece of modem 

But, in the more usual way of constructing these 
timber towers, the lower stage of the tower is much 
larger on the plan than the upper stage, and from the 
outer square of the plan timber shores are set up to 
strengthen the main timbers of the belfry. These 
shores are covered in with a sloping roof, which gives 
to the tower the appearance of having a kind of lean-to 
aisle all round ; and this addition gives a very unusual 
and very picturesque outline to the whole structure. 
We get also in these timber towers, timber arched 
doors and windows with wooden tracery, which are 
curious and picturesque. 

The tower of Stock Church is a very picturesque 
example of this class. It is added on to the west end 
of an earlier church of stone rubble, which consists of a 
chancel, a nave, and aisles, with a south porch. We 
have given a plan of it and elevations, and a section of 
its internal construction, to help us to make our explana- 
tion more complete and intelligible. The external square 
of the plan A, B, C, D, fig. 1 (see plate), has a foundation 
of bricK, and upon that foundation is laid a sill of square 
beams of timber ; there are also two foundation walls, 
E F, G H, built east and west within the square, upon 
which also are laid great sills of timber ; and upon these 
two inner sills are placed the feet of the four upright 
timbers upon which the main structure of the tower 
is carried. The principal weight rests upon these four 


uprights of the inner square ; those of the outer square, 
with the struts which spring from them, are a system of 
shores or flying buttresses, which help to strengthen the 
main framework to resist — not so much the thrust of the 
spire — as the vibration caused by the swing of the bells. 
A glance at the vertical section of the framework, fig. 2, 
which is taken through the line ef^ will show the con- 
struction of the framework. It is formed of massive 
beams of good oak timber, put together with wooden 
pins, and looks as unshaken as on the day it was put 
up. The main piers, viz., those of the inner square, are 
moulded, the section of the moulding being given in 
the drawing, the inner order of mouldmg running con- 
tinuously under the timber arches of the lower stage of 
the framing. The floor of the bell chamber is at the 
height of the second stage of the framing, viz., at g Ji^ 
and four arched and moulded struts spring diagonally 
from the angles of the lower tie-beams and meet in the 
centre beneath this floor, forming a kind of skeleton 
groining to help to carry the floor ; the point of their 
common intersection is marked by a carved boss. The 
lower stage of framing in the bell chamber is also of 
interlaced struts, but in the upper part of the framing 
are two uprights, from which arched struts support the 
plates from which the timbers of the spire spring ; and 
between these pairs of upright beams are the windows 
which light the bell chamber and give exit to the sound 
of the bells, these windows have traces which indicate 
that they were originally cusped or traceried in the 
head. We give, in fig. 3, an exterior elevation of the 
west side of the tower and spire, in order to give an 
idea of its picturesque outline. The spire, it will be 
seen, is of taller proportions than those which surmount 
the bell cotes cropping through the roof. It is covered 
with shingles, and the apex is finished with lead, worked 
over rolls at the angles in a very neat and workmanlike 
manner, and from this springs the iron rod which carries 
the vane ; the whole being apparently original work. 
The bell chamber is weather-boarded outside, the lean-to 
roof is covered with tiles, and the lower stage is boarded 
vertically, with laths covering the junction of the boards. 


The weather-boarding seems to be modem, but is very 
probably a reproduction of the original work. In the 
west side is the doorway, with moulded jambs and 
traceried spandrils, the tracery being coimtersunk in the 
thickness of the timber. Over the door is a long light, 
fig, 5, divided into three squares, which are quatrefoiled 
and cusped in a very rich and efiective maimer. This 
window seems never to have been glazed ; at present 
it is covered with a shutter, which is hinged at the 
upper side, and is opened and shut by a rope and 
counter-weight ; very probably this is the original 
arrangement. The south elevation, fig. 4, presents 
some important differences in detail. We give a 
drawing of it, to help our explanation, and to give a 
notion of its picturesque effect. The eastern side of 
the lower stage of the tower is not sloped off to 
the belfry stage, but its roof is extended to the west 
wall of the church, and it affords a support to an 
eastern extension of the bell chamber, which is intended 
to afford accommodation for an additional number of 
bells. This projection has a gable roof of its own, and 
makes a picturesque addition to the elevation of the 
tower. A similar enlargement of the bell chamber on 
the eastern side is usual in this class of timber belfries. 
In the lower stage of this south elevation there is also a 
large window, with a four-centred arch and fair Tudor 
tracery, all executed in timber. The charming situation 
of the church adds veir much to its picturesque effect 
It stands on the brow of a hill, and the traveller alonj 
the high road sees it across the village green, shades 
by a group of tall elm trees. The rectory on one side 
and a farm house on the other, and a group of cottages 
on a bit of broken ground by the road-side, make up an 
unusually pretty bit of rural landscape. 

At Margaretting Church, in the same neighbourhood, 
there is another example o^ a timber tower, of large 
dimensions and more elaborate construction. The 
church itself presents some other interesting examples 
of timber-wort. The roofs are of excellent construc- 
tion, with richly moulded and embattled wall-plates. 
The original colouring of the nave roof remains in a 


fair state of preservation ; it is of late date, and of 
rather rude cnaracter, but is certainly an improvement 
to the general effect of the interior. The rood-screen, 
also, is well worthy of notice. The tie-beam, and the 
boarding above it which fiUed up the opening between 
the screen and the roof, remain ; the tracery has dis- 
appeared, but the close panelling of the lower portion 
of the screen remains, and has some late florid tracery 
in the panels. The original doors of the screen also 
remain, which is very seldom the case, hung upon their 
original hinges. Another feature of rare occurrence is 
the lower part of the screen which ran across the south 
nave aisle to divide off the eastern bay for a mortuary 
chapel. The church also boasts of two timber porches ; 
the north porch, which is unusually perfect, is of 
very good design, massively framed and handsomely 
moulded, with elaborate tracery in the side openings, 
and feathered barge boards. 

The timber tower is added on to the west end of the 
nave, and is wider than the width of the nave, being 
not less than 24 ft. square on the plan. In the general 
principles of its plan and construction, it resembles the 
tower at Stock, but it is larger in dimensions, more 
elaborate in details, and has characteristic features of its 
own, and is altogeliier a finer and more imposing work. 
The plan, as is shown in the diagram, fig. 1 (see plate), 
consists, as at Stock, of an inner and outer square ; the 
great uprights at the corners of the inner square being 
the mam supports of the superstructure. These rest 
6n massive sflls of wood 19 m. broad by 15 in. deep, 
which are bedded on two dwarf waUs of concreted 
rubble running east and west. The outer square affords 
scope for the struts or timber flying buttresses, which 
help to steady the huge framework against the vibration 
caused by the bells. Besides the great principals at 
the comers, there are other uprights, as will be seen in 
the plan, resting on the same lines of sill, and helping 
to support and strengthen the structure. Moulder 
timber arches are thrown across these pairs of timber 
piers ; they are of lofty height, well proportioned, and 
ornamented with handsome mouldings cut in the sub- 



stance of the timber, and form^ to a spectator in the 
nave, a very remarkable looking arcade of massive 
timber arches. The section, fig. 2, through the eastern- 
most pair of principal uprights, will show the pro- 
portions of these arches and the framing of the rest of 
the timbers in this section of the construction. The 
mouldings consist of two orders, with ♦chamfered edges, 
and are continued through the arch without either base 
or capital. The framing of the next stage is very 
simple, and needs no description, and in the bell 
chamber the original framing nas been cut about and 
modernized to such an extent that we have omitted it 
from our drawing. It very probably resembled the 
framing of the other side of the same chamber, as 
shown in the drawing. The spirelet which surmounts 
the whole structure is shorter than at Stock, but more 
slender than at Mountnessing. Figure 3 is a section, 
from west to east, through the principal and inter- 
mediate uprights, along the length of the northern sill. 
Here the four timber piers are seen in full, with the 
picturesque arrangement of the struts between. Here, 
again, it will be seen there is an eastern appendage to 
the bell chamber, carried over the sub-structure, which 
abuts on the church, giving a considerable increase to 
the size of the upper stages of the tower. Four original 
bells still hang upon their original frames, arranged 
against the sides of the bell chamber so as to leave a 
well-hole in the middle, which serves for the entrance ; 
we borrow a description of the bells from Mr. G. Buck- 
ler's " Twenty-two Churches of Essex :" — " Each bell 
has a dedication in old English letters of fine character. 
That to Saint Margaret has extremely bold capitals, 
enriched with crowns. The tenor (3ft. 2in. in diameter) 
has In multis resonet campana Johannis, and a mer- 
chant's mark ; the next + Sit nomen Domini Bene- 
DiCTUM ; the St. Margaret bell, Sancta Marqareta ora 
PRO NOBIS. The smallest and most ancient bell, dedicated 
to St. John, has figures of saints, impressions of coins, 
and other devices on the shoulder, and a gridiron on 
the body of the bell ; part of the incription, Sancte 
Johannes or ' ' nobis, has been defaced. This bell is, 


perhaps, the oldest in the county of Essex, and may be 
considered the work of the latter part of the 14th 

The plan and sections &om west to east, and from 
north to south, give the constniction of this fine and 
remarkable tower in a way which will enable the reader 
entirely to reconstruct its huge timber skeleton to his 
mind's eye. It only remains to cover in the spire with 
its shingles ; to put the weather-boarding, which is 
modern, on the upper stages of the tower ; to tile the 
sloping roof of the lower storey, and to fence in the 
outer walls with their stout boarding, which is in con- 
siderable part original ; this he will do without difficulty 
with the drawings of the 
two elevations of the 
tower at Stock before 
him. As at Srock, the 
door here is in the west 
side, and over it is a 
two-light Perpendicular 
window, with its tracery 
complete, affording per- 
haps a model of the win- 
dows which once existed 
in the four sides of ihe 
bell chamber, and gave 
picturesque effect to the 
upper stage of the tower, 
wnich now looks tame 
and poor with the square 
openings and modem 
weatiier - boarding. We 
give a west elevation of 
, ftie tower. It somewhat 
resembles the elevation 
of the tower of Stock 
already given ; but, in- 
stead of the long window 
of Stock, which looks as 
if its design had been 
copied from the traceried 


panelling of the side of an altar tomb, we have here an 
ordinary Perpendicular two-light window, with tracery 
of UBual character. A modem shutter applied to the 
exterior now blocks this window, and injures the 
picturesque effect of the exterior view of the church. 
The doorway beneath has a plain timber arch. The belfry 
stage differs from Stock in naving two windows in each 
side, but tlie original tracery which gave them character 
is gone. It is altogether 
a church of consider- 
able and curious in- 

The finest example, 
however, of these tim- 
ber towers is that 
which is attached to 
the west end of what 
is now the parish 
church, and was for- 
merly the church of 
Ite Augustinian Priory, 
of Blackmore. What 
now remains of the 
church is- only the 
nave and aisles of a 
not very large and not 
very handsome church: 
but there are several 
points of interest about 
It The east ends of 
the aisles hare been 
converted into mor- 
tuary chapels at a very 
late date, and the 
arches between the 
ritual chancel and the 
chapels are of brick ; 
with brick partially 
auouoBi OHUROH TowsB. Introducod, together 

with^stone, into the capitals and bases. Curious large 
dormer windows have also been introduced into tue 



roof, supported by buttresses on the outside in a way 
which is very good for the date. A single specimen of 
the late enamel glass, which once filled all these dormer 
windows, alone remains, representing the martyrdom of 
St. Lawrence. The west end of the nave is the only 
remaining portion (together with the western responds 
of the nave arcades) of the original Norman rriory 
church. It has a round-headed door, ornamented with 
characteristic Norman mouldings, two round-headed 
lancets, and a small circular window over them. The 
tower, which is the special subject of our inquiry, is 
built on to this Norman west end. It is a very large 
and very massive structure, 28 feet square, and extend- 
ing to three storeys in height. Two sills, as shown in 
the accompanying plan, laid east and west on a founda- 
tion of rubble walling, support the main timbers. Four 


angle piers form, as at Margaretting, the main supports 
of the superstructure, but here a subordinate pair of 
piers is introduced between the others, and another pair 
against the church wall, so that, seen from the west 
end, the tower presents the appearance of four lofty 
and massive timber arches. A section of one of these 
is given in the accompanying illustration. The struts 
at the sides which strengthen the main timbers are 


curved, and very picturesquely arranged. Over these 
arches is the floor of 
the ringing chamber^ 
which IS not of the 
simple character of 
those which we hare 
already given, but has, 
like the lower stage, aji 
outer work of support- 
ing struts. This gives 
an additional set-off in 
tiie height of the tower, 
and, as is seen in the 
accompanying woodcut, 
adds very much to the 
quaint picturesqneness 
of its elevation. The 
bell-chamber above this 
is framed with two up- 
right timbers, between 
which come the belfiy 
windows ; a fragment is 
left in one of the win- 
dow jambs to indicate 
that the belfry windows 
were originally arched 
and cusped. A low 
broach spire surmounts 
the whole structure. 
We have given above 
BLAcuiimB osiTBOR, uDiioH o* TowKB. au olovation of tho ex- 
terior of the west side of the tower, in which the 
quaint effect of its three stages and three set-offs is 
admirably seen. The spire is shingled, its cap finished 
with lead work, turned over and spread out like the 
mouth of a trumpet, out of which rises the staff of the 
vane. The walls of the several stages are formed of 
vertical boards fastened upon studs, with small strips of 
wood to cover the joints. But the exterior of the lower 
stage has been covered with plaster or stucco marked in 
imitation of the pointing of masonry, which is no 


improvement to its appearance. There is a large four- 
lignt window in the west side of the lower stage, with 
Perpendicular tracery • probably the tracery which 
originally occupied the head of the belfry windows was 
of similar character. The door is^ not in the west end, 
as at Stock and Margaretting, but is placed on the north 
side, and is of insignificant character. The whole 
appearance of the tower is wonderfully picturesque, and 
reminds one of the pictures of some oi the still more 
ancient and complex and picturesque timber churches of 

The last type of timber belfry which we will give is 
one which isf perhaps, as quaint in character as Inj of 
the preceding. It consists of a framework for carrying 
the bells, not enclosed within the four walls of a stone 
tower which is the usual type ; or raised aloft on a 
scaffolding of huge timbers, and boarded round to 
exclude me weather, like those which we have been 
describing ; but placed upon the ground in the church- 
yard and covered in with a cage of open timbers with 
a thatched or shingled roof. 

There is an example at Wix, near Manningtree. The 
existing church is a fragment of the church of a Bene- 
dictine nunnery. The rest of the church feU down 
through neglect in the early part of the last century^ 
and we might conjecture that the bells were then placed 
in their present situation. But the village tradition 
assigns a much earlier date to the bell-cage. It tells us 
that the old monks (they were nuns, in fact) three times 
caused the tower to be built for the reception of the 
bells, and that three times the devil pulled it down in 
the night as soon as it was finished ; till the monks^ 
at last, finding that they could not have a tower for 
their bells, compromised by erecting them on the 
ground in 'the present receptacle, fhis is simply a 
substantial framing for the bells to hang upon, sur- 
rounded by an openwork cage, protected by a shingled 
'roof. Two trees, which have probably accidentally 
taken root within the cage, and!^ now embrace some 
of its main timbers with their boughs, and shade it 
with their foliage, add very greatly to the picturesque- 


ness of its ^^neral appearance. The top of one beU 
has the inscnption in Lombardic characters, 


At Wrabness, in Suffolk, there is a similar cage* 
Suckling tells us that the tower formerly contained 
three bells, but that it became ruinous, and the present 
belfry was erected, in which one of the bells was hung 
to summon the people to Divine service. This cage is 
overgrown with ivy, and presents an appearance almost 
as picturesque as that at Wix. The church of Godes- 
burg has a similar bell-cage in its churchyard, in which 
the two bells are hung. It stands on the shoulder 
of the hill, within the circuit of the castle wall which 
crowns this isolated outpost of the Rhine mountains on 
the left bank, while the Drachenfels, standing out in 
front of the Seven Mountains, keeps watch on the right 
bank. We saw at Halstead some years ago the bells 
taken out of the church tower during its partial rebuild- 
ing, and' placed in the churchyard on their proper 
framing, so that they could be chimed for Divine service 
as usual ; and this suggested that, in the cases where 
these curious beU-cages exist, they may have been some- 
times intended only as temporary erections, to serve 
while a tower could be built or rebuilt. But it seems 
certain that in some cases the bells have continued in 
this kind of primitive belfry for a very long period. In 
the example at Wix the tradition tells us that the situa- 
tion was intended to be a permanent one ; and in the 
example at Godesburg the situation on the hill side 
leads to the conjecture that it may have been thought 
unnecessary to give the bells any artificial elevation ; 
the lofly isolated crag formed a natural tower, from 
which tne bells could be heard as well as if an artificial 
tower had given them a few feet of additional eleva- 

Examples of timber bell-cotes, like those of ihe^ 
simpler kind which we have described, occur in 
domestic work. For example, the Market House at 
Rochford, in Essex, is an open timber erection of, 
perhaps, the 16th century, and its square pyramidal 


roof has its apex cut oif to make way for a simple 
bell cote. Our note-book supplies us with a curious 
example of a perfectly similar erection, only smaller, 
and of less substantial construction, erected as a cattle 
shed in a Cambridgeshire farmyard ; the cote which, 
on the top of Rcchford Market House, gives a home to 
the town bell, is here modified into a pigeon cote. Over 
the entrance gateway into the base court of Ingatestone 
Hall is a similar bell cote. The gateway itself is of 
timber framing, partially filled in with brick, and the 
bell cote crops out of the roof, is open at the sides, 
and its pyramidal roof is crowned with a vane ; making 
altogether, as seen down the avenue of Umes by which 
it is approached, a very pretty picture, worthy of an 
artist's pencil. 

At Langdon is a remarkable curiosity, «» which we 
introduce here partly for its own sake, and partly for 
the sake of introducing with it a perspective view of 
the general efiect of one of these bell cotes, as it groups 
with the rest of the church. The special curiosity to 
which we refer is a timber house built on to the west 
end of the church. What it was originally built for is 
not known, and there are no architectural mouldings or 
other features to determine its date. It has a ground 
floor, first floor, and attic chamber, only one room in 
each storey, with a brick chimney built out on the 
north side ; the framing is massive, and the walls are 
not, as usual in 16th and 16th century timber houses, 
of studs filled in with lath and plaster, but are composed 
of solid slabs of timber, put close together side by side. 
It may have been built long before the Reformation, and 
have been intended as a house for the priest of the well- 
endowed chantry, whose chapel now forms the south 
aisle of the church. Or it may, perhaps, have been 
built as the school house for an endowed school which 
exists in the parish, to which use it is at present appro- 
priated. The church is situated on the summit of a 
rathej: high and isolated natural moimd, and forms a 
remarkable and picturesque feature of the landscape for 
miles round. We may mention, as connected with our 

* Wood cut in " Art Journal,*' vol. for 1861, p. 225. 



Bubiect of timber work, that the chancel roof is a coved 
root of very excellent design, and worthy of an archi- 
tect's studj. 

In framing the timbers of these timber bell cotes the 
eastern truss has often some features added to it, so as 
to form an omament&l arch at the west end of the 
church, in imitation of the eflFect of an ordinary tower 
arch. At Mountnessing we have seen that the two last 
arches of the nave were walled up to form a belfry, and 
the eastern supports of the bell cote had their braces 
formed into a regular timber belfry arch, with chamfered 
edges, while the two side beams had octagonal responds 
cut on them, with capitals and bases of elaborate Per- 
pendicular moulding. At Shenfield, the easternmost of 
the three massive arches which support the bell cote 
and tall spire forms a massive Fointea belfry arch. At 
Wickford two curved braces are added in tne angles of 
the uprignts and tie-beam, so as to form a low flat arch. 
There are some other points in this church worthy of 
mention in connection with our subject The beU cote 
is of the common type, which crops out of the roof 
with a short broach spirelet It contains two ancient 
beUs, on one of which is the inscription,— 


On the other, — 


and both beUs have ornaments besides, which will help 
the campanologists to determine their date and founder, 
viz., a crown, and a shield whose bearings may be thus 
described: a chevron, with a crescent beneath, and 
three stars in chief. 

The whole west end of the church is of timber, 
boarding up the space between the rubble walls of the 
nave. The chancel has a very deeply-moulded roof, 
with highly enriched crested cornice of Tudor character, 
in very unusually perfect preservation, the timbers look- 
ing as clean and sharp as the day the tool left them ; 
indeed, there is a bit of extra enrichment begun on one 
of the main beams and left unfinished, which is enough 
to make one think the carvers will return to-morrow to 



finish their work. It is curious that this very flat roof 
has not the lead covering we should expect to a roof of 
such a character, but has over it what appears to be the 
original high-pitched chancel roof, ana it cuts oflF the 
upper part of the flat-arched east window. There is a 
curious projection on the north side of this church about 
the junction of the nave and chancel, which leads one 
to believe that there is a recess concealed behind the 
internal wall : though about in the position of a rood 
stair, it looks too large for such a feature, and leads to 

the suspicion that it may 
have been such a little 
nook for a recluse priest 
as we have examples of 

At Willingale 8pain^ 
only the lower supports 
of the original beliry re- 
main, the upper part of 
the existing structure 
being a more modem 
work, made up out of 
the old matenal. The 
original tower framing of 
the belfiy occupies about one-third of the entire length 
of the nave, and forms a kind of ante chapel into which 
the south door of the church opens. The angle braces 
of the eastern truss only remain on one side ; but by 
restoring them on the other, we get an arch of the 
character indicated in the wood-cut, opening from the 
nave into this ante-chapel. Mr. feuckler, in his 
" Twenty-two Churches of Essex," says that " It is 
of 14th century date," and in that case is a very early 
example of this class of timber work, everything else 
that we have hitherto met with being of the 15th cen- 
tuiy, and most of it rather late in the century. 

Besides tower arches connected with the timber 
belfries, we find that the familiar use of timber as a 
material in church building sometimes led the architects 
to use it in other imusual positions. For instance, a 
similar arrangement to that which made a tower arch 





is Hometimes applied to the conBtruction of a cbaacel 
arch ; spandrels being inserted under a tie-beam bo as 
to form a wooden arch. There is an example of a very 
handsome Perpendicular arch of this kind in Holy 
Trinity Churchy Colchester, which is further interesting 
ritually because it is 
ylK placed midway in the 

y^M/^^. chancel, and seems to 

/"V>SIKX\ m&Tk the division be- 

tween the sanctuary and 
the choir. The arch ia 
\ carried from the ground 
upon solid wooden jambs, 
qb 14 in. by 7 in., against 
the walls ; they are elabo- 
rately moulded, the monl- 
dings being carried round 
the timber arch without 
any capital, and there is 
a DOBS at the apex. The 
arch is formed tmder a 
slightly curved tie-beam, 
well moulded and embat- 
tled at top, from which 
spring a Ring-post and 
Btnits ; the Bpandrels are 
filled in with open tracery 
of fine design, 6 ft. 8 in. from the floor, are the remains 
of a beam which ran across the chancel, and may per- 
haps have had a screen beneath it, or may have only 
carried a rood, or may have served both purposes at once. 
An engraving of this interesting work may be found in 
Mr. Buckler's " Twenty-two Churches of Essex," at 
page 123, from which the accompanying cut is taken. 

These are, after all, little more than pseudo-arches, 
formed by the introduction of ornamental arched struta 
in the angles of a square framework. But we find 
timber arches of a more distinct character. For ex- 
ample, at Rayleigh church, between the chancel and ita 
south aisle is a wide arch, divided by two sub-arches, 
aU of late Perpendicular date, the whole executed in 


timber, and forming a picturesque arrangement, of 
■which we give a representation in the accompanying 

At Shenfield Church, 
which we have already 
quoted, there is a north 
aisle which presents 
several points of in- 
terest. It seems to be 
of late date. Local tra- 
dition assigns it to a 
lady of the Lucas family. 
The mouldings of the 
arcade would, however, 
indicate an earlier date. 
The walls are of brick, 
and the north doorway 
is embattled ; the win- 
dows, both at the east 

square three-light windows, divided by a transom ; the 
frames are of timber, and the^ are protected by a grille 
of massive iron bars. The aisle is continuous through 
nave and chancel, and had its two eastern bays 
originally screened off from the chancel by a parclose. 
The total length of the arcade is 47 ft., divided mto five 
bay Sjwhich therefore require four pillars and two responds. 
Only the pillars are ancient; the original arches were 
removed about 60 years ago ; but a recent and judicious 
restoration has replaced the arches in conformity with 
what was probably their original plan, and we are enabled 
by the kindness of the architect*" to give an elevation of 
this curious and really handsome arcade. Each of the 
pillars is cut out of a single tree, and carved intoaclustered 
shaft, with richly moulded bases and capitals. Square 
plinths of two courses of brick in height, were built for 
them to stand upon, brackets spread out from the sides 
of the capitals to carry the breadth of wall plate (2 ft. 9 in. 
wide) above. There are traces which indicate that these, 
together with the screens which separated the two bays 
of the chancel chapel from the chancel itself, were enriched 


with polychromatic painting ; and the whole must have 
formed a very remarkable composition. At the same 
time that the north aisle was builit, the timber tower and 
spire, which have already been alluded to, were also 
added to the church. Instead of being built on to the 
west end of the nave, like that of Greenstead, already 
given in the view of that church, this tower at Shenfield 
was very curiously built within the nave : and not as 
close to the west end of the nave as it could be placed, 
but a space of 3^ ft. was left between the west wall of 
the nave and the western portion of the framework of 
the tower. Moreover, the tower is not square in plan, 
but is only 13 ft. from east to west, while it stretches 
across the whole width of the nave, which is about 17ft. 
wide. To build the tower, first two foundations of 
brickwork ffive courses high to one foot) were laid down 

{)arallel witn the walls of tne nave, and upon these were 
aid two immense sills of timber. Into these sills were 
set eiffht upright timbers, four on each side, which 
carried four parallel arches across the width of the nave. 
These timbers are all carefully moulded, and had traces 
of original polychromatic painting. Upon these arches 
stand a second set of timbers, enclosmg a diminished 
area, so that there is a wide set-off in the external roof. 
Another set-off at the top of this second stage of the 
tower leads to the slender octagonal spire, which is also 
framed of massive timbers, braced horizontally by 
timbers which cross each other, so as to form two 
crossed squares in plan. The exterior of this spire is 
covered with shin^es^ and furnished at top with a 
capping of lead, which is an example in unusually good 
condition of the ordinary way m which these Essex 
bell-cote spires were finished. The angles of the spire 
are marked by turning the lead over rolls ; and the 
apex is finished by turning the lead back in the shape 
of a fimnel, which is sometimes kept octagonal and 
scalloped out into a fan shape, as in this example at 
Shenfield; sometimes it is worked circular, as at 
Wickford church, whose belfry arch has aheady been 
noticed. Out of this funnel rises the staff which carries 
the vane. Usually, as at Wickford, the base of the staff 
is covered with lead ; at Shenfield it is curiously bound 



with iron, as shown in the cut, which we borrow from 

rri^^ Mr. Buckler's "Twenty-two Churches of 

^tLa Essex," to which we nave ab^eady been 

\f^ several times indebted. 

I There are some other articles of church 

fiimiture usually executed in stone which 

may occasionally be found of wood. At 

Marks Tey is a font of timber. It seems 

to be cut out of a single block ; it is cut to 

the ordinary shape of an octagonal bowL 

shaft, and spreading base. The sides of 

the bowl are elaborately carved with 

tabernacle work, and have had bas-relief 

carvings, which have been subsequently 

cut a#ay. It is lined with lead, Ind its 

exterior was originaUy painted in poly- 


Monumental effigies were not unfre- 
quently carved out of wood, instead of 
stone or marble, and the wooden effigies 
are in as fine a style of design and execu- 
tion, and in as good a state of preservation, 
as those of stone. No doubt the majority 
of these effigies, whether of wood or stone, 
were painted to represent as Uvely an 
image as possible of the features and 
costume of the deceased ; so that it mat- 
tered little to the effect what material the 
eSigy was composed of, except, perhaps, 
that marble would give finer lines and 
sharper lights and shadows than wood. 

Gough, in his great work on sepulchral 
monuments, gives a list of the wooden effigies which 
were known to him, and it may be worth while to 
transcribe it here for the guidance of the ecclesiologist 
to the churches where he may possibly find examples 
still remaining : — 

St. Bee's, Cumberland, Anthony Lord Lucy, of Egremont, who 
died 41st Edward IIL 

Ouseley, Cumberland, a knight. 

Slindon, Sussex, a knight. 

Deeping Market, Lincolnshire, a knight. 



a!£°' ) ^"^^ ^^^' ^'S^^ cro33-legged. 

Oreatham Hospital Chapel, Durham, " a secular clerg)rniati with a 
cup :" a chalice was found lu his coffin ; it is believed to be the effigy 
of Andrew Stanley, the first master of the hospital. 

Chew Magna, Somerset, Sir W. Hautevllle, died end of Henry HI. 

Midsummer Norton, Somerset, a knight. 

Great Marcle, Hereford, a man in civil costume, of the time of 
Edward III. 

Godehurst, Kent, Culpepper and lady. 

To which we may also add others at 
Hildersham, Cambridgeshire, a knight and lady. 
Messing, Essex, two, now destroyed. 
Danbury, Essex. 

Little Horkesley, Essex, two knights and a lady. 
Leighs, Essex, a priest under mural arch. 

Gough also mentions a foreign example, that of the 
effigy of Cardinal Cholet, in St. Lucian's Abbey church, 


Beauvais, date 1292, which still retains its painting. He 
also mentions a coped chest, or tomb of timber, with the 
bier or frame-work on which it rested, as still preserved 
at St. Alban's Abbey. 

In SaHsbury Cathedral is a kindred curiosity ; viz., an 
altar tomb of wood, though, curiously enough, the effigy 
itself is of marble. Here there are abundant traces of the 
original colouring all over the effigy and tomb, indica- 
tions enough probably to aflford authority for the 
restoration of every part. The effigy was habited in a 
blue surcoat, charged with gold Uons, and the same 
heraldic bearings are on his shield, which is lined with 
red. The top of the slab of the tomb was painted with 
a kind of diaper pattern, in which the ground is green • 
a broad line oi red chequers the whole surface, and 
witliin the chequers are concentric lozenge-shaped lines 
of black. The mouldings of the arcade were gilt and 
the hollows red ; the spandrels white within a red border 
line, and black trefoils and dots rudely painted in the 
spandrel on the white ground. The spaces under the 
arches were fiUed in with a diaper pattern faintly incised 
upon a ground which resembles mother-of-pearl or silver. 
The tall churchyard crosses were often of timber. None 
of them remain, but they are often represented in the 
pictures of illuminated MSS., and in Folkestone church- 
yard there is the plinth of the churchyard cross still 
standing iipon the usual graduated base, and its socket 
is still hall filled with timber, doubtless the remnant of 
the wooden shaft of the cross which once stood there. 




The Rey. W. E. Heygate (loth March, 1867) commnnicated the discovery 
of a fine bronze celt, at South Shoebnry, with a sketch. It was found near 
the barracks of the Royal Artillery, at the depth of seven feet, in what 
appeared to be undisturbed gravel. It measures 6 J inches in length, nearly 
3 inches across the blade, and belongs to the second class of bronze celts, 
according to Du Noyer*s classification, viz. : — ** The wedge, with sides more 
or less overlapping, blade thicker than the wedge for insertion into, the 
handle, and a stop-ridge or elevation at the termination of the blade." In 
this example the blade is ornamented with four ridges and the flange of the 
wedge does not overlap. It is in the possession of Colonel Wilmot, the 
Commandant. The site of the discovery is within the area of the extensive 
earthworks at South Shoebury, to which the Danish Forces, under Haesten, 
retreated after their defeat at South Bemfloet by Alfred the Great ; but the 
celt is proUably British. See *^ Trans. Essex Arch. Soc," vol. 11., p. 75. 


Mr. James H. Ford, of Qrays, kindly forwarded to the Society a tracing 
in outline of a remarkably fine bronze sword, lately found in the Mardyke, 
at Stiiford. It is of a well-known type, the blade leaf-shaped, and the 
entire len&^th of the weapon is 24 inches. It is of the description com- 
monly called Biitish, but is with greater probability Roman. It has been 
purchased by Mr. Richard Meeson, of Grays. 


The Hon. Secretary reported the disooverv of two alabaster statuettes 
during the restoration of darling Church. They were found walled up in 
the masonry of the north aisle. Although headless and otherwise mutilated, 
their attributes and treatment clearly denote that they are the images of the 
Blessed Virgin and S. Dominic. 

Both figures are delicately wrought, and very nicely coloured. S. 
Mary is vested in an azure mantle powdered with gold fleurs de lU^ and 
evidently once held the Holy Child, whose figure is broken away. 

S. Dominic is vested in the habit of his order, holding in his right hand 
the staff (most probably of a tall cross, his ordinary attribute, the head of 
which is broken off) and in his left a book, which are the appropriate symbols 
of this saint. Frequently there is a lily upon the cover of the book, which 
in this example has perhaps become obliterated. Images of the 'Blessed 
Virgin and 8. Dominic were commonly in juxta-position. Wire loops are 
attached to the back of each for the purpose of securing them in their 
niches. They are preserved in a closet in the vestry. The destruction of 
the statuettes of saints belonging to churches was so universal at the period 
of the Reformation, that such examples are extremely rare, and these are, 
therefore, of more than ordinary interest. 

Roch/ord Church. — ^Here, during the restoration, the upper half of a 
raised cross slab was found. The head is of the common lozenge-shaped 
type, the arms terminating in trefoils. It lies outside the church. 

North Shoebury Church,^' A fragment of the head of a raised crossed slab, 
of rather elaborate design, has been found in this church. It is of late 
fourteenth or early fifteenth century workmanship. 

H. W. K 



By the Bey. C. Lxbikqhah Skith, M.A. 

lEead at the Meeting <U Dunmow, 1867, and enlarged with some account of 

Stone Haa.^ 

Though I am by no means competent to speak learn- 
edly, or authoritatively, on the subject which stands 
connected with my name, I am glad to call the attention 
— not of Archaeologists themselves, who need no hint 
from me, but — of such persons as are merely interested 
more or less in archseological pursuits, to those old houses 
which are so rapidly disappearing from every city and 
county of England. It is not wise to lament that decayed 
and inconvenient abodes are continually being changed 
for others more healthy and commodious ; but we may 
reasonably regret that any structures of the olden time 
should be swept away beiore some zealous and skilful 
hand has photographed, or traced with pen or pencil, 
those peculiarities in them, which tell us of ancient 
manners, and throw light on the home-life of our 

Few buildings of any kind now exist which date back 
a thousand years ; and the age of our oldest dwelling- 
houses is confined to a much narrower span. This is 
what might have been expected, even before we had 
closely .examined. At the dawn of civilization the first 
fixed abodes of man on the open surface of the earth 
must necessarily have been constructed of slight and 

Sortable materials, and were therefore doomed to speedy 
ecay. It was not till the mechanical arts of shaping 
and moving large massive materials had been discovered 
that edifices could be reared capable of resisting the 
attacks of time and of the elements for any considerable 
period, especially in a climate like ours. Long after 



vast and solid structures of stone had been erected, 
dweUing-houses still continued to bo almost universally 
built of wood, partly because of the facility of manipulat- 
ing it, and partly because of its far greater abundance 
in earlier times. Of course so perishable a substance 
seldom lasted for many centuries, and the consequence 
is that we have few houses in existence which are more 
than two or three hundred years old. But even in those 
which are of this lower degree of antiquity there is 
something which usually at once arrests the attention of 
the most careless observer. The main lines and 
contours which diversify the exterior surface vary con- 
siderably from what we see in ordinary modem houses, 
which are comparatively bald and flat ; and this surface, 
however concealed and defaced by the abominations oi 
plaster or whitewash, generally exhibits decided traces 
of that picturesque complication of woodwork which 
constitutes the frame of the building, and is graphically 
described by Tennyson as 

A front of timber-crost antiquity. 
So propt, worm-eaten, ruinously old. 
He thought it must have gone. 

One of the most striking features of an old house is 
the usual projection of one story over another, for the 
double purpose of enlarging the upper apartments, 
and of securing more shelter from sun and ram outside. 
The deep shadows produced by this mode of construc- 
tion add marvellously to the picturesque. From it also 
advantage was often taken to introduce that effective 
ornament which consists simply of the beam ends of the 
intermediate floor visibly projecting outside below the 
ampler upper story, and supporting its waU. Orna- 
ments of this kind wnich arise out of the very construc- 
tion of a building are always particularly grateful to the 
eye, because they are at once perceived to have a 
meaning : such are the triglyphs in Greek architecture, 
which were originally nothing else but the slightly pro- 
jecting ends of the beams of the flat wooden roof. It is 
not only the human artist that admires such a fabric as 
I am describing : the " temple-haunting martlet " also 


highly approves it, finding there many " a jutting frieze 
and coigne of vantage " for " its pendent bed and pro- 
creant cradle." The continuaUy-projecting story was 
much used in mediaeval cities, where increased room 
above, and shelter below, were so desirable. But the 
streets in these cities being usually very narrow, it 
often happened that the upper rooms on opposite sides 
of the street approached very near to each other ; and 
to counterbalance the advantages mentioned, there was 
the terrible drawback of impeded ventilation, makini 
these crowded dwellings nurseries for ihe plague am 
other pestilential diseases. London gained more in the 
sanitary point of view than it lost in the picturesque, 
when the great fire devoured so vast a number of its 
ancient dwelling-houses. 

From the general aspect of old houses, I proceed to 
notice a few of their details ; and we will commence 
with the highest point, the visible chimney. The first 
human dwellings, doubtless, had no vent at all for the 
smoke, which was aUowed, as it is now in many a 
sequestered moorland cottage, to find its way out as well 
as it could, through door, or window, or crevice. Then 
came rude contrivances, such as are employed at this 
day in the Highlands of Scotland; where it is very 
common to see an old herring-barrel tilted a little out of 
the perpendicular, and stuck into a -hole in the rough 
thatch of the roof : this is intended to afibrd an exit lor 
the peat-smoke, but fulfils its purpose no better than 
those sarcastically described by Swift as 

Chimnies with scorn rejecting smoke. 

They were gradually, however, made more effective 
for their end, and assumed a more ornamental form 
above the roof, till at last they contributed in no slight 
de^ee to the architectural beauty of the whole 
building. Before the fire at Easton Lodge there were 
some exquisite specimens in wrought brick : one stack 
still surmounts the roof, but the most beautiful and 
elaborate one, though little if at aU injured by removal 
at the time of the fire, was sacrificed by the architect of 
the new building, and I know not what has become 
of it. 


Before we quit the chimneys we will pass down to 
the hearths communicating: with them. In all old houses 
the hearth was of ample dimensions, yielding room not 
only for a large fire, but also for a seat on each side of 
the opening called the ingh (a word supposed to be 
derived from tmiculus) or the cktmnet/'Comer^ the coziest 
place in the house, and noted for being the resort of 
idlers : thus Leslie, an old writer, says of one who had 
told an idle tale : " perhaps he had it from an old woman 
in a chimney-comer, or out of a romance." In a family 
house the hearth was the place of re-union for all the 
members, and was, as it were, the hallowed centre of the 
home : this circumstance must have rendered the 
" chimney-money," or *'' hearth-money^" levied by 
statute in Charles II.'s time peculiarly odious ; 
and the abolition of that tax was one of the many 
blessings conferred in the reign of WiUiam and Mary. 
The great size of the opening for the hearth, even m 
ordinary dweUings, tells us of the abundance of forest- 
wood ^those 4b. Only » few n>eoimen, remain „n- 
altered here and there at old farm-houses : several in 
my own parish have within my remembrance been 
blocked up with a modem fire-place and grate, in order 
to spare the consumption of coals, and economize the 
heat. A good example remains at Stone Hall. 

The roofs of old houses were generally more exposed 
to view than modem roofs, and had a steeper pitch ; and 
the gables were oftener brought conspicuously to the 
front. This arrangement is especially prevalent in the 
old Belgian cities from which so many of our late 
visitors have come, such as Bruges, Ghent, &c. : and it 
gives a peculiar character of quaintness to the aspect of 
their streets. Certainly the sloping lines of the gable, 
with its far-projecting deeply-shaded eaves, are 
infinitely more picturesque than the plain flat horizontal 
parapets in which our modem street-houses so generally 
terminate above. The space within the roof was always 
utilized ; and it is not uncommon abroad to find lotty 
roofs with three, four, or even five, and six, tiers of 
windows opening from them, and as many stories within 
available for garrets or places of store. 


The more important vyindows of old city dwelling- 
houses, and indeed of all old houses, were oftener bayed 
than modern ones. The architect of those days haa no 
fear of the window-tax to cripple his designs, and so 
made the openings for light as large, and as numerous, 
as he pleased : we may well rejoice that this most in- 
judicious impost, which has rendered so many modem 
houses repulsive outside, and gloomy within, has been 
for ever removed. The bay-window in the second story 
of an ancient street-house was a most cheerful arrange- 
ment, commanding a clear view of all the trafl&c and 
passengers below ; specimens may still be seen in 
Coventry, Chester, Conway, and other ancient cities. 
The same construction was also used in country-houses 
for the sake of the prospect, and there is a very fine 
example not far from hence at Horham Hall, where are 
still preserved the tall and noble bay-windows within 
which Queen Elizabeth often sat to contemplate the 
view. A large size of window Was rendered the more 
necessary from the circumstance that the interiors of 
rooms were usually panelled with wood, which soon 
assumed a dark hue, and thus required a great deal of 
light to be thrown into the room. The effect of this 
panelling was often excessively rich : there was a 
beautiful specimen of it in the old drawing-room of 
Easton Lodge, destroyed by the fire. Many fragments 
of panelling remained to a late time in houses not far 
from this place, but nearly all have now disappeared, 
having been destroyed, or removed and sold. Sir 
Brydges Henniker has laudably preserved some from 
old Newton Hall ; and my friend me Rev. Mr. Toke, of 
Bamston, has collected from various quarters many 
good specimens, with which he has adorned his 

The hall was generally a far more important and 
Bpacious apartment in ancient houses than it is in 
modem ones. To use the words of John Selden, it 
" was the place where the great lord used to eat 
(wherefore else were the halls made so big ?), where he 
saw all his servants and tenants about him. He ate not 
in private, except in time of sickness : when once he 


became a thing cooped up, all his greatness was spoiled. 
Nay, the King himself used to eat in theljhall, and his 
lords sat with him, and then he understood men." This 
custom is recorded in the well-known rhyme, 

'Tis merry in hall 
When beards wag all ; 

which is of very high antiquity, having been traced 
back to a poem by Adam Davie, the language of which 
sufficiently attests its age : 

Merrie swithe it is in hall 
When the berdes waveth alL 

The spaciousness of this apartment rendered it available 
for other entertainments beside banquetting. Thus 
when Hamlet is challenged to fence, ne says, " Sir, I 
will walk here in the hall ; if it please His Majesty, 'tis 
the breathing time of day with me — let the foils be 
brought." The room being thus used for many public 
purposes, it was natural that the rank and pretensions 
of the owner should be displayed in it ; and accordingly 
the family arms were often inserted in the windows in 
painted glass, or carved in the panelling around the 
walls. Sometimes, however, the dining-room was chosen 
for this purpose, of which there is a magnificent example 
at the Manor-house of Morton Court, in the parish of 
Birts-Morton, in Worcestershire, all the walls being 
splendidly covered with black oak with a border at the 
top containing the arms of most of the county families, 
especially of those which have intermarried, with the 
houses of Nanfan and Bellamont. Before the method of 
panelling had been introduced, tapestry was very 
generally used : thus we are told that " William St. 
Clare, Prince of Orkney (the founder of Roslyn Chapel 
in 1446), had his hall ana other apartments in Roslyn 
Castle richly adorned with embroidered hangings." 
And in Milton's " Comus " it is said of courtesy, that it 

Oft is sooner found in lowly sheds 
With smoky rafters than in tap'stry halls : 

On this T. Warton remarks, " iJie mode of finishing 

Interior View ^ Section cif ■Windo%\-,m Stone Hall . 


halls, or state apartments, with tapestry, had not ceased 
in Milton's time/' 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Dunmow the only 
remaining specimen of the ancient hall, and that but a 
fragment, is at the Manor-house called Stone Hall, in 
my parish of Little Canfield. As the building is not 
likely to resist the teeth of time much longer, being so 
far decayed and mutilated that it may be supposed to be 
hardly worth restoring or preserving, some account of 
it, in addition to the not very satisfactory information 
supplied by Morant, may be acceptable. 

It is situate in a sequestered nook of Easton Park at 
its South-west comer, and is visible from the road, 
though not likely to attract the notice of the passer-by. 
It must at one time have been an important mansion, 
and was doubtless occupied by its owners ; but subse- 
quently for a long period down to about 50 years ago it 
was tenanted as a farm-house, and was then mercilessly 
dismantled, the materials being used up in constructing 
the present farm-house called Strood Hall in a more 
accessible site. Old people here remember that each 
end of the hall was flanked by a wing projecting to the 
South, so as to form a court in front enclosed on three 
sides. The only part of all this range of building which 
was spared is a portion of the hall, now only about 20ft. 
lonff. Its breadth is 22ft., and the North and South 
walls, chiefly of flint rubble, are 2ft. 4in. thick. Doubt- 
less it originally consisted of two equal bays, each 14ft. 
long, separated by the arch of wood shown in the 
accompanying lithographic sketch. The eastern bay, 
containing the only remaining windows, one opposite 
to the other, and still holds together ; but its eastern 
end, probably at first a mere partition dividing it from 
the apartments on that side, was taken down and 
rebuilt in modem brickwork containing a would-be 
Norman doorway : and the Western bay was shorn of 
more than half its length, and terminated by the wall 
which now separates it from the modern cottage tene- 
ment beyond. The great fireplace, against the sides of 
which this recent wall abuts, formerly stood detached in 
the hall ; and opposite to it, at the East-end, was a 
handsome staircase leading up to the apartments of the 


Eastern wing. This staircase was probably not coeval 
with the hall, as one of the old people remembers that 
it was called a '^ Vandyke staircase," and that it was 
taken away to Easton Lodge. The floor of the hall was 
bare earth at the time of the dismantling, when the 
present tiles were laid down. The splays of the 
windows, and also the splays and arch oi the small 
circular-headed recess in the North wall shown in the 
sketeh, are constructed with what very much resemble 
Roman tiles, and the masonry is admirable. The old 
people say that beside the two present windows there 
was another larger one on the South side, and an 
entrance porch on the North. The tracery and 
mouldings of the existing windows, of which an eleva- 
tion is given, are clearly Decorated work ; the head is 
segmental, and the whole greatly resembles in character 
a pure Decorated window at Over Church in Cambridge- 
shire, except that here there is a transom, and that the 
dripstone, of which only smaU fragments remain, instead 
of terminating in the usual (but not universal) corbel- 
head, is returned horizontally a short distance. The 
transom may be accounted for by the application of the 
style to domestic architecture. The resemblance of the 
windows to those of a Church perhaps gave rise to the 
legend, or rather, oral tradition, which is current among 
the peasantry here, and is devoutly believed by them, 
viz. : that it was at first intended to build the Parish 
Church on this spot, but all the work effected in the 
day was invariably pulled down by some mysterious 
hands at night ; so that at last it was absolutely neces- 
sary to remove the materials elsewhere. This legend is 
not an uncommon one, and occurs in several counties of 
England. All the recent portions of the present 
structure were intended, I suppose, to be Norman ; and 
it is not easy to say which is in the worse taste, the 
choice of the style, or the design and execution of the 
details. The luxuriant growth of ivy, however, and the 
mellowing effect of weather-stains, nave now imparted 
something of a venerable aspect to the whole, and hence 
the inexperienced eye is sometimes deluded into the 
notion that the modern brickwork is the most ancient 
part of all. 


Morant's accotmt of Stone Hall is very scanty. He 
says it " was so called because built of stone/' and 
supposes the lands attached to it to be a part of certain 
lands mentioned in "Placita Coron. Apud. Chelmesf.," 13 
Edw. I. The first person whom he connects with the 
property is Thomas Raven : of him, however, we are 
only told that he " is mentioned as of this place in a 
deed dated 1385 ;" which deed, if still in existence, 
should be examined. The expression " this pUce " must 
surely mean Stone Hall, and thus we have documentary 
evidence that the house was built before 1385. Here, 
too, is some corroboration of the statement as to the 
origin of the name, for we find that it- existed at this 
early period, and might (as Mr. H. W. King suggests) 
have been drawn from the fact that a hall oi stone was 
then a niovelty in Essex, where no stone is found, and 
where such edifices, especially the smaller ones, were 
generally of timber or brick. " From Raven,'' continues 
Morant, " the estate came to Thomas Nuttal, and thence 
to Thomas Rampston, the immediate predecessor of the 
Robert Rampston, Esq., mentioned in vol. iii., p. 204, of 
these " Transactions." There is probably a very wide 
gap between Thomas Raven and Nuttal, smce the latter 
name, according to Mr. King, does not occur in the 
" County Records " till a late period. The Rampstons 
do not seem ever to have occupied the Hall, there being 
no trace of their name in the parish registers, but to 
have resided at Chinckford, where they were buried. 
The estate, after passing successfully into the possession 
of Nicolas Blencoe, and Thomas Gwillim, was sold by 
the latter in 1647 to Charles Howland, third son of the 
William Howland, whose eight children were baptized, 
and two of them married, in Little Canfield Church. 
The Howlands appear to have been tenants of the pro- 
perty long before they became proprietors, for in the 
parish register of burials the following entries occur : 

Anno Doi scdm prognosticationem, 1606 

Margareta, uxor Johis Howland sen. 27^ ffebmarij 
Johannes Howland senior 9^ Martii 

Anno sc3m progn. 1608 

Guliehnus Howlande de Stone-hall 3 ffebruar. 



The burial of the purchaser is thus recorded : 

1664. Mr. Charles Howland of Stone Hall was buryed on 
the xth day of May eodcm : 

where the unusual title " Mr." bespeaks his acquired 
territorial dignity. About the end of the 17th century- 
one branch of the Howlands seems to have removed to 
** Much Easton," whence they were brought to Little 
Canfield for burial ; and another to Green Crofts in this 
parish, where they remained for about a century. 

In 1752 there is an entry of the baptism of "William 
son of William Day, Farmer, of Stone Hall, and 
Priscilla his wife :" and in 1769 and 1772 children of 
*' Richard and Elizabeth Barnard, of Stone Hall," were 
baptized. Doubtless Day and Barnard were the tenants 
at the dates named, and probably the tenancy of the 
latter subsisted at the time of the sale of the estate to 
the Maynard family about a hundred years ago. 

The date of the building seems to me, judging from 
its architectural features, to be the middle of ihe 14th 
century, or a little to precede the tenure of Thomas 
Raven ; and the two very elegant Decorated windows 
in Little Canfield Chm'ch may possibly have been 
inserted at the same time, and by the very same 
architect and masons ; for the stone was the same in 
both, viz., Bamack, and the mouldings are extremely 
similar, if not identical. It is pleasant to think that 
while the proprietor was erecting his own handsome 
house, he mignt also be adorning the plain old Norman 
House of God, to which he resorted, with two beautiful 
windows in the then new style of masonry. Moreover 
the circumstance of building going on at Church and 
Hall together might have helped to engender the legend 
alluded to above. But it is time to return from this 

I will add yet one more characteristic of old houses, 
of which very few examples survive in England ; I 
mean the inscription of texts of Scripture, or moral 
sentences, upon the horizontal timbers, or other 
convenient surface outside. This custom probably had 
its origin in the injunction to the Israelites recorded in 



Deut. vi., 9, to write the Commandments of the Lord 
" on the posts of their houses, and on their gates/' In 
Switzerland and Germany examples are continually met 
with, and the passer-by can hardly fail to look up to 
them with respect and reverence ; for they lead him 
back to times when men were not only not ashamed of 
their religion, but loved to proclaim it from their house- 
tops and sides. There are two or three instances in 
Edinburgh which may be worth referring to. One of 
them is over the door of the* well-known house of John 
Knox, and runs thus in old English letters, with a point 
after each word to separate it from the next : — 

The interior of that house is worth the archseologist's 
notice, being of the 15th century. Another specimen is 
carved on a stone which is rebuilt into the wall of a 
house in Dunbar's Close : the letters are still plain and 
sharp, and have not been tampered with smce first 
formed by the chisel ; they run thus : 

OHLXfi"* SjBl¥XT"*S$8? 

There are many other features of old houses which 
might well demand attention, but I trust I may already 
in some degree have accompKshed the main object of 
this paper, viz., to draw more general attention to those 
few specimens of the ancient dwelling-house which still 
exist, and thus to interest as many persons as possible 
in preserving, if not the houses tnemselves, at least 
some of their details, and the remembrance of meir form 
and fashion. 



Bt JoHir PioooT, Juir . 

'' Let fame, that all hunt after in their liveSy 
Lire registered upon our brazen tombs.''* 

Pebhaps there is no class of monumental antiquities 
more important than brasses. Used alike to commemorate 
all ranks of society we may see the Crusader who bled 
under the walls of Acre, the Knights of Cressy, Poictiers 
and Agincourt, the Queen of Love at forgotten tourna- 
ments, the lordly Abbot or Bishop, and the humble 
Parish Priest down to the Notary and Yeoman. Mr. 
Haines remarks that there can be little doubt that on 
many brasses are pourtrayed the exact patterns of the 
ecclesiastical vestments, especially copes, worn by the 
deceased. Knights and gentlemen took care that their 
armour, and the ornaments of their sword belts, should 
be accurately copied. Ladies were particular, especially 
in the 16th century, that their head-dresses, patterns of 
girdles, and gowns, should be carefully transmitted to 
posterity. In short, no other source yields such a 
variety of costume, nor is there any usage of the 
middle ages which does not derive from themselves or 
their accessories at least some indirect illustration. 
Their durability is so great that some have preserved 
for nearly six centuries their original accuracy of outline 
and shading. About 4,000 are supposed to remain in 
England, and not less than 12,000 have been either 
stolen, " for greedinesse of the brasse," as Weever has 
it, or lost by the shameful neglect of parochial 
authorities.f The evil spread so much that Queen 

 •< Love's Labonr Lost," Act I., sc. 1. 

t At Tarmouth, in 1651, the Corporation I ordered the brasses to be cast into 
weights and measures for the use of the town. In the churchwardens' accounts of 
S. Martin's, Leicester, is the following memorandum — 1546, " Four hundred and a 
quarter of brass was sold for 19s. to one maif ; and three hundred weight and three 
quarters was sold to another at the same price." (Kichol's ** LeiGestenhire/' 1, 570.) 




Elizabeth issued a proclamation, in the second year of 
her reign, for putting a stop to it ; each printed copy of 
which was signed by the Queen's own hand, before they 
were dispersed through her dominions.* But it was 
in the following century that the most wholesale 
ravages were committed. It is estimated that 207 slabs 
in Lincoln Cathedral and 170 at Hereford were robbed 
of their brasses, and one can now hardly enter a lar^e 
church without seeing the empty matrices of splendid 

About 300 brasses in 125 churches remain in Essex, 
and many more are probably concealed by pewing. 
The oldest, and therefore one of the most interesting, of 
our Essex brasses remains in Pebmarsh Church, an 
engraving of which, taken from a rubbing, accompanies 
these remarks. 

The figure is represented with the le^s crossed, an 
attitude peculiar to English effigies.t This position has 
been supposed to indicate a Crusader, but if any rule 
existed it was frequently set at nought, for many well- 
known Crusaders do not appear cross-legged, and cross- 
legged effigies to Knights are extant who are known not 
to have served under the banner of the " holie crosse." 
This, however, has been explained as indicating, as in 
the case of Sir William, that the Knight had taken a 
vow, but died without fulfilling it. Mr. Boutell, in his 
" Manual of British Archaeology," considers it the 
natural attitude of the limbs when at rest, and states 
that at Cashel, in Ireland, there are effigies of ladies in 
this position. With the disuse of mail armour the dross- 
legged attitude ceased to be employed. 

Sir William Fitz Ralph is enveloped in a suit of 

• PnUer's " Oh. Hiat.," ix.} 1, 86. 

t In 1846 in the paiifih Ghurcli of Brougham, Weetmoreland, a portion of the 
side of the yanlt next to the south wall of the chancel fell down and dincovered a 
cavity in which lay a skeleton with its feet to the east, erou-leggedy the left beinff 
thrown over the light Near the head was found a Hingnlar vitnfication shapea 
like half an o^^ the colour of the glass dark blue, but the outer surface covered with 
a wavy line of black and white alternately, resembling enamel. This has been 
ascertained to be Phoenician workmanship, and it is conjectured to have been a 
talisman brought from the East and buried with the decoMed as his most predoua 
relic. The stone that lay over the body is an incised slab of freestone, 7ft. by 3ft. 5 
and 6in. thick. The date is unquestionably of the 12th century, and fiunily tradition 
has always assigned this tomb to Udardus de Brohan, who flourished between 1140 
and 1190. (Waller's " Mon. Brasses/' p. 17.) I have quoted this as an interesting 
iiutance of a cross-legged Cnuader. 


interlaced chain mail^ consisting of a hauberk with 
sleeves, a hood or coif de mmlles^ drawn over the head, 
and chmisses to protect the legs and feet. The gradual 
supercession of mail by plate armour (complete suits of 
which became general in the succeeding century) is 
well exemplified in this figure — hrassarts and varrdrrdces 
are added to the arms, the former above and the latter 
below the elbow, which is defended by caudthes ; the 
palletes or roundels upon the shoulders are spiked in the 
centre and may have been partial substitutes for the 
ailettes or little wings so general at the commencement 
of the century ; the knees are protected by gemmUihres^ 
the legs by areaves or Jamhs^ and the feet by sollerets 
composed of over-lapping laminae. The spurs are of 
the plain pryck form. 

Over all is worn a loose surcoat^^ with a fringed 
border, it is confined at the waist by a cord, beiow 
which it opens in front and falls on either side in ample 

An ornamented gutge passes over the rifi:ht shoulder. 

bearings. Above the effigy was a pedmental canopy 
like that to Lady Joan de Uobham (1320), in Cobham 
Church, Kent. This style of canopy was soon surpassed 
by the cinque-foiled ogee form, of which a mutilated 
specimen, dated 1327, remains at Stoke D'Abemon, in 
Surrey. The two escutcheons above the canopy are 
destroyed, also the inscription which was engraved, on a 
marginal fillet of brass. Fragments of the latter are 
said to have been kept in the church chest imtil a 
comparatively recent period. According to a roll of 
arms temp. Edward IL, Sir William Fitz Ralph bore 
" d' or, ij chevrons de goules fleurette d' argent." In 
the east window of the south aisle of the Church at 
Pebmarsh, two of the shields of Fitz Ralph appear 
charged upon panels of rich blue glass, wiUiin quatre 
foils formed oi gold and black. Another similar panel 

• The soTOoat, frequently charged with armorial bearings, seems to have 
originated with the Crnsaden for tiie pnipose of distinguishing the many different 
nations serving under the banner of the cross, and to throw a veil over the iron 
armour so apt to heat oxcossivoly when exposed to the direct rays of the sun. 
(Meyrick " Anc. Arms and Amlour," p. 100, ed. 1824.) King John was the first 
English Monarch to wear the tjleeveless surcoat. 


contains a corresponding shield, bearing quarterly, 
argent and gules, on a bend sable, five annulets or. 
These (says the Rev. Charles Boutell)** are verj fine 
examples of heraldry in stained glass of the time of 
Edward II. 

The Fitz Ralph family descended fi'om Hubertus de 
Rya, temp. William L,f called, in records of the period, 
De Pebeners, and Fitz Ralph de Pebeners acquired 
considerable local importance during the 13th and 14th 
centuries, and had large possessions in the counties of 
Essex and SuflFoIk. The Manor of Pebmarsh was held 
by them of the honor of Castle Hedingham by the 
service of a fourth part of a Knight's fee. " The Mansion 
House," says Morant, J " stands near a brook in 
Pebmarsh-street : at an end of it there is an ancient 
Chapel, and not far firom it was a Castle, of which the 
remains are scarce visible. However, the meadow 
wherein it stood is to this day called Castle Meadow." 

In the year 1296 Sir William Fitz Ralph was 
snmmoned to perform military service against t£e Scote 
in the campaign conducted by Edward I., which 
resulted in the downfall of John Balliol, and the 
temporary subjugation of the country. He served again 
in the expeditions of 1298 and 1301, the former caused 
bv the rising of Wallace. In 1314 he was appointed 
Conservator of the Peace for the county of Essex, and 
two years later had commission to raise foot soldiers 
there for the King's service, who were to be provided 
with " aketons, || bascinets, § swords, bows, arrows^ 
and bahstfie."^ In 15 Edward IL (1322) a further 

* " Manual of Heraldnr," p. 191. 

t "Collect. Topogr. and Gteneal /' part adii. 

i " History of Essex," vol. ii., p. 161. 

11 The aketon, hauketon, or hoqueton, deriyed probably from the Asiatic o^'rcry, 
wajB a tnnio of leather buckram, &c., stuffed with wool, cotton, tow, &c., stitched in 
paralld lines, and put on beneath the hauberk to diminish the pressure of the mail, 
and to serve as an additional protection. ^Haines.) 

Lrhe bascinet, a kind of coif de mailles, was worn afl being lighter than a 
ct, when the Knight expected an attack, but wished to be prepared. When 
visors were made to them they for a time superseded the use of the helmet. 

% The balista in this case was probably^ ue manu-balista or cross-bow, supposed 
to be of Sicilian and Cretan origin, and introduced into Europe by fhe Crusades. 
It was known in England, at least for use in the chase, as eany as the time of the 
Conquest. Its application to warlike uses (not its in^duction) by Bichard I. is 
well supported, and was thus used in Italy in 1139. In 1294 mention is made of 
tumi balisterii or the arbaUate a tour, that drawn up by a turn ; and in 1320 of the 
balista grossn de molinellis^ or one wound up by a moulinct or windluBs. (Fosbroke's 
" Ency. of Anti.," vol. ii., p. 903. 


invasion of Scotland being projected, Sir William Fitz 
Ralph was again summoned to attend, but excused 
himself on the plea of illness. It is probable that his 
death occurred soon after, and that the " Sir William 
le Fitz Rauf, Knight," summoned to attend the great 
Council at Westminster, 30th May, 1324, was his son 
and heir, the same who obtained a grant in 1338 of 
free warren in Pebmarsh, Bures, Finchingfield, Little 
Wenden, and other place s.** John Fitz Ralph who 
succeeded to the estates 19 Henry VI., was the last 
male descendant of this family in a direct line. His 
sister Elizabeth married Sir Kobert Chamberlayn,f of 
Stoke-by-Nayland, and so the estates passed from the 
Fitz Ralph family. 

The Rectory was always appendent to the Manor of 
Pebmarsh Hall. Morant states that it originally 
belonged to the Priory of S. John Bapt. of Clare, in 
Suffolk, in which were seven Prebends founded by 
Eluric, son of Wighgar, in the reign of Edward the 
Confessor. It was the endowment of the 5th Prebend, 
called Sawins, which contained the Church of Pebmarsh, 
and the land of Polhey, Subercy and Bulile v. Gilbert de 
Clare, son of Richard Fitz Gilbert, Earl of Brion, gave 
this rriory with all the Prebends to the Abbey of Bee, 
in Normandy about the year 1090. The revenues of it 
were undoubtedly seized by Edward III. among the 
rest of the Priories alien, and Lionel Duke of Clarence 
presented in 1376. Afterwards it came into the Fitz 
Ralph family and the other lords of the Manor of 

* Waller*B " Monumental Bra^see/' part 17. 

f Armfl of Ghamberlayn, Arg. firette sable, on a chief of the last, three plates. 



By John Piggot, Jun. 

Fresco* painting was practised by the Egyptians and 
Greeks at a very early period, in fact it has flourished 
as an accompaniment of every style of architecture that 
has ever been practised by any nation. If we examine 
the bold outlines of Egyptian architecture, the temples 
and tombs of India, or the Palaces of Pompeii, we snail 
find that colour was employed with no niggard hand to 
clothe the conceptions of the architect with life and grace. 
As might be conjectured, the Catacombs of Rome, esti- 
mated to contain 800 miles of subterranean corridors^ 
are rich in interesting fresco-paintings. D'Agincourt 
unhesitatingly pronounced many of these to be the 
productions of the second century ; some even he 
conceived to have been executed in the first. When 
Christianity became the faith of the Empire waU^ 
painting was not nedected, for we find in the 4th 
century S. Paulinus of Nola causing the Church of S. 
Felix in Rome to be covered with Scriptural subjects. 
In Saxon England considerable progress in mural orna- 
ment must have been made at an early period, for a 
Canon of the Second Council of Celicyth, in Northum- 
berland, decreed in the year 816 that every Bishop 
consecrating a Church should take care that the figure 
of its Patron Saint was painted on the wall. This 
Canon, Dr. Littledale observes, almost precisely 

 Fresco is the art of painting in size colours, upon a fresh plaster ground.^ The 
ziame is derived from the Italians, who call it dipengere in fresco, in contradistinc- 
tion to the dipengere in secco *' Merrim^e." 



ByncliromBes with the earliest use of stained glass 
windows, the first of which were placed by Leo HI. in 
the Church of S. John Lateran. 

In Churches of the earliest date in England traces of 
colour may be found generally appUed in a very rude 
manner, frequently consisting of nothing more than 
yellow wash, and red and black bands. The whole of 
the Norman work in Rochester Cathedral has been 
covered with colour. The stones of the shafts and 
arches were painted alternatively red, green, and 
yellow, the whole face of the stone oeing filled by the 
same colour not distinguishing the mouldings. Wall 
paintings consist of two kinds, diaper patterns or lines 
m imitation of the joints of masonry, merely decorative, 
and pictures of Divine and saintly personages and 
Scriptural and legendary subjects. Specimens of both 
these kinds of frescoes have been so frequently dis- 
covered under coats of whitewash during recent 
restoration of churches, that we may consider it was the 
almost universal custom of the mediaeval architects so 
to decorate the walls of their ecclesiastical edifices. In 
fact bare walls could not be tolerated in buildings where 
floor, roodscreen, shrine and altar glowed with rich 
colours blending and harmonizing with the rays of the 
coloured light which streamed through the painted 
windows, the fitting accompaniments of a gorgeous 

Essex ftimishes several instances of the first kind of 
wall-painting. Feering Church was painted with a 
slate colour powdered with roses and fleiu's-de-lys 
relieved by shields of arms ; Wickham with a diaper of 
chocolate-and-white ; Little Braxted with a masonry 
pattern in double lines of dark red on a buflf ground ; 
this was Norman work and probably coeval with the 
building. Over this, curiously enough, appeared a 
diaper of flowers of a dark red colour. The wall spaces 
at Great Waltham were painted a deep chocolate 
powdered with flowers and stars. Braintree and 
Kelvedon had also specimens of this class of painting. 

The following extract from a Paper read before the 
Royal Institute of British Architects, by the Rev. E. L. 


Cutts, shows iiow colour was applied to the fine 
Perpendicular Church of S. Peter, Great Coggeshall : — 

" The walls generally seem to have been left nnpainted with only 
a line of red in the moulding round the edge of the window splays. 
The bell of the capitals of the pillars was coloured red. The arches 
across the chancel and its aisles had a few stripes of plain colour,, 
chocolate, bright red and yellow. The east walls of the chancel and 
aisles had been painted oyer with a tapestry pattern of a character 
common about the reign of Henry YIL, which pattern returned a 
short distance along the adjoining walls to form an enrichment 
aboye the altars. It will be seen that there is yery Httle painting 
indeed ; and for that yery reason I think it is worikh noting, as a 
proof that in a fine, larse handsome church the system of decoratiye 
colour was sometimes of a yery simple character. I presume the 

Sainted glass in the numerous and large windows am>rded abun- 
ance of colour of the most brilliant, and it was desirable that the 
wall spaces between should be left plain as a foil to the glass 
paintings, with only a line of colour, here and there, to siye 
emphasis to the chi^ architectural features, and to carry the colour 
into the body of the building." 

In the above Church no less than eight consecration 
or dedication crosses were discovered, two under the 
windows of the north wall of the north chancel aisle, 
and one higher up on the right hand of the east window 
of that aisle ; one under the east window of the south 
chancel aisle, and four others under the windows in the 
south wall. They were all alike, a cross pat^e within a 
circular rim, the cross dark red, and the nm dirty grey, 
perhaps faded green. Similar crosses have been found 
at Little Braxted, and they should always be sought for 
during the restoration of a church. It is probabfe that 
a branch with a taper was fixed before each, and the 
candles lighted on the day of Consecration, Anniversary 
of the Dedication, &c. Pugin* says they were generally 
twelve in number, and were anointed by the Bishop 
with chrism during the rite of consecration. 

Examples of the second class of wall paintings, by 
far the most interesting, consist of pictures of Divine 
and saintly personages and Scriptural and legendary 
subjects. Specimens of this kind have been found in 
various churches in our county, e.^., at West Ham and 

 « aioflsary of Ecc Om.," p. 97. 


Hadleiffh (" Transactions " i., p. 161^ iv., 45). In the 
chancel of the late Norman Church of Castle Heding- 
ham, a Bishop in full pontificals may be dimly seen 
through the whitewash. Over the chancel arch in 
Great Waltham Church is a painting of our Lord in 
glory or " doom," a favourite subject for that situation- 
A S. Cristopher, of 14th century work, was found at 
Ingatestone executed on a fine white surface laid on the 
rubble work of the wall. 

The painting (see Plate) discovered at Ingatestone, 
though not unique, is very uncommon, and is one of the 
most interesting extant. It consists of a wheel (7 feet 
2 inches diameter) divided into seven compartments 
representing as many deadly sins. Beginning at the 
top of the wheel we have Pride, Perjury — a very 
curious sketch showing the judicial costume of the 

leriod — Drunkenness, Avarice, Sloth, Lust, and Anger. 

iatan is represented in all the compartments encou- 
raging the persons committing the various sins, and in 
the centre is a representation of hell. Sir F. Madden, 
of the British Museum, pronounced the painting to be 
about the date 1400. Mr. W. Strutt, from whose 
beautiful and accurate drawing our plate is taken, 
observes of this fresco, " each passion of the soul is 
here photographed in powerful vividness, somewhat 
rudely or roughly in style if you please, but with a dis- 
tinctness unmistakable ; and who can tell or measure the 
effects of this silent preacher's teaching both to young 
and old, as well the lordly Baron as the rough villain or 
swain, as they gazed wonderingly upwards at this 
picture of the passions, each one narrowing to the 
centre of a helpless, hopeless doom." 

At Arundel, in Sussex, is a wheel representing the 
Seven Deadly Sins, and also one (of rectangular form) 
illustrating the Seven Virtues. Probably there was a 
similar counterpart wheel originally at Ingatestone. No 
other instances of the seven deadly sins treated as a 
wheel are known, but the subject was a favourite one 
with the mediaeval artists. The usual mode of treatment 
was to represent a tree bearing for its fruit the seven 




Drawn by 

 :HE i^HVhN MGRT. 



deadly sins.* In Catfield Cliurcli, Norfolk^f a painting 
of this kind was discovered some years ago. The* stem 
of the tree issued out of a pair of huge gaping jaws. 
Each branch was formed of a demon. vVitnin the jaws 
of each an unhappy sinner was seated and by his side 
a devil of almost human form, intent upon engulphing 
him in the yawning abyss, whence he is seen emerging 
by an aperture at the opposite extremity. A chain 
meanwhile has been fastened round his neck, and at 
this a demon standing on the jaw below is tugging with 
all his might, to bring the wretch into the bottomless pit, 
into which a king similarly chained is at the moment 
descending headlong. In the same Church was a series 
representing the contrary virtues. Another tree of the 
deadly sins was found in Crostwight Church in the same 
county,:}: and the only other representation known is 
given in Fisher's engraving of the painting on the walls 
of the Chapel of the Trinity, Stratford-upon-Avon. The 
artistic treatment of this last example is so inferior that 
we should not be able to assign the groups but for the 
inscriptions attached to them. In Brooke Church, 
Norfolk, the same subject is shown by a row of figures 
under arches, each bemg swallowed by a demon ; four 
out of the seven only were found. 

The latest kind of wall-painting executed in our 
churches consisted of texts in black letter, with orna- 
mental borders of Jacobean character. These have been 
found at Hadleigh^ Little Braxted, Kelvedon, and 
Laindon ; the latter instance appears on the west wall 

 In Dan Michers " Ayenbite of Inwyt " (or Remorse of Conscience) a deyotional 
manual, in the Kentish dialect, A.D. 1340, the Beast of the Apo(»l}'p8e symbolises 
the Seven Deadly Sins. The beast, says the author, betokeneth the devil whic^ 
Cometh out of the sea of hell, &c., &c. And these are the tokens of the head of the 
beast : The seven heads are the seven deadly sins ; the ten horns the breaking of the 
ten behests ; and the ten crowns are the ten victories over sinners. Every one falls 
into the throat of one of the seven h^uis. The first head of the beast is Pride. Pride 
and its seven boughs : the seven boughs of Pride are, 1, Untruth ; 2, Despite ; 3, 
Presumption ; 4, Ambition ; 6, Vain Glory ; 6, Hypocrisy ; 7, Foul Dread and 
Shame. Each bough has three twigs : the twigs of the first bough — Untruth, are 
crime, madness, apostacy ; and in this method the classification is continued. 
The manual referred to is one of the recent publications of the '* Early English 
Text Society." The original is Arundel MS., 67, Brit. Mus., with the Author's 
autograph ; but a literal Translation of a French Treatise, entitled *^ Le Somme des 
Vices et de Vertus." 

t See Orig. Papers of the Norfolk ArchsBological Society, vol. i., p. 135. 

X n)id., vol. ii., p. 362. 


of the nave, over the entrance to the chancel, beneath a 
distemper painting of the arms of Chas. IL, and is very 
curious for its Conservative spirit, " My son, fear thou 
the Lord and the King, and meddle not with them that 
are given to change. Prov. xxiv., 21.* 

Public favour has been gained for the Polychromatic 
decoration of churches by that powerful of all argu- 
ments, an appeal to public sympathy ; and the practice 
of it, at first regarded as an experiment, is now rapidly 
spreading as a fashion. Though this is the case 
perhaps less is known of the method of judiciously 
applymg colour to the walls of Ecclesiastical and other 
buildings than of any other department of the Gothic 
revival. With all our boasted artistic knowledge the 
wall spaces for the frescoes in the Houses of Parliament 
were so imperfectly prepared that the beautiful paintings 
executed upon them are fast fading away, though, let it 
be remembered, frescoes of the time of Constantino the 
Great are known to be extant, showing how durable the 
method is, if the materials are properly managed. 

As regards the revival of wall-painting in the present 
day, every village church is not required to have 
elaborate paintings, but all could have the walls orna- 
mented with a masonry pattern before-mentioned, or 
powderings of roses ancf fleurs-de-lys, or diaper patterns 
in various colours, at a very small cost.'J' So attached 
were the mediaeval artists to the use of diaper that even 
works in metal, especially effigies, are often engraved 
all over in similar forms to those used on coloured 

The chancel roof should, if possible, be painted blue, 
with a powdering of gold stars. This method of orna- 
menting dated from a very remote antiquity ; for the 

* Wall paintings will no doubt be disoovered during the future restoration of 
Essex Churches. The following is a method of removing them entire : — Paste 
calico or fine canyass over the painting, over that stiff paper, wiien dry remove the 
surrounding plaster and cut down behind with a chisel or like instrument.^ When 
the painting is detached from the wall back it with plaster of Paris, moisten the 
paper and calico till the paste is softened when they wiU easily come off. Man- 
chester card, for removing whitewash by dry rubbing and used for that purpose in 
Ely Cathedral, may be obtained of Mr. Masters, the publisher of '' The 

t As an example of good wall decoration combined with stained glass we may 
meiition the chancel of S. Giles, Qroat Maplestead. • 


tomb of the Egyptian monarch Osmandis, and the 
Athenian Temple of Theseus are thus decorated ; also 
the English Cathedrals of Canterbury, York, and 

In adopting the Gothic school for our mural paintings, 
we must not imitate the faults as well as the merits of 
the mediaeval artists, or, as is too often the case, their 
faults and peculiarities without their merits ; but we 
must remember that though they showed great skill in 
the arrangement of drape?r,.»/taBte in th! choice «>d 
distribution of colours, they knew almost nothing of the 
anatomy of the human figure ; therefore we should not 
refuse to make such alterations as are consistent with 
our increased knowledge on the subject. 



By Mrs. Maeton Wilson. 

About five years since our attention was directed to the 
search for Roman remains by the appearance of pieces 
of potterj on the surface of a ploughed field. Mr, 
Wilson picked up a piece of grey pottery with a fern- 
leaf pattern on it, and soon after the field being land- 
ditched large patches of black eai'th were discovered 
containing a great variety of broken vessels of different 
shapes and many colours — that is to say, black, grey^ 
yellow, white, and red, some of them being Samian 
ware. Some of these fragments were so near the 
surface that it seemed astonishing the pieces were not 
entirely destroyed. In this field we found a few coins, 
one of Tetricus, in very good preservation ; a bronze 
hair-pin, and a pair of lamp tweezers. In the next field, 
and close to the other side of the hedge, we came upon 
the same abundance of pottery and bricks, tiles, 
charcoal, a few pieces of glass, bones, old iron, oyster 
shells, small snail shells, and mussels, the latter too 
much broken to collect ; there were also coins, fibulae, 
&c. In another part of this field, at a httle distance 
jfrom the " general mixture," there appeared to have 
been a cemetery. The urns, which were filled with 
burnt bones and some smaller vessels, all much broken^ 
retained their shape in the very solid clay in which we 
found them, but being cracked they fell to pieces when 
washed. On the top or openings of some of these urns 
we found red saucers, of imitation Samian, and not much 
broken. The urns were deeper in the soil than the 
firagments of pottery are usually found. There were 


many diflTerent kinds of vessels bxiried near the urns, all 

We discovered a roughly-paved stone path leading 
from the cemeterv ; it was not in the direction of the 
spot where we nrst foimd the Roman remains, but 
turned towards another smaller deposit of remains about 
a quarter of a mile distant in the opposite direction. 
It IS not improbable that a road ran between the two 
settlements, and that the cemetery was used by both. 
The road would have been in a line from High Roding 
to Hatfield Broad Oak, and is now frequently used as a 
foot way. 

We observed that many of these deposits of pottery 
seemed to have a small pavement of rough stones at 
the bottom of the hole, and it was under one of these 
pavements that the elegant little stag's horn was found 
m the clay soil. Every spot where the ground has been 
dug may even now be traced by the number of large 
stones lying about. 

We have not been able to decide what sort of settle- 
ment the Romans had formed here, but we may imagine 
it to have been a peaceful one, as we have found omy a 
few small spear heads ; the old iron appears to have 
been chiefly used for carpenter's tools, fhe hair pins, 
needles, and fibulae lead us at all events to suppose that 
women formed part of the settlement. 

Although the collection of vases, &c., is of rather 
coarse material it had some value in the opinion of its 
owners, for there may be remarked on some of the 
pieces holes already perforated for repairing, and on one 
of the fragments the rivet, made of lead, was attached 
when first found, but unfortunately has since been 
broken oflF. 

It is impossible to enumerate the quantity of frag- 
ments in our collection ; rims of vases, handles of jugs, 
lips of most elegant tear bottles, bits of mortaria, 
amphorae, &c., but no amount of patience or investigation 
would ever succeed in making a perfect vessel, scarcely 
any two pieces appearing to match. There are some 
three or four barrow loads of them. 

Not the least interesting discovery are the remains of 



handmais, which have been found in every spot where 
we have dug. They are made of various kinds of stone, 
such as granite, the stone commonly known as ^^ plum 
pudding stone, &c. There were also many round 
stones of various sizes. 

Among the bones will be seen a specimen of the skull 
and horns of what is supposed to be the extinct ^^ Bos 
longifrons ;" it was found rather deeper in the ground 
than we usually dug ; there were otner bones near it, 
but not the whole animal. 

The quantity of snail shells that have been found is 
rather remarkable : in one spot there was certainly 
more than half-a-peck of them collected in a small space. 
In every digging they have appeared in more or less 
abundance, exactly of the same kind, which circum- 
stance, perhaps, may strengthen the idea that the snails 
were eaten as delicacies, or, at least, used as food. We 
hope to continue the researches in the autumn, and any 
success we may meet with will be most gladly 
communicated to the Society. 



(No. 6.) 

By H. W. Knra* 

In fiilfilment of the intention expressed in my fourth 
contribution under the above title, I now present the 
Wills of the first and second Lords Mamey, which, I 
think it will be admitted, are exceedingly valuable and 
interesting records, and, I hope, will prove a useful 
supplement to the papers on Layer Mamey Hall and 
Church, and the Pedigree of Marney published in the 
third volume of the Society's " Transactions."* I have 
not myself investigated the descent of the Mamey 
family, nor, with the exception of these wills, have I 
consulted any original records which might contribute 
to ite further elucidation. Whatever genealogical evi- 
dence is contained in any of the Mamey Wills must be 
accepted as authentic, whether confirmatory or other- 
wise of existing pedigrees in print or MS., and it will 
only be for me to add such notes as may appear to be 
required in illustration or explanation of the text. 

Morant had seen, or more probably had been fur- 
nished with, extracte from both wills. He briefly 
mentions the directions contained in that of Henry, 
Lord Mamey, for the foundation of a Chantry and 
Almshouse and for the construction of his tomo, and 
also the instructions given for the latter purpose in the 
will of John, Lord Mamey. I venture to believe that 
these elaborate directions and other particulars con- 
tained in the respective wiUs will be acceptable to the 

• " Pedigree of Mamey/' Vol. HI., p. 1, and " Architectural Notee on layer 
Mamey Hall, Essex ; and on the Bmsh Church adjoining/' by Charks Forster 
Hayward.— VoL UI., p. 18. 


The Will op Henrt Lord Marney, K.G., op Later 
Marney, Dated 22 May, 1523, and Proved 15 
June, 1523. 

He was son and heir of Sir John Marney, and is de- 
scribed by Morant as a man of great abilities and 
courage. He was Privy Counsellor to K. Henry VIL 
and K. Henry VHL ; Knight of the Garter ; Captain 
of the Guard ; made Keeper of the Privy Seal 4th Feb., 
1522 ; and on the 9th of April following was created 
Lord Marney. He departed this life 24th May, 1523, 
and was buried in the Chancel of Layer Marney, with 
a monument.* His last will and testament I have 
transcribed almost in its entirety ; but a few passages, 
which possess but little, if any, archaeological interest, 
I have abridged in modem orthography and inserted 
within brackets. 

In DEI NOMiNB, AMEN. I, Henry Mamy, Enyght, lord Mamy 
being hole of mynde and parfite memory, thanked be almighty 

E3d, The xxii day of May The xv yere of the Reign of Kyng 
enry the viij***. make and ordeyn this my present testament and 
last will in fourme following, that is to wit, ffirst and principally I 
bequeth my soole to almighty i^od and to his blessed moder Mary 
and to all tiie holy company of hevyn, my body to be buried in the 
chaonoell of leyer Mamy Church, y{ I depart at London or at any 
place nere London, where diverse of myn Auncestours lyez, in a 

Elace which I will that m^ executour& make for me according as 
ereafter in this my last will shall make mention, if God call me to 
his mercy or that I have my said place in the chauncell foresaid 
which I trust, yf God give mp lyfe, to make and ordeyn for my 
self in as convenient tjine as I can. [Revokes all other wills and 
decrees this as his last will and testament.] Item, I geve and 
bequeth to mother Church of powles, vj'. viij*. Item to the 

Siarson of Leyer Mamy for my tithes and oblacions negligently 
brgotten xx*. Item, to the parson of Saint Swithen by London 

uj'. luj*. to thentent I may be part 
all their good praiers, and may the better be had and kept in remem- 
brauns in tyme tocom. Item, I will that if I happ to dye nowe, 
that myn executours doo for my burying according to my degree 
and that my hersse be prouided for here in london w* masses and 

« «Morant'8 Hist. Essex," YoL I.« p. 406, where see also the descent of the 
Hainey fiEunily. 


diriges and all other services as shulde be at my burying. And 
that my body be conveyed out of London w' the iiij orders of flfreres 
in London, and every one of the said orders to have xx". Item, to 
ev'y church metyng my said body by the way with the crosse, 
iij\ iiij**., and to every Church where my body shall Rest by the 
way by one hool m ght, viV & viij**. And to eu'y prest and clerk 
doing service there to have for their labour after the rate as is 
appoynted at my buryall. And I will there be xxiiij pour men do 
holde xxiiij torches at my burying and masse and ev'y pour man to 
have for his labour a black gowne and a whood and xij** of money. 
Also I will there be xxx prestos at my burying, if they may be 
had, and ev'y of theym that is there, both at my dirige and after 
the next day, and saye masse for my soule, to have viij** for his 
labour. And that he that syngith high masse, yf he be a doctour or 
bachelor of diuinitie, to have x*', for his labour the same day ; and 
he that is but at masse or at dirige oonly to have but iiij"^. for his 
labour. Also I will that some Doct'* or connyng man make a 
sermon for the day of my buriall, and he to have xx** for his labour. 
Item, to ev'y clerk, being a man, and at my dirige and masse 
helping to do service, iiij**. And ev'y childe ij**. Item, I will that att 
my burying day be dalt to pour men, women and children, whereas 
my executors shall think nedeful, xx li. in penny dool, or in ij* 
doole. Item, I will that Immediately after my decesse that myn 
executors cawse to be said for my soule and for the soules of Sir 
William Mamye grauntfather to the said lord Mamy and dame 
Kateryn his vnfe and Sir Robert Mamy grete grauntfather of the 
said lord Mamy and his wife, ISir John Mamy and Dame Jane his 
wife, and for the soules of my two wife's Thomasin and Elizabeth 
and thomas Mamy and my other children and all xp'en soules ; 
first at scala ccbH in Westm'* a Trentall of masses, Item the 
flfreres Observunts t of Greenwich, a Trentall of masses. Item, the 
fifreres Observaunts of Richmond, a Trentall of masses. Item, at 
ev'y of the same orders of freres in London a Trentall of masses. 
Item, at the blak freres at Chelmesford, Qrey fi&eres in Colchester 
a Trentall of masses, and at the ffreres at Maldon a trental of 
masses, ev'y of the said orders to have for their labour x'. Item, I 
will that all such Prests and Clerks that doo come and doo seruice 
as mass and dirige at my monethes mynde to have like wages as I 
have before lymyted and assigned at my burying, And also like 
manor dool to be dalt at my burying day by the otiscrecion of myn 
executours. Also I will that there be a convenient herse $ made 

• See note on Scala reeli, Vol. III., p. 172, of the " Trans." Essex Arch. Soc. 

t Friars Observant, or Minorities, of the Order of S. Francis. 

% Hene, a frame set over the coffin of the deceased and coyered with a paU or 
herse cloth. It was usually of light wood- work, and commonly part of the furni- 
ture of the Church, to be used when occasion required. In some cases it was a 
permanent tramework of brass or iron OT^r the tomb and effigy of the deceased. 
The herse doth or paU was formerly considered as essential to the furniture of 
the Ghoxch as the Burplice or altar nontals. In the inTentfrnes cf Ohuch goods 


aboute me in the Church according to my degree, w* my armes and 
other things bilonging unto me as by my myn executors shalbe 
thought convenient, and my body to be conveyed as shortly as may 
be. Item, I will that all my household servaunts every one of 
thejrm have his hole yeres wages paide him at the day of my 
buriall. And also ev'y Archar to have delivered to him a bow and 
oon sheef of Arrows. [Here follow some matters of no special 
interest] [Whereas I have put in feoffment my man' of Eyfquite 
with appurtenances in Co. Cornwall, Leyre Mamy with the advowson 
of the Church also my manor of Gybcrik and all other lands 
tenements and appurtenances in Co. Essex wherever they be, 
which I lately had of the gift of our lord the King which some 
time were of the late Duke of Buck., and all my lands and tene- 
ments called Meeles, Monny Clofford and Heydon Co. Som*. 
Tythdrop Co. Oxon and Pollys Co. Bucks, will that my feoffees 
stand charged thereof to the performance of my will. Will that 
my Lord Fitzwalter, Edmond Bedyngfild and Thomas Bonam my 
sonnes in law have power to make the said feoffment, and they to 
stand seized of the said lands, &c., from time to time till my will is 
performed.] First I will that with the profits of all my said 
landes that the chapel which I have begon adioynyng to the 
chauncell of the panshe churche of leyer Mamy forsaid be new 
maide and fully fynysshed according to the same proporcions in 
length bredith and heith as it is bogon, with a substancial flat 
Boofe of Tymber, and also with the profit of my said lends that 
myn executours cawse to be made a Tumbe of marbull to be sett 
in the wall betwixt the chauncell and the said chapell, which wall 
I will it be newe and to be vawted over w* marbull and workmcmly 
wrought w* suche works as shalbe thought convenient by my 
executours, and my Image to be made of black marbull or Towch * 
w* every thing convenient and appurteyning to the same, And to be 
leyde and sett upon the said Tomb. Ana I will that two Images 
of laton t be made w* the pyctours of my two wife w' ther Cote 
Armers upon them, that is to say Thomasyn, and she to lie on my 
right side, and Elizabeth, she to lye on my lefte side upon the same 
Tombe. Item I will also that w^ the profits of the said landes a 
new almes house be made and sett up w* fyve particions for fyve 
pour men, and oon comen kechyn for theym all v. And to be sett 
m the lane going doune to Bofeld bridge or ells in the dayry pytell 

taken in the 6th. of Edw. VT., the herse cloth is constantly mentioned, and was as 
constantly assigned by the Commissioners for the use of the Church. I beliere that 
the custom of hiring a pall of an undertaker must have been unknown until long^ 
after temp. Edw. Yi., or until the old herse cloths were worn out and parishes re- 
fused to supply others. Black palls did not come into use till about temp. Hen. 
YII.» and coloured palls were in use in the reign of Elizabeth. 

• Towch, Touchstone. 

t The mixed metal of which monumental brasses are made was formerly called 
latten. Candlesticks, thoribles, basons, croflaeo and other Church utensilfl were often 
of the same mateariaL 


whereas my wife shall thynke it most conyenient, And the walls to 
be made of bryk roofed w* TymV and Tyled, And also grounde for 
a gardyn and a place for to ley the woode Inne adioyniug to the 
same howse, And to be closed w* a bryk wall. Item, I will that 
the said pour men yerely haye xx loode of woode in their yarde at 
costs and charges of the profits of the said land. Item, I will that 
myn executours w^ the profits of the said landes called Melles, 
Monny Olofford, Heydon, Tythdrop and Rolyes shall contynually 
maynteyn fyye pour men to be chosen by their discrecion, not being 
able to gett their lyying by labour or other occupacions. Item I 
will that eyery pour man have for and towards his fynding x** ey'y 
weke to be paid unto every of the said pour men at thende of ey'y 
moneth by myn executours or by the longest lyyer of theym, And 
after their decesse to the oversight of such persones as I hereafter 
shall name and appoint by this my last Will and Testament, and 
after their decesse by my feoffees and of the said manors landes and 
tenements by the oversight of my next heire to whom the said 
landes cannot descend according to myn entent and purpose as is 
declared in this my last will, provided alway that there be noo 
woman, noon of the fy ve afore assigned, unless her husband be one 
of theym, and that the said woman be of good name and not of 
abilitie to gett her lyving w^ her hande labour. Item, I will that 
ev'y of the forsaid fyve pour folk have ageynst the feast of saint 
mighel tharchangell one gowne of Russet iryse redy made. And I 
will that ev'y of the pour folk aforsaid which shalbe appoynted by 
my executours or by the persones above named in my will, shalbe 
such as canne say at the lest their pater nest', ave and Crede in 
latin, * Sot the which wages and salary and any other necessaries 
to the said pour men before lymyted and appoynted, I will that ev'y 
of the forsaid pour folk in the morning att their first uprysing sey 
for the soules of Sir Robert Marny, kny^ht, and his wyfe, for Sir 
William Marny, knyght, and his wife. Sir John Marny father to 
the said lord Marny and Dame Jane his wife and moder to the said 
lord Marny, and for the soules of Thomasyn and Elizabeth wyfe to 
me the said lord Marny, and for the soule of Thomasyn Marny and 
Sonne, and for the soules of all my children v pater nosters and one 
crede, and every day to goo to the church of leyer Marny and 
there to here masse which shalbe said in the new chapeU before 
named, and at their first coming every of the said poure men shall 
knele down before the Sacrement and say a pater noster and an ave, 
and then to goo to my tombe and there to knele down, and so kneling 
shall say for the soule of the said lord Mamey and other afore- 
named three pater nosters thre aves and oon crede in the worship of 
the Trinite, and then to depart downe to the church and there in the 
tyme of masse or masses or ells before they depart from the said 

* So much knowledge as thiB, was perhsps more general than is sapposed, and it 
win be seen that the Testator even assnmes that some of the i*imfftflff would be able 
to recite the Psalm " De Frofundis" in Latin. 


church, ev'y one of the said pour folk shall sey for the before 
named soules our lady sawter, and at night befor ther going, ev'y 
one of the said pour folk to sey kneling on ther kneys v pater 
nosters y aves ana one erode for the soules aforsaid, and such of the 
said pour folk as can say de profundis he or they to sey it in Mew 
of the said fyve pater nopters, v aves, and one crede. Also I wiH 
that ev'y of the said pou' folk upon ev*y wennysday and fryday 
doo goo unto the church at after noone and there kneling aboute 
my said tombe say for my soule and other afore rehersed our lady 
sawter, And yf there be of the said pour folk that can say dirige 
then he or they to sey dirige for the souls aforsaid in liewe of our 
lady sawter every of the said wennysday and fryday : Provided 
alway that yf any of the said pour folk be seke or diseased or that 
he or they cannot goo ne come unto the said parish church, that 
then he or they that cannot so doo to sey all suche prayers as 
before lymyted, being at home in their said houses before 
limited. And if any of the said pour folk be so dyseased that 
they cannot sey their said prayers according as is before re- 
hersed, that than I will the other of the pour men to sey hit for 
him, so that every day all the said prayers as before expreysed be 
daily said for the soules beforenamed. Also I will that with all 
the profits of the said londes called Melles, Nonny Clofford, heydon, 
Tythrop and Rolvys, my executours and the other persones to whom 
this my present will and testament doo geve full power ard 
auctoritie, doo contynually for ever fynde twoe good and honest 
prests being of good conversacion and also such as do understand 
what they reed, that they or every of theym say masse daily in the 
chapell aforesaid unless they be seke or diseased or som day not 
dispoased. And that ev'y day in their masse doo sey de Promndis 
for my soule and other above rehersed. And to sey ev'y sonday 
masse of the nativitee of our lorde and of thannunciacon of our 
lady, And on monday of the hooly goost and nativitie of our lady, 
ana on the tuysday masse of the Trinitie and of the Conception 
of our lady, and on the wedensday of the Resurrection and purifi- 
cation, on the thursday de corpore Xp'i and the assumpcion of our 
lady, on the ffiriday of the v wounds and of the Crosse, and on 
Satorday de om'bz Sanctis et de Virgine, * and that every Wednes- 
day ana fryday ev'y of the said prests to say placebo and dirige and 
commendacions for my soule and other before named. Item I will 
that there be a chamber over the said Almes bowse or by hit as my 
Executours shall thynke expedient for the said ij prests, where I 
will the said ij prests shall lye to thentent the said pour men may 
be the better guyded and ordered, and that I will ev'y of the said 
two prests have for his salary yerely x mcs, to be paid by myn 
executours or other persones in this my last will and testament named, 

* The ▼axions maases referred to would each consist of the ordinary canon of the 
maaa and the introduction of Collecl^ Epistle and Gospel suitahle to the particnlar 


• four tymes in the yere, and I will the said prests and every of theym 
doo moche as in theym is that the said pour folk doo come unto the 
Ohurch at the tymes before lymyted, and also doo sey their said 
service and prayers like as to theym is appoynted, other ells the 
■said prests to geve monycion and knowledge unto the said ex- 
ecutours or to such other as shalhave the orderynge of the sayme. 
Also I will that as well the said ij prests, as also the said v pour 
men duringe their lyves, or the lyves or lyfe of any of my executours 
or the longer lyves of any of theym, or by such other persones bj 
me appoynted by this my last will and testament or named to their 
said liomes and hin charge given unto Iheym by my executours 
or other as is aforesaid, [that if the said men be of ill conversacion 
rule or governance, then they to be examined and if found faulty 
to be removed by my executors and others appointed, and others to 
be admitted.] Then I wiU that the said Lord Fitzwater now 
being, Edmund Bedingfelde and Thomas Bonam my sones in law 
have like auctoritie to name and appoint the said pour folk so often 
as they shall require, [and that they after the death of my executors 
shall have fall power to execute this my last wiU and testament in 
every article, and after their decease my next heir to whom my 
lands and tenements come shall have like power as the executors 
.and as the persons afore said now have] and that my purpose and 
intent may continewe for ever, providea alwey that if me profit of 
the said lands [as aforesaid] do not suffise, or may not peaceably be 
receyved by myn executours or the other before named persons for 
the maintenance of the said v pour men and the said ij prests, then 
as much of the profits of the manor of Leyer Mamy, kylquyte, 
Bucks, Burgus, Bourton, Essyington and litell Brykhill as shalbe 
required for the mainteynance of the same. * 

Then foUows the disposition of Hie testator's goods 
and chattels, &c., of no special interest; and of the 
•conclusion of the will I give the following brief abstract 
in modem orthography : — 

[Gfive to John Bonam, son and heir of Thomas Bonam, £100 in 
plate or money when 21, if he die before, then to "William Bonam, 
son of Thomas Bonam, when 21. If both die, then to the next heir 
male of Thomas Bonanu If their father choose to accept the same 
before they are 21, 1 am content therewith. To the son and heir of 
Edmund Bedingfelde £100 in plate or money (same condition as in 
the case of Thomas Bonam.) To William Latham and my 
^daughter his wife £20. To Eustace Sulyard £10. Francis Sul- 

* Morant says that the Almshouse founded and endowed by this wiU "is said 
lo have stood by the Fond coming to the house. It was of short continuance ; for 
'U. Elizabeth in 1592 granted the Almshouse in Laier Kamey, to those two greedy 
hunters after concealed lands, William Tipper and Eobert Dawe." (Z^t. Fttt, 
M Eliz.) Moranf s « ffist Essex," VoL L, p. 409. 



yard to be foand to school for the space of three years by my 
executors after saoh manner that he may be an "oratoor." To 
Jane Bonam^ daughter of Thomas Bonam, £20. To '' Seynt- 
awyn" 6 marks. To Master Robert Symson* the parson of 
'^eyer Mamey" £10. Residue to Sir John Mamey and he and 
John Vyntener^t Abbot of S. Osyth's, to be executors.] Proved 
15 June, 1523. 

The Will op John, Lord Makney of Layeb Marney, 
Dated 10 March 1524-5, and Proted 28 June, 1526. 

John, Lord Mamey was the eldest son of Henry, 
first Baron Mamey, by Thomasine his first wife, daughter 
of Sir John Arundel of Lanherne, Cornwall. He died 
within two years after his father, without issue male, 
when the title became extinct. He also was twice 
married. By his first wife Christian, daughter and heir 
of Sir Roger Newburgh, he had two daughters, Cathe- 
rine, who married first to George Ratcliif, afterwards to 
Thomas Lord Poynings ; and Elizabeth married to Lord 
Thomas Howard, son of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, created 
Lord Howard of Bindon. Bridget, fourth daughter of 
Sir William Waldegrave, widow of Thomas Fmdeme, 
Esq., of Little Horkesley, was Lord Marney's second 
wife, by whom he had no children.J His will, con- 
taining very minute directions for the celebration of his 
obsequies, the construction of his tomb, the foundation 
of a chantry, bequests of sacred ut^ensils and vest- 
ments to the Church of Layer Marney and other 
churches, notices of his own habiliments, weapons, and 
of some of the furniture of his mansion, is of greater 
antiquarian interest than that of his father. I have 
transcribed nearly the whole of it verhatiniy placing 
within brackets, in modern English, those portions 
taken in abstract. 

In the name of God Amkn. the tenyth daye of the moneth 
of marche In the yere of our Lorde God a Thousand fyve hundred 

« Bobert Symson, M.A., admitted Rector of Layer Mamey 29 April, 1488, 
on tlie presentation of Henry Mamey, Esq: (the Testator) ; and Rector of Stanway 
Magna 27 Nov., 1505, on tiie presentation of Thomas Bonam (jur$ uxori$. ) The 
latter benefice he resigned in 1514-15, the former he also resigned in 1530. " Newo. 
Repert. Londin." 

t John Yyntener died Abbot of S. Osyth April 19, 1538. 

X Moiaat^i ** Hist Essex," Vol. I., p. 406. 


twenty and foure, in the fyfteenth yere of the Reigne of onr 
Sovereagne lorde Kinge Henry the eight, I John Marnv knyghte. 
Lord Marny of Marny in the countie of Essex being whole of mind 
&c. . . . bequeth my soule to the blessed Trinities to our lady 
saint Mary to saint John the Baptist and to all the holy company 
of hevyn, And my body to be buned in the newe He in the north 
side of the parishe churche of leyer Marny in the middes of the 
said He, directly agenst the myddes of the newe chapell, six foots 
from the peticion betwene the chapell and the He, m a vawte of 
bryke to be made so large that two bodies may be leyd therein, over 
the which yawte I will there be a Tombe sett and made of suche 
stone as my fathers is made of, yf it may be gotten, or ells of graye 
marbul, the which Tombe I wol shalbe eight foote long and fyye 
foote brode and four foote high, and to be wrought in eyery con- 
dicion as my fathers Tombe is, except the yawte oyer and aboye my 
fathers said Tombe, and the arms aboute the Tombe I will to be 
changed after the deyice of the harrode, * and round aboute my said 
Tumbe I will there be made a ^rate of waynscott, and at eyery 
comer of the same grate a principall pyller w^ a white lybard f 
upon the topp thereof, and upon which Tumbe I well haye an Image 
for my self of the same stone that my said Tombe like unto my 
said fathers tombe shalbe made, yf it may be gotten, or ells of free- 
stone, my said Image lying upon the midds therof porteryd w* my 
cote armor, with my helme and creste at the hede and a white 
leopard at the feet, and on either side of my said Image I will mjm 
executours ley oon Image of brasse for every of my two wyyes. 
Dame Crystian and Dame Brygett The Image of my wife Dame 
Bryffitt is to be laid on my nght hande and me other of my lefte 
hande, and bothe the said Images to be pykturyd with ther Cote 
armors, and at the west ende of the said Tombe I will there be 
made an awter where I woU haye a preest synging for me per- 
petually after such orden'ces and devices as here in this my present 

* Harrode, Herald. 

t We find the annfl of Mamey of Eflsex blazoned as " As. a leopard rampant 
Argent," but more commonly represented *' Az. a lion rampant guarttcHi Argent," as 
over the entrance to one of the chantries in East Homdon Church. This appears to 
be the explanation of the apparent difference : some armorists, in old times, objected 
to the representation of a lion guurdant or reguaraant^ and declared that this posture 
alone was sufficient to decide whether the animal should be blazoned a Lion or a 
Leopard ; and that the attidude of passant or reguardant always denoted a Leopard. 
Some of the stricter writers, therefore, to end the controversy, invented the terms 
Lion-Leopard for a lion when in any other position than rampant and in profile ; and 
of lieopard-Lion when passant or rampant 'guardant, that is, full laced. The lion, 
says Jerome de Baxa, a French heraldic author of repute, in his " Blazon de 
Armoiries," 16*28, is always rampant or ravaging and shews but one eye and one ear. 
The leopard is always passant or aiiant, and shews both eyes and both ears. This, 
Mr. Planch6 thinks, was a distinction established by the very earliest Heralds. 
Therefore the position of the animal in Lord Mamey's arms, would at this period 
cause him correctly to describe the cognizance to be sculptured upon his tomb as a 
leopard, quite regardless of zoological distinction. Vide, " The Pursuivant of 
Arms," by J. B. Planch^ F.8.A.1 where the questum is more fnlly diacussed. 


will here after I have shewed and dedared. And I woll that my ex- 
ecutours bury me after imr degree with as litill pompe as they caziy and 
I woll that the nyght before my burial be said v Trentall of <]^g8 by 
note, and the day of my burial a trentall of masses, wherof I woU. 
thre be b^ note, the first of the Trinitie, the seconde of our lady 
and the high masse of Bequiem, and every of the two preests that 
shall sin^ the two first masses I woll they shall have iii' and 
iiij"^ and he that syngeth the high masse to have yj* & viij, and 
every other priest for masse and dirige zij^ every clerk bemg & 
man and helping to syng iiij*^, and every child being a synger * 
and helping to syng ij^ and the Singers iij' & m]\ Also I 
woll that every such person that shall here my body to the church 
to have xx*^, and I woll that there be at my burying xxiiij pour men 
to holde xxiiij torches in the service tyme and every oon oi them to- 
have a blak gowne and a whood and xij'^ for his labour. Also I 
will that my executours dele att my buiying ij"^ dole xx IL and that 
they cause eveiy man woman and child before the dole knele on. 
their kneys and to say the prayer of de profimd' and such that 
cannot, they to say oon pater noster oon ave and oon orede for my 
soule. Also I will that myn executours kepe my monethes myndo 
in leyer mamy at which tyme I will have said a Trentall of masses 
and dirige, other there or ells where, but as many as may be said 
there, I will shalbe doon and saide there ; and every preest and 
Clarke to have for their labour as is appoynted at my burying. 
Also that the said xxiiij pour men be at tne monethes mynde and 
doo holde the said torches at dirige and masse and to have for their 
labour xij"^ a pece as is before to them appoynted, and the Ringers in 
like manner as at my buriaU. Also I will that there be delte at my 
said monethes mynde x U. in penny dole, and after my said 
monethes mynde doon, I woll the said xxiiij torches be gevyn to 

Eour churches, where moost node is to have moost and the other to 
ave lesse, upon the discrecion of wjd. executours. Also I will that 
myn executours kepe my yeres mynd at leyer Mamy there to bo 
doon in every thing as is appoynted at my monethes mynde. [Qive 
to the high altar of Leyer Mamy Church xx' ; to the Dean of the 
£ing's Chapel vi' viij"* ; to tne high altar of Henyngham co. 
Suflfolk iij' liij** ; to the work of " Panics " vi" viij* ; to the hirfi 
altar of Elswortti, Dorsetshire yj' viij'*; Ketteringham, Norf<3k 
vi' viij*; S. Thomas of Acre vj" viij^; and to every Convent of 
which I am a brother iij* iiij*, and I will that my executors give 
knowledge to every such place as soon as conveniently may be after 
my death that they may pray for my soule. Executors to peiform 
the will of Sir Roger Newburgh (and directions thereupon). Give 
to my two daughters Catherine and Elizabeth their ]^ortions of 
3000 sheep, wethers and ewes, given to my wife Christian by Sir 

* Children were trained and insfcmcted in the monastic schools to sing in choir 
and take their part in the divine offices ; hence we meet with fre^aeot mention of. 
Ia7 derks and singing boys assisting at funeral solemnities. 


Boger Newburgh; the like number of sbeep to be sold and tbe 
proceeds given to my daughters at 21 ; if one die before 21 the 
suryivor to receive her share. (Other directions as to the disposal 
of personalty of no special interest follow.)] Give and bequeth 
to my wife !Dridgett oon hundred pounds ot plate to be chosen by 
herselfe of all mj plate as she shall like best, and I give and be- 
queth to my said wife my bedde of ciymsyn and whyte satyn 
embrowdered w* letters of gold and wyngs of silver* w* tho 
curtens of whyte and crjrmsen sarsnett belonging thereto. Also I 
give unto her my bedde of crymsyn veluet and a tynsell satten 
embrowdered w* lybards of silver t in the curte3^ns of camacion 
sarsnett belonging thereto. Also I give and bequeth unto my said 
wife too of my best fetherbedds, two counterpoynts, two paire of 
fiistyannes j: K>r the same two bedds of silke aforesaed, and two 
paire of my best shots of the seconde sorte. Also I give unto her 
the half dele of my naprye, diaper and playn, to be sorted in three- 
sorts, she to have part of the best parte of the thurde, and if my 
said wife die before me, then I woll that all the said bedding and 
napree Eemayn to my said daughter Kateryn yf she marry w' any 
of the sonnes of lord Fitzwater, or eUs to such heire as shall have 
and enjoy the mano' of leyer Mamy, &c. &c. [Disposes of certain 
kitchen stuff.] Also I geve to my said wife hangings for two 
chambers of tapstery which be now appojmted for the two logeings 
in the newe galery on the west side of the Tower. [Besidue to 
daughter " Kateryn " if she marry one of the sons of Lord Fitz- 
walter, or else to the heire of the manor of Layer Mamey. Give to 
Dame Grace Bedyngfelde £10 in plate or money and to my sister 
** Kateryn Bonh'm '* £40 in plate or money], and I woU that my 
hameys and wepons, bowes and arowes, tents and hales § with all 
implements of husbandry between Sir Edmond Bedyngfeld and 
Thomas Bonh'm equally, except all such hameys, wepuns, bowes and 
arowes as here by wiU I bequeth imto my househola servaunts and 
officers, that is to saye to every Archar an almane Bevytt || com- 

* The Wings were derived from the family crest, a chapeftasa. lined erm. between 
a pair of wings elevated, Argent. 

t From the white leopard in the Mamey shield. 

X Chasnbles of " fdstian" are frecmently mentioned in inventories of Church 
goods ; e.ff., in the '* Fabric Bolls of York Minster." It was probably a &brio of 
saperiox texture to that now known by the same name. 

9 Hale, a tent or pavilion. " Hale in a felde for men*' trrf. Palsgrave. Nares 
understands the term '' TabemaciUmn, a Pavilion, Tent, or jQale," Alyott» 1569. 
Halliwell's " Archaic Diet." tub 9oc$. It would appear, however, from the use of 
both words in this will that there was some distinction between the Tent and Hale, 
whether in size, form, quality, or material ; but what the difference was I cannot 
discover. The words appear to have been accepted as perfectly synonymous. 

II Almaine Bivets, overlappinff plates of armour for the lower part of the body, 
held together by sliding rivet^ allowing greater flexibility, and invented in Gtermany, 
whence the name, were u sed in the sixteenth century. See Btothard's efiKgy of 
Sir W. Peche, temp. Hen. VJUUL. ; his tassets are formed of them. A good example 
of later date may be seen in the effigy of Sir Denner Stmtt, 1641, in lattle Warley 
Church. '< Costume in England" by F. W. Eairholt, F.S.A., 2nd edn., p. 569. By 
an oversight at p. 388, of Mr. Eairholf 8 work, Abnaine riveto aie said to have beeiL 
introduced in the tewnieetUh century. 


plete, a bowe and a sheff of arowes, and to every bill man an almane 
Kevytt and a bill ; and I will that myn audytors^ stewards, 
shepards and shepe Ryves shall not be accompted for household 
servaunts and officers. Also I will that mjm executours doo cause to 
be made of my gownes of silke and velvet oon vestement * for the 
newe chapell on the northside of the chauncell of the said churche 
of leyer Mamy, and two vestements for my chauntery awter at the 
end of my said tombe ; another vestement for the chapell wHu the 

?lace, and oon vestiment for the high awter of the saide churche. f 
'he residue of all my gownes of silke and velwet I woU that 
vestements be made of same and -gevyn to pour churches in the 
countre where most need is. All my other gownes of clothe, coots, 
jacwets of silke and velwet I give to my household servaunts to be 
distributed at the discrecion of myn Executours. Also I will that 
myn executours prepare ordeyn and cause to be made of oon 
hundred pounds of plate or money three paire of basons three paire 
of candelsticks & too paxes, :|: three paire of cruetts, thre sacrying 

* YeBtmenty spoken of as a Priest's vesture, inyari&bly means the chasuble. 

t The richer garments of the nobility and gentry were often given to be converted 
iuto Church Vestments. 

I The Pax, Pax-board, Tabula Pacis, Osculatorium, or Porte-paix, a small 
tablet having on it a representation of the Crucifixion, or some other Christian 
S3rmbol offered to the congregation in the Western Church to be kissed in the cele- 
bration of the Mass ; it was usually of silver or other metal, with a handle at the back, 
but was occasionally of other materials ; sometimes it was enamelled and set with 
precious stones. The pax was introduced when the o§euium pacU or kiss of peace 
was abrogated on account of the confusion which it caused. *' Parker's Olossarv of 
Architecture." See also a valuable and learned article on the Pax by Mr. Albert 
Way, Vol. lY., p. 144, of the ** Journal of the Archeeological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland." *^ The primitive use of the Pax,** says Mr. Way, " is to be de- 
rived from the practice of the first ages of the Christian Church, when the Faithfiol 
followed literaUy the injunction of S. Paul to the Corinthians, ' ^f^^^ 7^ on* 
another with an holy kisis.' The custom is mentioned by Tertullian, S. Clement of 
Alexandria, and Origenee. Athenagoras in his apology for the Christians, written 
about A.D. 166, speaks qf the solemnity and grave demeanour with which this token 

of Christian charity was given The precise period when the use of the 

sacred instrument caUed the Pax was introduced has not been clearly ascertained ; 
some have considered it to have been in the time of Pope Innocent I., at the com- 
mencement of the fifth century ; others have attributed the usage to an ordinance of 
Pope Leo II., A.D. 676 ; but Dr. Milner was of opinion that when the sexes began 
to be mixed together in the less solemn service called the Low Mass, which seems to 
have begun to take place in the 1 2th or 13th century, a sense of decorum dictated 
the use of this instrument, which was kissed first by the Priest, then by the Clerk, 
and lastly by the people who assisted at the service instead of the former fraternal 

The early custom is referred to in the Apostolical constitutions and some particulars 
are given as to the performance of the ceremony. *' Let the Bishop salute the 
Church and say Tfi$ Peace of Ood be with you ally and let the people answer, And with 
thy Spirit ; then let the Deacon say to all, Halute me muother with a holy kiei ; and 
then let the Clergy kiss the Bishop, and the laymen the laymen, and the women the 
women.*' (" ArchBBologia " xx., 634). The Pax was used in the English Church down 
to the close of the reign of Hen. VlII., as shewn in the injunctions issued to the 
Qergy within the Deanery of Doncaster at that time — the exact date is uncertain — 
in which the following direction occurs : — ** And the Clerke shaU bring down the 
Paxe, and standing without the Church door, shall say loudly to the people these 
words : — Thie i» a token of j'oyfui Ffaee, which ie betwixt Ood €nd mme eoneemwe : 
Ohriet alone ie the Peacemaker which ettaitly eommande Peace between Brother and 
Broihar. ("Bumetrs Beform: IE. Book L, 109.") See North'e '^Ghzoo. of 8. 
Maitin'ii Leicerter." 


bells* and oon cliales, wherof I woll and ordeyn that oon paire of 
the said Basons candelsticks and cruetts, and oon pax and oon 
sacryng bell shall remain unto the said ehapell room [in] my said 
place of leyer Marny. And oon paire of the said Basons, candel- 
sticks and cruetts, oon pax, and oon bell and the said chales I woUe 
shall remayne to the said chauntrye awter ende of my saide tombe, 
there to be used and occupied at the high festes of the yere to the 
bono' of god for ever, and for the sure custody and keping of the 
said plate to be rema3niing in the said ehapell of leyer churche, I 
woll that myn executours shall ordeyn a stronge coflfer with two 
locks and two keys, wherof I woll that the P'son of the said 
churche for the tyme beyng shall alwey have the oon and the 
churchwardeyns of the same church for the tyme being the other 
keye, under whose such keeping I woll the said plate to be alwais 
locked wHn the said cofiFer^ except such tymes as when it shalbe 

* Sacring BeH, Saunce-Ben, Sancte-BeU, Sanctas-Bell, or Mafis-BeU. A smaU 
beU used to caU attention to the more solemn parts of the service of the Mass, 
namely at the Tsr Sanetut, and on the elevation of the Host and chalice after conse- 
cration. It was commonly at the period mentioned a small hand-bell, sometimes of 
silver, carried by an attendant, but in some instances a larger bell was used, and was 
suspended on the outside of the church in a small turret or bell-cot made to receive 
it, over the entrance leading from the nave into the chancel, and rung by a rope 
from within. 

I think, too, that it has been shewn with the highest probability, if indeed it has 
not been conclusively proved, by Mr. J. J. Cole that the ** low side windows" which 
have so long puzzled ecclesiologists were constructed for the purpose of ringing the 
Sancttts BeU thereout. Not less than twelve different theories had been propoMd in 
explanation of the uses of these windows, aU of which were demonstrated to be 
untenable in an article signed J. H. P. which appeared in the IVth Vol. of the 
Journal of the Archseological Institute, p. 314. aone of the objections militate 
against Mr. Cole's theory, nor do I know at present of one that has been, or that can 
be successfully urged against it. As Mr. Cole's explanation does not appear to be 
very generally known, and as the question is still frequently asked, and the refuted 
theories as frequently reproduced in reply, I have taken this occasion to give as 
briefly as possible Mr. Cole's suggestion It is this : — ** That prior to the introduc- 
tion of Sanctus beU-cots, and commonly when these were not erected, then at the 
' low side window' — the onl^ real opening in the Church except the doors, and 
this unglazed, but provided with a shutter — the sacristan stood, and on the elevation 
of the Host opened the shutter and ran^ the sanctus beU, as directed, I think, in the 
ancient liturgy : — ' In elevatione vero ipsius corporis Domini pulsetur campana m 
ttno laitr$f ut populares, quibus celebratione missarum non vacat quotidie interesse, 
ubicunque fuerint, sen in agris, seu in Domibus, flectant genua.' — " Constit. Job. 
Peckham," A.D. 1281. AU previously existing theories having been found irreconcile- 
able with the varied positions of the * low side windows,' " Mr. Cole thus defends 
his own : — ** When as usuaUy they were ' in uno latere,' the south side of the 
chancel — ^it wiH be observed that the dwellings, as in a very large majority of the 
towns and villages of England, are to the south of the churches — that m the excep- 
tional cases, the openings correspond, being on the north or on both sides, and that 
one is generally of later style, as if provided for a spreading population ; and when, 
as usuuly, placed low the more convenient for the sacristan than when higher, as in 
rare cases (cited) they were on account of the neighbourhood of perhaps monastic 
buildings, which would else have impeded the sound." Mr. Cole thinks, and, as it 
seems to me, with very great probability, that where there was neither bell-cot nor 
low side window the Sacristan rang the bell from the porch or from the room some- 
times existing over it, and with this suggestion the uses of " squints" are recondle- 
able and easily explained. The reader would, perhaps, consult with advantage the 
whole of Mr. Cole's remarks in VoL Y., p. 70 of the " Aroh. Journal." 


occupied in fourme aforesaid ; the wliich coffer I will stande to and 
be sette w^ the stepoll of the said church.* Also I give and 
bequeth to the building of the said church of lever Mamj two 
huncbred pounds sterling ^rf it be not bulded and ^yshed in my 
lyfe t]nne, and than the building therof to be doen by tiie oyercrj^dit 
of myn executours ; and herein my mynd is yf it l>e nygh builded 
and not fynysshed at the tym of my deth, I well my executours to 
bestowe as moche of the said two hundred pounds as shall per- 
fourme and fynyshe the said church. [To every son and daughter 
of my brother Itedyngfeld, now alive £10, same to children of my 
brother Bon'm. To William Sulyard £10 ; f to Eustace Sulyard 
£10. j: My executors to find to school at Cambridge Francis 
Sulyard, one yere after my decease, and give him £10. (Legacies to 
^rvants.) To Robert Symson Parson of Layer Mamey £10. To 
&r Thomas .... § Parson of Bemond 53* 4S and to Sir 
John Baker 53* 4"*.^ Also I geve unto my foresaid daughter 
Kateryn my grete paire of vii^inalls the litill paire of virgintdls of 
booke fasshen and my grete lute. Also I geve to my said daughter 
Elizabeth the other litill paire of virg}^nalls ; and the portatjrves 
that stond in the girte chamber I will shall remayn within my said 
house to thuse of my said daughter Kateryn and soo furthe in 
maner and fourme aforesaid. || [Directions for wool and sheep to 

• At thifl period the material security provided was ordinarily sufficieiit, the plate 
heing further guarded by the dread of adding sacrilege to theft ; but in the 6tii 
£dw. Yl.y the Hoyal CommissionerB sometimeB found that their spoliation had beea 

t Sir William Sulyard of Flemings, Bunwell, died 25 Mar., 1540. 

t Eustace Sulyard, half-brother of Sir William, died 26 Feb. 1546-7, and is 
buried in RunweU Church, where there is a monument to his memory. 

i HiatuB in Regittroy but probably Thomas Burrought, instituted to the Rectory 
of Beaumont, 19 Dec, 1523, and who died in 1529. 

II For the following note on the musical instruments bequeathed by Lord Mamey 
I am indebted to Mr. Thomas Lea Southgate, of Clapham. 

The Virginal was identical with the spinet ; sometimes it was oAde triangular ia 
shape, and at others like a square pianoforte ; the sound was produced by the 
strings being plueksd with a piece of quill £ei8tened to a jack whicn rested on the 
opposite end of the key to that acted on by the fingers. The compass of the instru- 
ment was four octaves only, and it had but one string to each note. Unlike tiie 
modem piano in which the hammer strikes the string, thereby making oxpression 
obtainable, in the yirg^inal as the strings were always plucked with the same force, 
neither /or /« nor piano was, of course, possible. The earliest mention of the instru- 
ment with which I am acquainted occurs in one of the ^* proverb is " i nscribed on the 
walls of the Manor house at Lecking^eld, Yorkshire, temp. Hen. Vll. The Virginal 
Book of Queen Elizabeth containing 418 pp. of music is in the British Museum, the 
pieces of which are by no means easy to play eyen at the present day. Some think 
the instruments were called Virginals from having been used by the nuns in singing 
hymns to the B. Virgin. I think the name simply shews that they were for young 
ladies or virgins to {uay upon. In old MSS. they are always spoken of (as by Lord 
Mamey) as *' a payer of vyrgynalles,*' and thereason for this ** pair " is very obscure, 
-whether applied to organs or virginals. Mr. Albert Way thinks that it refers to a 
doubU bellows, but as wind was not required for the virffinal this must be wrong. 
Douce says it means an organ with two rows of pipes, out this is also wrong, as 
an organ of that kind was called a doubU regal in contradistinction to a iingU regal 
^f only one set of pipes. Nicholls thinks it means the positive (or fixed) and regal 
(or portative) organs united. Mr. Arthur Ashpital in the '' Traiisactions of the 


be Bold^ rents to be receiyed; and to perform the last will and 
testament of Testator's father Henry, Lord Marny. "And whereas 
Robert Radclyff, Lord Fitzwalter, John Arundell K*, Robert 
Drewry K* and John Vere K* with divers others stand and are seized 
of these demesnes as of fee of the said manor of Layer Marney 
with appurtenances, and Culquite in Cornwall &c &c. (as before 
recited) to the use of me and mv heirs . . /' I will that my 
executors and my said feoffees of and in the premises their heirs 
&c. continually after my death] "shall yerely find oon honest prest 
of good and honest conyersacion to pray for me and the other here- 
after rehersed within the parishe churche of leyer Marny aforesaid 
for oyer, and I will the said prest for the tyme beinge daily to say 
masse at my chauntry awter at thende of the said Tombe except he 
be letted by sicknesse or som' other grete cause or Lnpedyment. At 
eyery such mass I woll the said prist pray for my soule, the soule 
of my father Henry Marny, Enyght, late lord Marny, and for the 
soule of my moder Dame Thomysyne Marny, my wyyes soules Dame 
Brygitt, and Dame Christiane, and Amye Marny, for the soule of my 
brother Thomas Marny, for the soule of Roger Newbuj^h, Enyght, 
William Awdeleyes soule and my friends soules and all Ap'en soules. 

British ArduBological AssociatiozL" 1846 — Paper on Organn — Bays it meant an organ 
of two rows of keys ; a moment's thought, however, would have oonrinoed him of 
his mistake ; an organ of two compku rows of keys was unknown so early as this 
term was used ; a bequest of money for " a pavre of orgongs " being mentioned in 
the churchwardens' account of S. Mary's, Suidwich, i n 1444 , 6ome think it means 
an organ of two stops, but this cannot be, as in Hen. Vlllth's Household Book we 
read of ** a pay» of yirg^nals with 4 stoppes/' My own opinion is tiiat the term 
" pair" is identical with " set," and therefore means only a compUU one, as a pair of 
scissors, a pair of cards, a pair of spectacles, a pair of sturs, &c. ; in the same way a 
pair of virginals or a pair of organs, simply means a virginal or an organ with a set 
or number of keys. I never met with the expression '* of booke £etmhen" before, 
but it obviously means that the instrument was constructed to resemble, and to open 
like a book ; yet I think I remember having seen a picture of some su(^ instrument 
placed on a table and a damsel officiating at it. 

The Portative means a small portable organ which was frequentiy carried in grand 
processions ; they were called *' regals " from the Italian, SegebeUo, or portatives 
from, portarsy to carry, in contradistinction to the Positives or large organs from 
jmn$»9, to set down. The " Portatifii " were sometimes used in churoies to play the 
melody only of the cantus firmus. The Positive was, however, sometimes carried in 
procession, and a representation of it may be seen in the celebrated series of cuts 
engraved by Hans Burgmair in 1516, entitied the *' Triumph of Maximillian." The 
organ is there carried in a large car and is being touched by Paul Hofi&naister, the 
master organist. Eichard Fitejames, Bishop of London, 1522, in his will bequeathed 
** apayre of portatyves," standing in his chapel, to his successor. 

The " grete lute may either be the Lyra Mendieorumy the strings of which were 
set in motion by a wheel rubbed with rosin and turned by the hand, while the other 
hand was engaged in depressing stops in the upper part of the instrument ; these 
stops pressing on the string made uie required notes, in fact it was much like tiie 
modem hurdy-gurdy ; or it may mean the Theorbo which was played in the same 
way as the modem guitar ; it was, however, a grander instrument, having two necks 
and eleven strings ; these were plucked by the left hand while they were stopped on 
frets placed across the fingerboard by the fingers of the right hand. Chords of 
severed notes were attainable bv this instrument, and some players (John Dowland 
among others) attained great mme by their p^ormance on it. It was the fashion- 
able instrument of the time, so most probably is the lute referred to in Lord Mamey's 
vilL It was sometimes called the ijrch-luto. T. L. S. 

192 Anctnr wtlul 

Aod at evBtj of the aaid maases'I woU tlie said prest for (be tf]ii# 
beji^ shall sajr the psalme de profondis at the first lavatoi^ at 
e^eiy of the said masses for the sonles before remembred. [Direo- 
tioiis that his feo£kes aad heirs shall assign from time to time ** ooa 
etmyeBient prest to fille the said channtrv and to synge ''...• 
and that they from time to time pnmde such priest ^*as shalbe of 
lionest oonyersaciony sood name oeuI fame, all p'otalitie of fay'r and 
affeotion sett apart^ Power giren to expel from time to time 
anj who shall not be of oood nue and oonreBsaAion or does not do 
his da^ ; and if the said chantry shall happen at any time to be 
disocmtmned so that there shall be no snch priest fonnd according 
ip testator's miod, through the n^ligence of tne feoffeesi the Parscm 
and Chnrohwardens of Layer MiEumey to oall upon them for the 
finding- and upholding of the chantiy. A oopr^ of the deed of 
feoffinent to be deposited in the ooffer abovementioned. Wills ihtA 
his obsequies^ ftc, being performed, his executors distribute in deedt 
of charify) as to the marriage of poor maidens, repair of highways, 
exhibition of poor scholars to the Uniyersities and other gooa deeds 
as they shall see fit Appoints executors ^ the Beyerend Fctther 
in God, Cuthbert, Bishop o^ London ** prevye seall '^ * Daone 
Biygitt my wife, my brother Sir Edmund Bedyngfelde, Knight, and 
my brother Thomas Bon'am, Inquire, and giye each £3 6*. &*. 
Supervisors of the Chantiy ** Sir Robert Dymock, Knight, Chan- 
oeller to the queues grace^ Sir William Waldegraye, Knyght^ and 
Sir Roger Warburton, Knyght, and giye each £6 3*. 4^"] 

Comcih. [Will that my Executors '* bye a bell concordant to 
Ae bells in the pisshe Churai of l^er Mamy, and also a dock to 
be bought and sett in the steple of the said parisshe Churche for 
ii^hich 1 doo geye xx m'rks to bye it withall." Appoints an annuity 
to his wife as bounden to her fSEither in law Sir William Waldegraye 
S^ out of Kilquite otherwise Colequif Dated 3 April xvi Hen. 
YUL] Proyed 28 June 1525. 

I have not been fortunate enough to see the Mamey 
Tombs, but that believed to be the tomb of Sir William 
Mamey, who by his will dated 1414 appointed to be 
buried ^* in chore ecclesiee de Mamey ,"f as well as those 
referred to in the preceding wills have been described 
by Suckling, f ^^^ more recently and scientifically by 
Mr. Hayward in his valuable paper already mentioned. 

^ Onthbert Tanstall, i^pointed Bishop of London 6 July, 1522 ; Ifaster of the 
BoUs ; tarapBlated to Durham, 25 Mar., 1630. Deprived in 1552, and the Biahoprio 
diBBoIved ; restored in 1553 ; depriyed again in 1559 ; oh. 18 Not., 1559, 8»t. 85. 

t This will exists in Latin which I hope to print hereafter ; but was unable to 
complete the transcription for the present jouxna^ its publication, moreoyer, requiring 
the use of record type. 

t « Memorials of the Antiquities, &o., of the Counfy of Eibqi:." ^ 



Vain were the hopes of the Lords Mamey that theur 
endowments should be perpetual ; in a few short years 
the daily sacrifice for tneir souls' weal ceased to be 
oflFered j the solemn chant of the " De Profundis" and 
the wad of the *' Miserere " were heard no more ; 
chalice and paten and pax, the candlesticks, the cruets 
and the silver bells enriched the succeeding king's 
exchequer; copes, chasubles, dalmatics and precious 
stuffs were converted to secular uses ; ^ the monumental 
brasses were removed," and the tomb of John, Lord 
Mamey, at least in later days, was ^^ consigned to dark* 
ness, damp and neglect."* 

• Hud p^ 134-4. 



(No. 7.) 
By H. W. KiKO, 

No apolo^, I am sure, need be ofiTered for publishing^ 
in its integrity the last Will and Testament of one who 
has conferrea so much honour upon his native town 
and coimty as the celebrated autnor of the " Pilgrim- 
age," the Kev, Samuel Purchas, Everything relating^ 
to his private life, of which so little is known, is of 
interest; and the interest of his Will is enhanced by 
the fact that it is entirely his own composition, which 
would have been clear from its construction and other 
internal evidence if he had not expressly declared that 
it was written with his own hand* At its first perusal 
it might well be pronounced — ^with the exception of its 
remarkable introduction— a very ordinary and common- 
place document, as it certainly would be, had it been 
the will of an ordinary man ; but as the Will of Samuel 
Purchas it is of special interest, and contains new and 
important evidence. It determines the closely approxi- 
mate date of his death, which happened two years 
earlier than English biographers have concurred in 
supposing, for they assign it to about the year 1628^ 
whereas he died m 1626, and most probably in the 
month of October. And if the Will be not accepted as 
a complete refutation of the statement asserted more or 
less explicitly in nearly every memoir of Purchas that 
I have consulted, that "he died in embarrassed and 
distressed circumstances,"* it certainly leaves that state- 

• Newcourt'e "Bepert. Londin.;" " Ath. .Oxon.;" ''Biographie Univereelle ; " 
Ghalmer's " Biog. Diet." ; Lowndes' *' Bibliographer'B Manual," 1861 ; Oiainger's 
" Portraits," Vol. I., p. 267 ; Watkin's " Biog. Diet. ; Encyc. Britan." 1848, aU 
assert the same in very slightly varying language. See also " Biographia Biitan- 
nica;" Eees's "EncyclopGedia;" Kose's "Biog. Diet." 1848; Hole's « Brief Bio- 
graphical Diet," 1866. fa all the death of Furchaa is eaid to have happeaed^aboat 


ment open to very grave doubts. At one period it was 
even affirmed that lie died in prison ; but it is pleasing 
to believe even aflter a lapse of two centuries, that " this 
great and good man" had not at the close of his 
laborious life to contend against the hardships of 
poverty, and that he did not die under the pressure 
of pecuniary embarrassment. He was not rich, but he 
died in his own house, in the possession of his benefice, 
and had acquired a small property in his native town 
which he bequeathed to his children. 

The idea of the poverty and pecuniary difficulties in 
which Purchas was believed to have been involved 
appears to have originated in a circumstance mentioned 
by himself in his " Microcosmos." Morant, who wrote 
a memoir of him in the " Biographia Britannica/'* took 
a more just and sensible view of Purchases troubles : — 
" It has been said that by publishing his books he 
" brought himself into debt and died in prison ; this is 
*' certainly untrue, for he died in his own house about 
" the year 1628. It is not improbable that he might be 
" a sufferer by the expense of printing his books, but 
"his debts are to be referred to a more honourable 
" cause, the kindness of his disposition. In 1618 his 
" brother-in-law William Pridmore died, and left to him 
" the care of the widow and family ; and the same year 
"his brother Daniel Purchas died, who likewise left 
" four orphan and helpless children, and the arranffe- 
" ment of his affairs to our author, who says in nis 
" quaint way, ' that his brother's entangled booke estate 
" ' involved him in a new kind of bookishness with 
" ' heterogean toil of body, and unacquainted vexations 
" ^ of mind to pay manifold debts, &c.' These circum- 
" stances may account for the embarrassments of this 
" good and pious man (for such he was), an^ in addition 
"to his brother's afflictions, he mentions the death of 
"his mother and of a beloved daughter in 1619.^' 
Purchas was, therefore, in 1618, embarrassed, not on 
account of his own debts, but owing to the debts and 
misfortunes of others ; yet, notwithstanding this rational 
explanation given by Morant, the belief that he involved 

* The livee contributed bj Morant axe denoted by the letter C. 

166 AJfciJSirr wiua 

himself in debt by the publication of his works obtained 
currency, and has been constantly repeated down to the 
present aay. Not only had he in May, 1625, lands and 
tenements (part of which he had recently acquired by 
purchase^, to bequeath, but he was then giving away 
copies 01 his costly works to his relations, and ordering^ 
the subscription money to be returned to such of them 
as had paid it. This order he did not revoke to the 
day of nis death, and it is inconsistent with his honour- 
able and religious character to suppose that he was 
giving away mat which was not literallj his own. 

For the sake of correcting a few maccuracies and 
resolving some doubts, a brief sketch of the life of 
Purchas may be admissible. Some new £skcts will be 
presented, and if this communication shall be the means 
of eliciting any further information relating to his life 
or his ancestry one great object will be attamed. 

Samuel Purchas, son of George and Aim Purchas, 
was bom at Thaxted, and was baptized there 20 Nov.^ 
1577.* Of the rank of his father we have no evi- 
dence, but as two of his sons ^aduated at Cambrid^i 
it may be reasonably inferred that his social position 
was at least very reBi)ectable. The Baptismal Kegister 
of Thaxted, commencing in 1558, does not extend high 
enoufi;h to admit of the record of the baptism of (^eorge 
Purchas, nor does the entry of his marriage ocour^ but 
entries of the baptisms and marriages of persons bearing 
the name of Furcas^ as it was commonly written, are 

Samuel Purchas was educated at S« John's CoUegei 
Cambridge, where he took the degree of M.A. in 1600^ 
and afterwards proceeded to that of B.D, On the 24th 
Aug., 1604, at tne age of 27, he was instituted to the 
Vicarage of Eastwood^ in the Hundred of Bochford, on 
the presentation of the King. At this point his 

* I mvuA haee reoovd my thankB to the Bey. G. S. Symands, Vicar of TTuiitiwi^ 
tot Bearohing the Begisters, Terifying the entry of Ptircnas'a baptSsmy and for other 
ezMimriesi uso to Mr. G. H. Bogen-Hanoaon^ Wlndaor HeotaU^ for the iiae of his 
excerpts. * 

t The name, nnder different forms of orthography, is so oonmon in Essex amcsig 
persons of all ranks, a^ almost to baffle accurete genealogical investigation. 


biographers interpose a statement for whict they offer' 
no sort of evidence, and which is, in fact, entirely 
against evidence— for they immediately continue, " but 
leaving the cure of it (Eastwood) to his brother, went 
to reside in London, the better to carry on his great 
work ; " some have added, " but at what time appears 
not;^'* another says, ''but resided chiefly in Lon- 
don."t Now the truth is, that Samuel Purchas resigned 
the Vicarage of Eastwood at the close of the year 
1614,J and was inducted Rector of S. Martinis, Ludgate, 
at which time his brother Thomas was just, and only 
just, old enough to receive Priest's orders, and at the 
same time induction into the vacant benefice^ The 
utmost that can be surmised is, that Thomas Purchas 
mtgkt have been, during the period of his diaconate, 
curate to his brother ; but, though this is not improba- 
ble, there is no certain evidence that he was. There is, 
however, a fair presumption, and some little circum- 
stantial evidence that Samuel Purchas was resident at 
Eastwood until his preferment to S. Martin's, Ludgate. 
And I think this is implied by his own words, that this 
preferment afforded him " the opportunities of bookes 
of conference and manifold intelligence; and as the 
Benefice was not the worst, so was it the best seated 
in the world for his content," as he thankfully acknow- 
ledges in the additional preface to the third edition of 
the first volume of his "Pilgrimage." In 1615, shortly 
after his collation to this benefice, he was incorporated 
at Oxford, as he stood at Cambridge, B.D.|| 

Assuming on the authority of previous biographers 
that Purchas quitted his Vicarage very shortly after his 

• Newcout (citing "Ath. Oxon.,") "Biog. Brit" In a memoir of Purchas 
published in the '* Ghelmaford Chronicle" in May, 1865, this is still more definitely 
stated ; " leaving his little Church and his few hmidx^ roral parishioners to the 
care of his brother, who had taken orden and heeom$ hit Our of e, &c." Hose, by a 
change of expression, leaves the question (jnite open to the explanation that I snail 
insist on. He merely says, wiuiont indicating the date, "the cure, however, he 
resigned to his brother, and took up his abode in London." 

t Watkhi's "Biog. Diet." 

% The precise date of his admission does not appear, but his predecessor, Lancelot 
Len^ome, died at the beginning of Nov., 1614. 

« He died 50th Dec., 1667, aged 67. 

jl He was also Chaplain to Abbot, Archbishop of Oanterbury ; and is said to have 
had the promise of a Deanery from the King, which, however, he did not live to 
obtain. "Biog. Brit" 


induction, the writer of the memoir in the " Chelmsford 
Chronicle/' to which I have referred in a note, says, 
" that Eastwood did not suit the tastes of the young* 
philosopher and budding: litterateur. &c., &c/' I mention, 
this because it is the litest memoir of Purchas that I 
have seen, was addressed to Essex readers, and con- 
tains a fresh inference, to which my own deductions 
from the evidence are entirely opposed. If one might 
have ventured a conjecture upon this point, mine would 
rather have been that, perchance, the world might 
never have seen the " Pilgrimage," or " Pilgrims," if the 
lot of Samuel Purchas had been cast in any other part 
of the county ; certainly we should have been deprived 
of much curious and valuable information contained in. 
the work. Strange as it may appear upon a mere 
superficial investigation of Essex History, when Samuel 
Purchas took up his residence at Eastwood, it threw 
him into the society and into the very midst of a set of 
remarkable men, great voyagers and travellers, such as 
I confidently believe he could have met with nowhere 
else in the county at that period. One such, his friend 
and neighbour, John Vassall,* who had visited Barbary^ 
was then living at Coxethart, within a short walk of the 
parsonage. He is mentioned in the " Pilgrimage." A 
careful examination of Purchases folios, and a competent 
acquaintance with the family, and documentary history 
of the district during the 16th and 17th centuries will 
prove that this does not depend upon conjecture, but 
rests upon certain evidence. Leigh, upon tne Thames, 
only two miles distant from Eastwood, was in the 16th 
and 17th centuries a place of considerable foreign trade, 
and " well stocked, ' as Camden says, " with lusty 
seamen." Its merchants were trading to, and its mas- 

* He was descended from John Vousal, a French Protestant Refugee, and resided 
at Oozethart Op^ow called Cocksey Hart) in Eastwood. His eldest son Samuel was a 
merchant in liondon, and M.P. for l^e City in 1639-40, and again in 1641. In . 

1646 he was one of the Commissioners for the Kingdom of England for the con- | 

serration of the Peace with Scotland. From this Samuel Vaual descends, hy a ; 

marriage with an heiress, Fox- Vassal, Lord Holland ; other descendants in the male 
line aliK) exist. John Vassal of Eastwood had also a son, Stephen, Bector of Bay- 
leigh, who died tire, 1643. The Tassals haye continued at !Eastwood, and in the 
possession of Coxethart down to the present century. The last of th^ name was 
Mary, only daughter and heiress of Asser Vassall. She married William Weld 
Wren, of JBlastwoodhury, and died did January, 1830| aged 61. 


ter-mariners and seamen were visiting France, Spain, 
Portugal and the Canaries, the Mediterranean, the 
Coast of Barbary, the River Plate, the East and West 
Indies, and the Greenland Sea. Cotemporary with 
Purchas, and living there, were the Moyers,* the Sal- 
mons,t the Goodlads,J the Haddock8,§ the Bonners,|| 
the Harrises,^ the Hares,** the Cockes,tt Richard 
Chester,J:j: and many others, some of whose names as 
well as their letters and journals, are mentione'^^ in the 
" Pilgrimage." And it was there that he obtained from the 
lips of the narrator, one very remarkable and interesting 
narrative, entitled ^' The Strange Adventures of Andrew 
Battell^ of Leigh, in Essex, sent by the Portugals prisoner 
to Angola, who lived there, and in the adjoining regions, 
neer 19 yeares." " This narrative'' says Purchas, " is 
out of his own reports to myself ; other like things you 
may find from his relation scattered in my * Pilgrimage.' " 

* The grandson of Lawrence Moyer of Leigh, mariner, was a Merchant, and 
in the time of the Commonwealth, Judge of the Court of Prohate, whose eldest son. 
Samuel was created a Baronet, and died in 1716, when the title hecame extinct. 
The representatives of Lawrence Moyer were the late Simon, Earl Harcourt, and 
Dr. Venables- Vernon, Archbishop of York. The chief representatives of Lawrence 
Moyer now are, Sir William Heathcote fiart., Mr. Vemon-Harcourt, and James 
Moyer Heathcote, of Conington Castle, Herts. 

t The cotemporary of Purchas was Robert Salmon, a wealthy Merchant and 
Mariner, afterwards Master of the Trinity House. Died 18th June, 1641, and was 
buried at Leigh. Purchas refers to his letters. 

X Purchas mentions William Gk)odlad of Leigh, Chief Commander of the (Green- 
land Fleet twenty years. He was also Master of the Trinity House. Died in 
1639, and was buried at Leigh. Ten or twelve of his family, all mariners, were 
cotemporary with Purchas. 

§ The Haddock family, of whom Captain Richard Haddock, R.N., was 
cotemporary with Purchas, gave, within the brief space of a century, two distin- 
guished Admirals and seven Post- Captains to the British Navy. In the time of 
Purchas Capt. Richard Haddock was a Master Mariner. 

II Robert Bonner, Master of the Dragon, whose Journal is mentioned by Purchas, 
was, at the time of his death, of Bristol. The Bonners were a maritime £Eunily at 
Leigh in the time of Purchas, and continued so for several generations. 

IT Richard Harris of Leigh, an Elder Brother of the Trinity House, died and 
was buried at Leigh in 1628. 

 Several of this family, then mariners, were living when Purchas was at East- 
wood. From John Hare of Leigh, ]Mariner, who died in 1572, descended Francis 
Hare, successively Prebendary of S. Paul's, Dean of Worcester, Dean of S. Paul*s, 
Bishop of S. Asaph, and at length Bishop of Chichester, who died in 1740. The 
lineal representatives are the Hares of Hurstmonceux Castle Co. Sussez, and some 

tt Tt was Abraham Cocke of Limehouse, who, with the " Dolphin " and " May 
Morning," began, in the reign of Elizabeth, his disastrous expedition to the River 
Plate, in which Andrew Battell was so great a sufferer. 

Xt Richard Chester, Esq., of Leigh, mariner. Elder Brother of the Trinity 
House, and '^faster of the Society in 1615, died 5th April, 1632 ; buried in Leigh 
Church with brass effigies and inscription. I could easily increase largely this 
kind of evidence and double the list of names. 



Therefore I know of no place, which, while it afforded 
him the retirement and leisure necessary for study, and 
the society he especially delighted in, could possibly 
have been more congenial to his taste than Eastwood. 
Yet this is perfectly consistent with his desire to proceed 
to London, ** the better to carry on his great work," for 
he wanted, no doubt, more books than he could obtain in 
Essex, as he says " I have been indebted to above 2,000 
authors of one or other kind, in I know not how many 
hundreds of their Treatises, Epistles, Relations, and 
Histories of divers subjects and languages borrowed by 
myselfe ; besides what (for want of the authors them- 
selves,) I have taken upon trust of other men's goods/' 
The "Pilgrimage," &c., is comprised in five volumes folio. 
The first volume was published in 1613, the year pre- 
viously to that in which he resigned the living of East- 
wood, under this title : " Purchas his Pilgrimage or 
Relations of the world and the Religions observed m All 
Ages and Places discovered from the Creation to this 
present." It went through three subsequent editions. 
The remaining four were issued in 1625, a year before 
his death. To these the general title is " Hakluytus 
Posthumus ; or Purchas his Pilgrimes, containing the 
History of the World in Sea- Voyages, and Land Travels 
by Englishmen and others." • The name of Hakluyt 
is introduced because Purchas became possessed of 
Hakluyt's papers which he left behind him. He died^ 
as has been said, in 1626, at the age of 49, leaving a 
son, Samuel, afterwards Rector of Sutton, in this county, 
and also an author : and a daughter, Martha. It will 
not perhaps be out of place to transcribe in conclusion 
the eulogy upon Purchas by a learned foreigner, f 

• Morant ("Biog. Brit."J says "hie Voyages now sell at Tast pricea." It mav be 
worth recording here the pnces at which they have been sold in recent times. Fronk 
Sir Francis Frecling's Library, 1837, £28 ; Duke of Grafton's, £46 ; Boxburghe, 
£43 lis. ; Col. Stanley's, with five portraits of the persons to whom each Tolome is 
dedicated, inserted, £50 8s., resold in 1860, £63 ; Williams', £42 ; Gardner, 1854, 
£55 10s. ; Crawfoid mor., Tery fine, £65 10s., resold 1858, £55 lOs. ; a choice copy 
sold by Puttick, 1861, £56. " Lowndes, Thorpe's Oat., 1837." 

The other works of Purchas are, ** Microcosmos, or the History of Man at all 
Ages and in all Stations," founded on Psalm xxxiz., 5, 8to; and ''The King's 
Tower, or Triumphal Arch of London," in a Sermon from 2 Samuel zxii., 51, Sto, 

t Boissard, according to Morant in " Biog. Brit. ;" but Boissard died in 1602, 
eleven years before the publication of the "Pilgrimage." The eulogy occuxs in a 


which, as Newcourt says, may serve instead of an 
Epitaph : " Samuel Purchas, Anglus, linguanim et 
" artium Divinarum egregife peritus, Philosophus, His- 
*' toricus et Theologus maximus, Patriae Ecclesise Antistes 
" fidelis ; multis egregiis Scriptis et in primis Orientalis, 
" Occidentalisque Indian historia vastis voluminibus 
" patria lingua conscripta celeberrimus, cui neque studio 
" veritatis, et bonarum artium neque laude officii facile 
'* quisquam esset anteponendus, admodtim magno cum 
" bonorum omnium luctu et dolore sibi quidem non 
" praemature, sed admodiim intempestivfe Ecclesiae in 
" coelestem patriam ex terrena evocatus, obiit anno 
" praesentis seculi xxvi, 

" In Eum : 
^^ corde pius, gravis ore, sacro sermone 

" disertus, 
" Pr^co Dei fidus, voce styloque 

" POTENS,'' 

I have carefully transcribed his Will verhaUm, and in 
this special instance have added the declaration of 

The Will op the Rev. Samuel Purchas^ B.D., Dated 
31 May, 1625, Proved 21 Oct., 1626. 

In the name of Qod, Amen. May 31, A.D. 1625, I Samuell 
Purchas, Clarke, Rector of the Church of S*. Martin's, Ludgate in 
London, often admonished of the present to provide for a better life 
and nowe in tollerable health, blessed be God, doe make and con- 
stitute and ordaine this my Last will and testament. Imprimis, 
my soule to God my ffather in the name of his sonne Jesus my 
saviour, through the sanctifyinge of the holy and coetemall spirit, 
beleevin^e that Christ, God manifested in the flesh, hath died for my 
sinnes, risen againe for my justification, hath ascended in tryumph 
leadinge captivity captive, and beinge sett at the right hand of power 
farre above all heavens, there appeareth before God for all saints 
and for me lesse than the least of all, to make intercession for us 

fine edition of Boissard, with a continuation, for which the liyes were written by J. 
A. Loucerus, (see '^Brunet, vol. I., sub. Boissard, Paris, 1814"), and this is the only 
edition which has the portrait of Purchas. " Bibliotheca sive Thesaurus Virtutis 
et Glorise, in quo continetur lUustrum Eruditione Virorum Effigies et VitfiB, &c., 
Frankfurt, 1628." Newcourt and Morant cite the eulogy down to ceUbtrrimu* ; I have 
given the whole as it stands at p. 296. It is remarkable that notwithstanding the 
cotemporary authority of Loucerus, who says that Purchas died in 1626, English 
biographers to the present day should place his death in 1628. 


synners and in his ffathers house to take possession for ns mortaOs 
that where he is wee may be also ; and from whence I expect with 
hope his glorious cominge to Judgment, my soule meane while shall 
out of this body of death retume to Qod that gave it, and rest with 
the spiritts of just and perfect men whose names are written in the 
booke of life ; and my body also shall rest in hope of a better resur- 
rection, whereby this vile body shalbe made like to his glorious 
body who hnth loved me and hath given himself for me. O 
Lord I have waited for thy salvation, I live not but Christ liveth 
in me, and to me to live is Christe and to dye is gayne, now desire I 
to live but to do his worke, and so doe service to his servants, nor 
feare I to dye because I serve so mightie, so merciful! a Lord. Even 
80 come L : Jesu, come unto me the worst of the worst of synners 
that where my synnes have abounded, they grace may in the pardon 
and mortification of them sup'abounde, that whensoever thou shalt 
come unto me, I may be ready with my loynes girded with oyle in 
my lampe and my lampe burninge, my soule also wakinge to enter 
with the Bridgegroom, that what by faith I have beleeved by love as 
an ancor of the soule sure and stedfaste laid hold on, I may in his 
presence where is fullness of ioye enioye super excessive charitie. 
Amen & Amen ;, the waie, the truth, the life, come L : Jesus, come 

Suicklie, come with the spiritt of grace and power unto thy whole 
hurch ; enlarge the bounds thereof to the worlds end and now 
make it truly Catholike in sinceritie of truth and in extension of 
thy charitie unto Jewes, Turks, Infidells that thou mayest be the 
light to enlighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thine Israeli ; 
protect thy people in peace, unite the disagreeinge parts and 
disioynted states of Chnstendome, recover those w'^' have fallen 
by Mahametan impiety and thy servants w*"^ groane under Turkish 
tyranny ; Bringe out of Babylon those w*** are involved in the 
mysteries of Papall impurity ; Let God arise and let his enemyes 
bee scattered, that Babell may be Ruined and Syon repaired ; putt 
into the harts of christian princes to hate the whore and to love thy 
spouse, that they may be nursinge ffathers and nurisinge mothers to 
tne Israeli of God, And as we blesse thy name for our late godly 
princes Q. Elizabeth and Kinge James of happy memory, soe lett 
this testimony of love and duty be inserted as a christian legacie, my 

Jrayer for his gratious Ma*** Kinge Charles, that from the present 
opes he may daily proceede in grace and godlines, still growmge no 
lesse in piety then in yeares, filled with the spiritt of wisdome and 
understanding, the spiritt of counsell and fortitude, the spirit of 
knowledge of the feare of the Lord, that under him thy people of 
this citty and kingdome maye live in all godlynes & honesty. The 
Lord make our gratious Queene now cominge imto his house like 
Rachell & like Lea w*^ two did build the house of Israeli, that 
through them Greate Brittaine may bee famous and Ireland may 
reioioe, and their posteritie may swaye these scepters till the ende 


of time. To this citty lett me bequeath prayers for thy mightie 
protection & manifold bounties and deliverance from the present 
pestilence,* and from all hardnes of hart in sacrilege, Usury and 
other synnes, and to that little flocke committed to thy servants 
unworthy ministery, give Lord sanctifyinge grace, the ymortall 
seede w^** the mortall seedman hath sowen in their eares, still 
sproutinge and multiplyinge in theire harts and lives when he shall 
have passed the possibilitye of further mortalitye, and double thy 
spirit in the succeedinge Pastor ; now for the rest, thou, Lord, art 
my rest, my hope, my happines, my love, my life, thou art the hus- 
band of the widdowe, and father of the fatherles, the God of thy 
servants and theire seed, and thou art the porc'on of the livinge and 
of the dead, in confidence of whose free grace and meare mercy thy 
servant is bold to bequeath this legacie & w*""' thou hast written 
in thy testament and ratified by the death of the testator, and 
whereof thou ever livest the executor, that thou wilt never faUe nor 
forsake them and that thou wilt be their shield and their exceedinge 
great reward. Blessed be thy name Lord w^" out of nakednes and 
nothinge hast created and raised unto me this estate of worldlie 
goods, though I am lesse than the least of all thy mercies, borne naked 
into th^ world at first, and only not naked when I entered into the 
affairs of the world in the state of matrymonie after beinge then 
without por'con or purchase of either (s*uer ?) f without house, 
lands, livinge, or any ritches else, but thy gracious promise to those 
w'^ seeke the Kingdome of God first and his righteousnes that all 
these things shalbe added, yet hast thou given me house and lands 
with other goodes to bequeath to myne (or rather to thine) after me : 
my will is, (for thine is such) that all my debts be first trulie and fullv 
satisfied and the charges of my funerall in moderate sorte discharged. 
Also I bequeath five pounds to be given to the poore people of Thax- 
ted where 1 first receaved light, I give will and bequeath to my sonne 
ISamuell all that my messuage and tenement in the parish of 
Thaxted in Essex w'" I lately bought of Absolon Onion,{ with the 
lands, mill and other appurtenances nowe in the occupation of the said 
Absolon or his heires conteyninge about tenn acres more or lesse. 
To have and to hold to him and his heires for ever. Item, I will, 
give and bequeath one other porc'on of land of tenn acres or there- 
abouts lyinge neere to the former w*'' I lately bought of my brother 
William Purchas, by him purchased of one Kent§ al's 

* A few days after the accession of Charles I., 27th Mar., 1625, the plague 
broke out in Whitechapel, whence it extended its ravages to every part of London. 

t I am not quite sure that I have rightly deciphered this word. As I read it, 
it is a contraction of " soever," viz., " either soever." 

X Absolon Onyon and Mary Purchas were married 24th June, 1602 ; and there lA 
also recorded the marriage of Thomas Purchas and Mary Onyon, 30th June, 1560. 
" Par. Reg. Thaxted." 

{ Hiatus in Regiatro. There are many entries of the name of Kent, alias 
Eeynolds, in the Thaxted Registers. Charles Kent, alias ReynoldB, Mayor of Thax- 
ted, was buried 8th August, 1592. 


Keynolds who formerlie had bought the same of Absolon Onyon 
aforesaid, unto Martha my daughter and to her heirs for ever. 
Moreover I bequeath unto the said Martha all those lands in fower 
crofts or closes neere to a hamlett called Beyton end (V" lately 
were belonginge to my ffather George Purchas of pious memory) in 
the parish of Thaxted aforesaid, nowe in the tenure of my brother 
William above mentioned and containing about tenn acres more or 
lesse, with all the commoduties and appurtenances thereto, To have 
and to hold to the said Martha and her heires for ever, Provided 
alwaies, and my will is that my wife Jane shall, so longe as she shall 
contynue a widdowe, have, hold and enioye the profitts and dis- 
posic'on of the same house and lands before bequeathed to my son 
bamuell and my daughter Martha, to inhabite, sell, or lett, and 
to the use of the same as shall seeme best to her, duringe the said 
terme, and to my son Samuell £5 and to my (laughter Martha 
other two pounds yearlie for ever by yearlie porc'ons (that is to 
say at Christmas, our Lady daie in March, Midsomer day and 
michaelmas daie) to be paid unto each of them exceptinge such 
yeares or qrtrs of yeares as my said sonue or daughter shall 
live in house with their said mother or shall receave soe much or 
more from her towards or to his or her maintenance. But if my 
said wife Jane shall after my death be married to another husband, 
then my will is that she shall from thenceforth have the third only 
of the premises houses and lands, and that my sonne and daughter 
shall have present power to enter on the same tenements & lands as 
aforesaid as it is before bequeathed, and the same to hold and 
enjoie to their best behoofe. Item, mj will is that if one of my 
children die before the other seized and m possession of any part of 
the premisses, that the survivor shall inherit the same, except the 
deceased left legitimate issue, but if (as which God forbidd) both my 
Sonne and daughter shall die without issue, my will is that what- 
soever of the premisses shall not be alienated by them or either of 
them before their said death, shall descend unto Daniell Purchas 
the sonne of my brother William and to his heires for ever. And if 
the said Daniell be then dead or leave noe issue,. I bequeath the same 
to Samuell Purchas the so^ne of the said William and to his heirs 
for ever, And if it should happen that my brother William's pos- 
teritie should faile (w^ God forbidd) I bequeath the said lands and 
remainder of lands with the appurtenances unto the heires of mj 
brother George Purchas, that is to his eldest sonne John and his 
heirs for ever, And in defect of such issue of my brother George, 
I bequeath the said lands and remainder of lands as before said to 
Samuell, sonne of my brother Thomas Purchas of Eastwood, and 
to his heires for ever. Provided alwaie that my will is that such 
succession of Daniell Purchas or any other w*** shall inherite the 

Sremisses or any part thereof by defect of issue of my sonne and 
aughter aforesaid, the fifte parte of the profitts and rents reason- 




ably valued and without fraude shalbe yearlie paid at Christmas 
to the Vicar and Church Wardens of Thaxted aforesaid for the 
time beinge, successively, to be distributed to the poore of the 
p'ish at their discrec'oon, And in defect of such payments my 
will is that the said Vicar and churchwardens or any two of them 
shall and may enter and distraine on the premisses so much as may 
make satisfaction for such defect or defects from time to time for 
ever. Item, I will and hereby charge my said sonne and daughter 
that in case of unliklynes of issue of their own bodies that neither of 
them do alienate or sell awaye any parte of the said premisses with 
intent to frustrate the interests before mentioned of the said Daniell 
or the rest, except uppon such cause or necessitye or other iust 
motive as in the leare of God and in good conscience they shall finde 
reasonable and meete, without indirect dealinge or fraudulent carriage 
herein, that as I would not abridge their libertie in case of honestie 
for their iust good, soe they doe not wilfully abuse it to pleasure 
others and needlessly or wantonly to hinder the premisedf intent. 
Item, I give and bequeath to Daniell the sonne of my brother 
William aforesaid, the some of twentie marks to be paid to his father 
or mother when he or they shall receave him into their tuition and 
maintenance, for the use and benefltt of the said Daniell. Item, I 
give my library and all my books, globes, mapps and charts unto 
Samuell my sonne, except those books or works or any part of them 
whereof I have been the author, namely my Pilgrimage, Pilgrim and 
Pilgrimes of w*** he hath already had one printed coppie of each of 
them. The other printed books thereof nowe in my custody, or nowe 
due, or hereafter to be due uppon reckonings from Mr. ffetherstone, 
I reserve and bequeath to the performance of my will, that is, one of 
each to my daughter Martha, Item to my brothers George and 
William, and to my brother in law William Perkins to each of them 
one entire worke of my Pilgrims in fewer bookes nowe in their hands, 
and if in any reckonings they or any of them have alreadye pedd anye 
thinge for any of them, or shall pay hereafter (except the charges 
of bindinge) I will that the same or that the worth thereof shalbe 
repaied to them againe. The rest of those books reserved as afore- 
said, I bequeath to my wife to doe with as she shall thinke fitt. Also 
I except out of the former guifte to my sonne such English books of 
devotion as my said wife Jane shall reserve for her own use and her 
daughters. Item, I give and bequeath to Martha my said daughter 
thirtie pounds of English money to be paid her out of the said books 
by her brother for recompense and consideration of so great a guift 
given to him, the same thirtie pounds to be paid to her assignes by 
her said brother Samuell my sonne at the daie of her marriage, or when 
she shalbe one and twentie yeares old, w^ shall first happen. Item» 
I give and bequeath to the said Martha my best bedd ana beddstedd 
with curtaines, valence and couerlett, a paire of blanketts a paire of 
pillowes and pillowbeers, two paire of sheets, a boulster^ one aamaske 


table cloth and a dozen of napkins (all w**' peeces of household and 
naperie I will to bee of the best I have). Also my best bowle of silver 
guilt w**" the couer, one double salt of silver guilte and sixe ffuilded 
spoones of silwer. Item, if my wife Jane shalbe married agame my 
will is that my said daughter Martha shall and mayedemande, chal- 
lenge and carry awaye the one moiety or halfe of all my goods and 
moveables w*** shalbe left after the debts and fiinerall paid and dia- 
charged* or in defect thereof, soe much money as they shalbe valued at 
in equall and iust estimac'on. Item, I make and ordaine my wife Jane 
sole Executrix of this my last will, and my brothers George, William 
and William Perkins aforesaid overseers, dasiringe their care and 
assistance therein. Item, I give my seale ringe to my sonne Samuell 
and my ringe with the deathe's head to my brother William. Alsoe 
I give to my sonne Samuell whatsoever books household or other 
goods now in his possession at Cambridge. Item, my will is con- 
cerninge that peece of land at Monks streete bec^ueathed to my 
daughter Martha, w**' I bought of my brother William, that if my 
Sonne Samuell shall like to hold it and to contynue it to the house, 
that then he shall paye or cause to be paid to my daughter Martha 
or her assignes the some of a hundred and tenn pounds for the same 
lands within sixe monethes after his mother's decease or marriage, 
w^" shall first happen, or else the same to remaine to Martha as 
above is in this my testament declared. This my last will and 
testament, written all with my owne hand, was sealed, subscribed and 
acknowledged the daie and yeare above written in the presence of 
W". Slatyer, Theodore Heape, John Gee, Richard Wassencrofte by 
his marke, William Purchas, Mary Bullivant, her marke, Mary 
Golson, her marke. 

Probatum fuit testamentum suprascriptum Apud London coram 
Magistro Thoma Eden, Legum Doctore, Surrogate venerabilis viri 
Domini Henrici Marten, Militis, Legum etiam Doctoris, Cari» 
Prerogativae Cantuariensis Magistri custodis sive Commissarii 
legitime constituti, vicesimo prime die mensis Octobris Anno Domini 
millesimo sexcentesimo vicesimo sexto, Juramento Janse Purchas 
relictsB dicti defuncti et executricis in hujusmodi testamento 
nominatsB, cui commissa tmt administratio omnium et singulorum 
bonorum, jurium et creditorum ejusdem dicti defuncti, de bene et 
fideliter administrand' eadem ad Sancta Dei Evangelia juratse. 

Unless it can be demonstrated by clear and positive 
evidence that Purchas became involved in debt betv^een 
the date of the execution of his will and his death, the 
refutation of the statement that he " died in distressed 
circumstances " is complete. I cannot find that it i^vas 
ever supported by any evidence, and it appears to rest 
upon no better K)undation than the original assertion 
that he died in prison. 


The Rev. Thomas Purchas was thirteen years younger 
than his brother Samuel, whom he succeeded in the 
Vicarage of Eastwood in 1614. He retained possession 
of his benefice through all the political and reliffious 
changes of the period in which^he Hved,* and ^died 
Vicar on the 20th Dec, 1657. f His will, of which I 
insert an abstract, sheds some new light upon the family 
history, but is especially valuable for the evidence it 
contains, that, at the time of its execution, portraits of 
his celebrated brother and of their father George Purchas 
were in existence. I am not aware that an original 
portrait of the author of " The Pilgrimage " is known ; 
the pictures mentioned may, perhaps, exist unrecognized 
and the discovery of that of Samuel Purchas would be 
of national interest.:j: 

The Will of the Rev. Thomas Purchas, Vicar op 
Eastwood, Dated 20 Oct., 1657, Proved 12 May, 1658. 

I bequeath my soul into the hands of Christ who |hath created, 
redeemed, preserved and hitherto blessed ; praised be his holy name. 
To be buried in Eastwood churchyard as near my wife as it shall 
please my executors hereafter named. To my son Thomas 40' and 

* Notwithstanding His compliance, he was stigmatized as a drunkard, and un- 
fortunately the only character of him that has been handed down to us is in a return 
of sequestered LiA'ings in 1650, Lansdowne MS., 459 : ** Thomas Purkiss, ' an able 
divine, only the jury affirmed him scandalous for tippling.' " ('' Annals of Evan- 
gelical Non